Tuesday, February 6th



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Tuesday, February 6th

  • Blue Book Wkshts & Shoes Essay
  • Discuss notes
  • Pass out notes
  • Review
  • Intro to Bones & Bones of the Skull, Chest, and Back

Review

  • Diseases
    • Osteomyelitis
    • Osteoporosis
    • Rickets
  • Fractures
    • Greenstick
    • Simple
    • Compound
  • Joints

Introduction to Bones & Bones of the Skull, Chest, & Back

Anatomical View

Terms

  • Anterior
    • Front or toward the front
  • Posterior
    • Back or toward the back
  • Prone
    • Lying face down
  • Supine
    • Lying face up

Terms

  • Medial
    • Toward the midline of the body
  • Lateral
    • Away from the midline of the body
  • Proximal
  • Distal
    • Away from the beginning of the structure of the body

Terms

  • Flexion
    • To bend
  • Extension
    • To straighten
  • Adduction
    • To go toward the midline of the body
  • Abduction
    • To go away from the midline of the body

Purpose of Bones

  • Lever for movement
  • Provide structure and support
  • Protection of Internal Organs
  • Store minerals

Structure of Bones

  • 67% of bone is mineral
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
  • 33% is connective tissue
  • Bones form in two ways
    • From membranes (ex. Bones in your skull)
    • Ossification (minerals that harden to form your bones)

Parts of the Bone

  • Shaft
    • Narrow part of bone between the 2 ends of the bone
  • Periosteum
    • Outside of the bone tissue
  • Compact Bone
    • Layer under the periosteum
    • Very Hard

Parts of the Bone

  • Spongy Bone
    • Cavities at the ends of bone that act as shock absorbers for “weight bearing”
  • Red Bone Marrow
    • Makes red and white blood cells, an adult has no red bone marrow in the shaft
  • Yellow Bone Marrow
    • Fat Cells

Bones as you age

  • As a baby:
    • Bones are made of cartilage
  • As you grow:
    • Bones ossify and become heavier and harder
  • As you grow old:
    • You loose minerals and bones become weaker

Joints

  • A joint is a place where 2 bones make contact
  • Types of joints are:
    • Immovable
    • Partially Movable
    • Freely Movable

Types of Joints

  • Immovable
    • Skull
    • Sacrum
    • Coccyx
  • Partially Movable
    • Vertebrae
    • Ribs to Vertebrae
    • Sacroiliac

Types of Joints

  • Freely Movable
    • Ball and Socket
      • Shoulder
      • Hip
    • Hinge
      • Elbow
      • Knee
      • Finger
      • Toe
      • Jaw
    • Pivot
      • Forearm
      • Head on neck
    • Gliding
      • Wrist
      • Ankle

Ball and Socket

Hinge

Pivot

Gliding

Bones of the Skull

  • 2 Divisions of the skeleton
    • Axial Skeleton
      • The skull, vertebral column (backbone), ribs and sternum
    • Appendicular Skeleton
      • Bones in the arms, hands, legs, feet, and shoulders

Bones of the Skull

Axial Skeleton

  • Skull – 29 bones
    • 22 form the frame of the head
    • Have zigzag joints in the skull, makes it stronger
    • 6 facial bones – immovable joints
    • 7th bone is the jawbone (mandible) largest bone in the skull, movable

Bones of the Skull

Wednesday, 2/7

  • Review
  • Finish Backbone & Chest
  • Start on Bones of the Upper Extremity
  • Leave time to discuss the rest of the week
  • Hand back papers
  • Friday: Progress sheets

Review

  • Terms
    • Anterior/Posterior
    • Medial/Lateral
    • Supine/Prone
    • Proximal/Distal
    • Flexion/Extension
    • Adduction/Abduction

Review

  • Purpose of bones
  • Bones as you age
  • 6 parts of the bone
  • Joints
    • Ball-and-socket
    • Hinge
    • Gliding
    • Pivot

Backbone

  • Also knows as the spinal column
  • Consists of 33 bones and its function is to protect the spinal column

Regions of the Backbone

  • Cervical Vertebrae
    • 7 vertebrates, found in the neck and
    • Function: Hold up the head
    • Has lots of flexibility
  • Thoracic Vertebrae
    • 12 vertebrates
    • Function: supports the chest
  • Lumbar Vertebrae
    • 5 vertebrates found in lower back
    • Function: weight bearing area, largest and strongest vertebrae
  • Sacrum
    • 5 vertebrates fused to the hip area
    • The sacrum and hip bones are called the pelvis
  • Coccyx
    • 3-5 fused vertebrates
    • Common name is Tailbone

Spinal Column

Chest

  • Chest
    • Also known as the ribs and sternum
    • Protects the heart and lungs
    • Expands and contracts
  • Sternum
    • The flat bone in the middle and front of the chest
    • Anchor for the ribs and muscles to attach
    • Protects the heart

Ribs

  • 12 pairs of ribs attach to the thoracic vertebrae on back
    • True Ribs
      • Top 7 pair that attach to the sternum
    • False Ribs
      • Middle 3 pair that extend up to the sternum
    • Floating Ribs
      • Bottom 2 pair that do not attach to the sternum

True Ribs

False Ribs

Floating Ribs



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