True/false. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper



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ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

135)



In a short essay, differentiate between the symbolic view and the omnipotent view of management. Include specific examples of each view to support your answer.


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Identify the factors in the specific, general and global environments that can influence an organization.


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In a short essay, name and briefly describe three major regional trading alliances.


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In a short essay, explain the difference between a multinational corporation (MNC), mutidomestic, global and transnational-borderless organizations. Provide examples for each type of organization.


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Explain what is meant by the term "Born Global?"

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a. The view of managers as omnipotent is consistent with the stereotypical picture of the take-charge business executive who can overcome any obstacle in carrying out the organization's objectives. This omnipotent view isn't limited to business organizations. It can also be used to help explain the high turnover among college and professional sports coaches, who can be considered the "managers" of their teams. Coaches who lose more games than they win are seen as ineffective. They are fired and replaced by new coaches who, it is hoped, will correct the inadequate performance. In the omnipotent view, when organizations perform poorly, someone has to be held accountable regardless of the reasons why, and in our society, that "someone" is the manager. Of course, when things go well, someone needs to be praised. So the manager also gets the credit  even if they had little to do with achieving positive outcomes.

b. The symbolic view says that a manager's ability to affect outcomes is influenced and constrained by external factors. In this view, it is unreasonable to expect managers to significantly affect an organization's performance. Instead, an organization's results are influenced by factors outside the control of management. These factors include the economy, market changes, governmental policies, competitors' actions, conditions in the particular industry, control over proprietary technology, and decisions made by the previous manager.



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The specific environment includes customers, suppliers, competitors, and public pressure groups. The general environment includes the broad economic, political/legal, sociocultural, demographic and technological conditions that may affect an organization. Changes in the specific environment usually have a greater impact on the organization than changes in the general environment.

The global market presents many opportunities and challenges for the modern manager. The issues addressed in the general environment (economic, demographic, technological, sociocultural and legal-political) need to be examined with a global perspective in mind as well. With the entire world as a market and national borders becoming increasingly irrelevant, the potential for intelligent organizations to grow expands dramatically.



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a. The European Union  the signing of the Maastricht Treaty created the European Union. This treaty united 12 countries (27 by 2007)  Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Germany originally  as a unified economic and trade entity. The growing trading block now encompasses a population base of well over 450 million people. As a single market, the EU has eliminated barriers to travel, employment, investment and trade between member nations, and introduced a common currency, the euro, which most member countries have chosen to adopt.

b. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  when the Mexican, Canadian, and U.S. governments reached agreements on key issues covered by NAFTA in August, 1992, a vast economic bloc was created. Between 1994, when NAFTA went into effect, and 2003, Canada remained the United States' number-one trading partner. In 2003, Canadian exports to the U.S. were $331 billion, accounting for 83 percent of our total exports, roughly equivalent to one-third of our GDP. Many economists argue that eliminating the barriers to free trade has resulted in a strengthening of the economic power of all three countries.

c. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)  the ASEAN is a trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian nations. During the years ahead, Asia, and particularly the Southeast Asian region, promises to be one of the fastest-growing economic regions of the world. It will be an increasingly important regional economic and political alliance whose impact eventually could rival that of both NAFTA and the EU.


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According to the text here are the definitions

a. Multinational corporation a broad term usually used to refer to any and all types of international companies that maintain operations in multiple countries. A company that maintains significant operations in multiple countries but manages them from a base in the home country.

b. Multidomestic Corporations an MNC that maintains significant operations in more than one country but decentralizes management to the local country. This type of organization does not attempt to manage foreign operations from its home country. Instead, local employees typically are hired to manage the business, and marketing strategies are tailored to that country's unique characteristics. This type of global organization reflects the polycentric attitude.

c. Global Companies centralize management and other decisions in the home country. These companies treat the world market as an integrated whole and focus on the need for global efficiency. Although these companies may have considerable global holdings, management decisions with company-wide implications are made from headquarters in the home country. This approach to globalization reflects the ethnocentric attitude.



d. Transnational or Borderless Organizations many companies are going global by eliminating structural divisions that impose artificial geographical barriers. This type of global organization is called a transnational or borderless organization. Borderless management is an attempt by organizations to increase efficiency and effectiveness in a competitive global marketplace.



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Born Globals

The infrastructure that has been built in the past few decades has led to the creation of a new mind set represented by the "born global." The classification of different types of international organizations tends to describe large international businesses. However, there is an increasing number of businesses called born globals that choose to go global from inception. These companies (also known as international new ventures or INVs) commit resources up front (material, people, financing) to doing business in more than one country and are likely to continue to play an increasingly important role in international business. This new breed of company is reflection of the new opportunities available for business.

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