True/False Questions



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Chapter 14 – Integrated Marketing Communications

True/False Questions

1. Integrated marketing communication captures the idea of coordinating all communication messages with the right communication tools and techniques.

True (moderate)
2. Broad appeal is representative of the old view of integrated marketing communications.

False (moderate)


3. Encoding, distortion, and decoding are main causes of miscommunication.

True (moderate)


4. Decoding represents the cause of miscommunication if someone in the firm decided on the intended message, but this message was not sent.

False (moderate)


5. Distortion is the likely cause of miscommunication when consumers receive similar print and TV advertisements messages differently.

True (moderate)
6. Traditional categories of communication tools include personal communication, non-personal communication, and archived communication.

False (difficult)
7. Face-to-face selling is an example of a quasi-personal communication tool.

False (moderate)


8. Word-of-mouth communication occurs when customers advise one another of their experience with a particular product or service.

True (moderate)


9. In the marketing context, most personal communication is between salespeople and other firm representatives like technical and customer-service personnel.

True (moderate)


10. A firm has greater control over the message content in personal communication than in non-personal communication.

False (moderate)


11. According to the text, publicity is paid communication directed at a mass audience.

False (moderate)
12. Publicity is communication that is not directly paid for, nor sponsored by the firm involved.

True (moderate)


13. Consumer promotions include coupons, point-of-purchase materials, and rebates.

True (moderate)
14. Trade promotions include special price deals, merchandising allowances, and contests.

True (moderate)

15. The pull strategy is the type of communications effort that focuses on direct customers.

False (difficult)


16. Pull strategies generally involve higher variable costs since, to fulfill their promotional functions, intermediaries require incentives in the form of higher margins.

False (moderate)


17. Push strategies are generally more popular with small firms rather than with well-financed large firms.

True (easy)


18. In B2C, pull strategies are generally more popular with well-financed large firms than with small firms.

True (easy)




  1. Securing new leads and qualifying potential customers is the communications objective most applicable if the market objective is to attract new business from non-users.

True (moderate)
20. Communications integration occurs primarily at the top level of an organization.

False (moderate)


Multiple Choice Questions
21. ________________ captures the idea of coordinating all communication messages with the right communication tools and techniques.

  1. Integrated marketing communications (moderate)

  2. Target marketing

  3. Marketing strategy

  4. Brand equity

22. Which of the following represents an old view of integrated marketing communications?



  1. Multiple communications targets

  2. Broad appeal (moderate)

  3. Interactive communication

  4. Proliferating media choices

23. All of the following represent external challenges as a firm tries to determine the right mix of tools and techniques for reaching its various audiences EXCEPT:



  1. Noise

  2. Competitive communications

  3. All selections represent external challenges. (moderate)

  4. Regulators

24. Which of the following DOES NOT represent an internal challenge as a firm tries to determine the right mix of tools and techniques for reaching its various audiences?



    1. “We don’t need it.”

    2. “It’s an unnecessary expense.”

    3. We need standardization” (moderate)

    4. “We’ve already done that.”

25. All of the following are main causes of miscommunication EXCEPT:



  1. Feedback (moderate)

  2. Encoding

  3. Distortion

  4. Decoding

26. Which of the following would represent the cause of miscommunication if someone in the firm decided on the intended message, but this message was not sent?



  1. Feedback

  2. Encoding (moderate)

  3. Distortion

  4. Decoding

27. Which of the following would represent the cause of miscommunication if salesforce training is ineffective, and the right message is not communicated?



  1. Feedback

  2. Encoding (moderate)

  3. Distortion

  4. Decoding

28. Which of the following areas of the communication process is most likely caused by a salesperson’s accent affecting the message the customer receives?



  1. Feedback

  2. Encoding

  3. Distortion (moderate)

  4. Decoding

29. Which of the following is the likely cause of miscommunication when consumers receive similar print and TV advertisements messages differently?



  1. Feedback

  2. Encoding

  3. Decoding

  4. Distortion (moderate)

30. Traditional categories of communication tools include all of the following EXCEPT:



  1. Personal communication

  2. Non-personal communication

  3. Archived communication (moderate)

  4. Quasi-personal communication

31. Which of the following best describes direct interpersonal (face-to-face) contact with targeted individuals or groups?



  1. Personal communication (easy)

  2. Mass communication

  3. Cultural communication

  4. Cross-cultural communication

32. ______________ is the use of technological innovation to promote interaction and feedback without the use of human interaction, usually artificial intelligence.



  1. Personal communication

  2. Non-personal communication

  3. Archived communication

  4. Quasi-personal communication (moderate)

33. According to the text, all of the following are examples of mass communication EXCEPT:



    1. Advertising

    2. Direct marketing

    3. Packaging

    4. Face-to-face communication (easy)

34. _______________ communication occurs when customers advise one another of their experience with a particular product or service.



  1. Word-of-mouth (easy)

  2. Advertising

  3. Direct marketing

  4. Packaging

35. In the marketing context, most ______________ is between salespeople and other firm representatives like technical and customer-service personnel.



  1. mass communication

  2. personal communication (moderate)

  3. archived communication

  4. quasi-personal communication

36. A firm has greater control over the message content in ______________ than in ______________.



  1. mass communication; personal communication (moderate)

  2. archived communication; mass communication

  3. personal communication; mass communication

  4. quasi-personal communication; personal communication

37. Typically, firms have little control over word-of-mouth communication, but, increasingly, they orchestrate ______________ campaigns to encourage positive word-of-mouth communication.



  1. advertising

  2. mass communication

  3. personal communication

  4. buzz-marketing (moderate)

38. According to the text, _______________ is paid communication directed at a mass audience.



  1. direct marketing

  2. advertising (moderate)

  3. packaging

  4. word-of-mouth

39. Which of the following describes communication that is directed at individuals?



  1. Direct marketing (moderate)

  2. Advertising

  3. Packaging

  4. Publicity

40. _______________ is communication that is not directly paid for, nor sponsored by the firm involved.



    1. Direct marketing

    2. Advertising

    3. Packaging

    4. Publicity (moderate)

41. In which of the following communication tools does a firm typically provide information in the form of a story, press release, photograph, or video to a third-party transmitter that incorporates the material in its own communications?



  1. Publicity (moderate)

  2. Advertising

  3. Packaging

  4. Word-of-mouth

42. According to the text, consumer promotions include all of the following EXCEPT:



  1. Coupons and games

  2. Point-of-purchase materials

  3. Merchandising allowances (moderate)

  4. Rebates and premiums

43. _______________ include special price deals, merchandising allowances, and contests.



  1. Trade promotions (moderate)

  2. Consumer promotions

  3. Cross promotions

  4. Discounted promotions

44. Which of the following embraces all forms of communication enabled by the Internet.



  1. mass communication

  2. digital communication

  3. work-of-mouth communication

  4. personal communication

45. In developing the firm’s communication strategy, all of the following questions must be answered EXCEPT:



  1. “Who are the firm’s communications targets?”

  2. “What is the break-even point for the firm’s current products?” (difficult)

  3. “What does the firm wish to accomplish with its communication effort?”

  4. “What communications tool will the firm use to accomplish its communications objectives?”

46. Which of the following types of communications effort focuses on direct customers?



  1. Push strategy (moderate)

  2. Pull strategy

  3. Penetration strategy

  4. Skimming strategy

47. Most B2B firms use ______________ strategies, most effectively delivered by the sales force.



  1. Push communications (moderate)

  2. Pull communications

  3. Penetration communications

  4. Skimming communications

48. The focus of communication efforts is on indirect customers further down the channel for which of the following types of communications effort?



  1. Push strategy

  2. Penetration strategy

  3. Skimming strategy

  4. Pull strategy (moderate)

49. _______________ generally involve higher variable costs since, to fulfill their promotional functions, intermediaries require incentives in the form of higher margins.



  1. Pull strategies

  2. Penetration strategies

  3. Push strategies (moderate)

  4. Skimming strategies

50. In B2C, _______________ are generally more popular with well-financed large firms than with small firms.



  1. Pull strategies (moderate)

  2. Integrated strategies

  3. Market-based strategies

  4. Push strategies

51. In B2C, _______________ are generally more popular with small firms rather than with well-financed large firms.



  1. integrated strategies

  2. market-based strategies

  3. push strategies (moderate)

  4. pull strategies

52. Which of the following is NOT a growth option according to the strategic alternatives dimension of market strategy?



  1. Reduce customer defection rate.

  2. Increase use by current customers.

  3. Increase customer defection rate. (difficult)

  4. Attract competitors’ customers.

53. Which of the following communications objectives would be least applicable if the customer is a component manufacturer?



  1. Train salespeople to communicate benefits and sell the finished product to retailers. (moderate)

  2. Learn how to assemble the firm’s subcomponents in the customer’s component.

  3. Purchase subcomponent for use in the component.

  4. Inventory sufficient component quantities to satisfy finished-goods manufacturer.

54. Which of the following communications objectives is most applicable if the market objective is to increase customer retention (reduce defection)?



  1. Reinforce customers’ beliefs that they made the best decision. (difficult)

  2. Persuade customers to purchase and use in larger quantities.

  3. Establish head-to-head trial against the competitor’s product.

  4. Secure new leads and qualify potential customers.

55. Which of the following communications objectives is most applicable if the market objective is to secure new business?



  1. Reinforce customers’ belief that they made the best decision.

  2. Persuade customers to purchase and use in larger quantities.

  3. Establish head-to-head trial against the competitor’s product.

  4. Secure new leads and qualify potential customers. (difficult)



Essay Questions

56. In a short essay, list and discuss the four external challenges that a firm must consider as it tries to determine the right mix of tools and techniques for reaching its various audiences.


Answer

  1. Noise – customers and potential customers live in an information-rich environment and are barraged daily by myriad messages, or clutter. Effective communications must cut through all of this noise so the firm’s message resonates with its intended target.

  2. Multiple information sources about the firm – customers receive information about the firm and its product from many sources—like the media, government, intermediaries, competitors, third-party organizations, and even other customers. These communications may be helpful, neutral, or negative for the firm, but they can be very powerful.

  3. Competitive communications – competitors have communications targets similar to the firm’s. They use varied communications approaches to promote their own products and to disadvantage the firm’s.

  4. Evolving communication technologies – communications choices are expanding rapidly. Growth in digital media allows firms to modify promotions and programs for different audiences through different communications channels, even inserting virtual products into movies and TV shows.

  5. Regulators – firms tend to be biased information-providers; that’s why government agencies review firm communications to make sure they are fair and accurate. The FTC is the main U.S. regulator, with other entities like the National Advertising Review Board operating as a self-regulating industry body.

  6. Public perception – sometimes firms face public criticism for communications activities and feel compelled to change.

(moderate)
57. In a short essay, list and discuss the four communication challenges (positions and opinions) that occur inside the firm as it tries to determine the right mix of tools and techniques for reaching its various audiences.
Answer

  1. “We don’t need it” – many technically oriented firms assume the best product, as defined by their engineers, will win. “Our product will sell itself.” But customers must believe that the entire offer provides the best value. Communications play a major role in forming this belief.

  2. “We’ve already done that” – the firm believes it has already communicated enough. It may underestimate both the communications effort required to get its message across to customers as well as its competitor’s effort.

  3. “It’s an unnecessary expense” – many firms prefer to spend resources for tangible assets like land and plant and equipment. Communications provides difficult-to-measure intangible benefits, and firms minimize communications expenses.

  4. “We need different messages for different audiences” – the firm has multiple communications targets like current and potential customers, shareholders, employees, complementers, and suppliers. If responsibility for communicating with these varied audiences lies with different groups inside the firm, achieving communications consistency can be difficult.

(moderate)
58. In a short essay, list and discuss the three main causes of miscommunication.
Answer

  1. Encoding – typically, someone in the firm decides on the intended message, but this message is not sent. Perhaps the advertising agency misinterprets the product’s positioning and does not craft an appropriate message. Or salespersons’ training is ineffective, and they don’t communicate the right message.

  2. Distortion – the communication is distorted while being sent, and the receiver does not receive the sent message. Perhaps a salesperson’s accent may affect the message the customer receives.

  3. Decoding – communications targets have selective attention, selective distortion, and/or selective retention, perhaps related to perception, memory, or belief systems. These can lead to the message being misperceived and/or misunderstood.

(easy)
59. In a short essay, list and discuss the four types of mass communication methods over which a firm has greater control compared to personal communication methods.
Answer

  1. Advertising – the firm pays for communications directed at a mass audience. Advertising embraces different modes and types of media—visual-static media and visual-dynamic media.

  2. Direct marketing – includes all paid and sponsored communications directed at individuals.

  3. Packaging – the value of the package extends beyond containing the product. It can also be a communications vehicle, delivering information and visual appeal.

  4. Publicity – usually defined as communication for which the firm does not pay directly.

  5. Public relations – embraces publicity but is broader, including other ways of managing the firm’s image to gain favorable responses.

  6. Sales promotion – these communications provide extra value to customers and are often created to induce immediate sales.

(moderate)


  1. In a short essay, discuss the critical budgeting issue of push versus pull communication strategies.




  1. Pull strategies – firms generally spend heavily on advertising to generate pull. These fixed-cost expenditures require large cash outflows for uncertain revenues. Hence pull strategies are generally more popular with well-financed large firms than with small firms.

  2. Push strategies – Firms generally incur high variable costs from margins, discounts, and sales commissions earned by intermediaries like wholesalers and retailers. Payments directly relate to firm sales, limiting upfront cash outflows. Smaller firms favor push strategies.

(difficult)




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