Tqm is not a single individual’s initiative. It is a collective effort towards achievement

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TQM is not a single individual’s initiative. It is a collective effort towards achievements.


Education is a process through which a nation develops its self-consciousness by developing the self-consciousness of individuals who compose it. It is not mere public instruction, it is social institution, which provides mental, physical, ideological and above all training to individuals of the nation so as to enable them to have full consciousness of their mission, of their purpose in the life and then to achieve that purpose (AIOU, 2002).

Quality is one of the most important issues in education. It is recognized that there are problems with today’s education system. Students leaving or graduating from high schools and colleges are unprepared to meet the demands of society. These students are product of an education system that does not focus on quality and is a cause of increase in social welfare cost. Quality management is a vehicle to which professionals can use to cope with the “forces of change” (Arcaro, 1997).
Quality in higher education is a multidimensional concept, which includes all related functions and activities that form the part of academic life in an institution. Therefore, any framework for assessment of quality should take into account the quality of teachers, infrastructure provided to students, student support services, curricula assessment and resources (Isani and Virk, 2005).
Higher Education in the modern sense was introduced in India in 1857. Since then our degree education system has been going around in circles plodding the same beaten track. The only change that it has undergone is in its size. Over the last twenty five years we find an approximately fifteen fold increase in the number of students, teachers and colleges and in the expenditure incurred. It is true that when a public activity like education goes through a phase of rapid expansion quality tends to get neglected. In fact, there has been an almost total systemic neglect of quality in college education. A great deal has been written about the prevailing shortcomings and defects of our system. The built-in failures of the present system have been known for a long time. A few examples of these are the rigid curriculum and the lack of relevance of the present degree courses and their insensitivity to both the needs of the students and the requirements of the present day society; the far from satisfactory teaching-learning situation in our colleges; an examination system that requires and rewards only rote learning from students; and the general air of disinterestedness that characterizes the student population.
All the academic activities in colleges have been sought to be regulated by the affiliating universities through the curriculum and examinations. Consequently, there has been no attempt at quality enhancement or quality assurance involving innovative practices and going beyond the curriculum. However, under the impact of liberalization and globalization there is no aspect of public life which has remained untouched. Simply stated, the quality of life is both a national and an international concern today. In this endeavour, it has now become imperative that we take determined and decisive steps to review higher education so that we are able to educate and train students to be enlightened and responsible citizens, who have the attributes of the work force required for the twenty first century, who have knowledge, who are multi-skilled and who can think and act, contributing significantly to the continuous improvement of the quality of life. Quality assurance in higher education is a rising challenge in the global context as well.
Higher education lays significant emphasis on human capital formation. It produces intellectual leaders and path makers. No nation can go high without quality higher education. Basically, primary and secondary levels of education are concerned with transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the taught. But higher education involves analysis, synthesis and the transformation of information into knowledge. Teachers in higher education are to be involved not only in teaching, but also in making good citizens of the country.
Higher education lays significant emphasis on human capital formation. It produces intellectual leaders and path makers. No nation can go high without quality higher education. Basically, primary and secondary levels of education are concerned with transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the taught. But higher education involves analysis, synthesis and the transformation of information into knowledge. Teachers in higher education are to be involved not only in teaching, but also in making good citizens of the country.
Management science has supplied many principles for effective implementation of plan of action and getting maximum benefit by utilizing minimum resources in order to achieve the quality and meeting the international standards of higher education. Some of principles are management by objectives (MBO), management information system (MIS), force field analysis, programme evaluation and review technique (PERT), critical path analysis (CPA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA), benchmarking, simulation, total quality management (TQM), linear programming (Anwar, 2005).
Among all the management principles, Winn and Green (1998) recognized total quality management (TQM) as an important management philosophy because it has been used very successfully in the development and acquisition of systems. TQM offers a vehicle for schools and colleges to manage themselves effectively in a time of rapid change and retain a clear focus on the essential and dominant purpose of education (Rao, 2003). Total quality management is a set of tools, and process whose output yields customer satisfaction and continuous improvement of quality education. This philosophy and process differs from traditional philosophies and processes, which every institution can and must practice. It espouses “attitude, differentiates cost versus price, and provides added value (Hradesky, 1995).

Eventually, total quality management has become most debatable in present era because it is a style of management that offers both a process and a system to produce dynamic change in organizations. Total quality management is a personal philosophy and an organizational culture that utilizes scientific outcomes measurement, systematic management techniques, and teamwork to achieve the mission of the organization (Sherr and Lozier, 1991).

One of the best paths for improving the quality of education lies in Total Quality Management in teaching and learning process. Applying total quality management in the educational context creates value for educational institutions, teachers and taught. The main agents of educational process are teachers. The report of Indian Education Commission (1964-66) states, “The destiny of India is being shaped in classrooms. The most important and urgent reform needed in education is to transform it, to endeavour to relate it to the life, needs and aspirations of the people, and thereby make it a powerful instrument of social change necessary for the realization of national goals.”
The reforms in teacher education are necessary to achieve national goals. For this purpose, education should be developed so as to increase productivity, achieve social and national integration, strengthen democracy, accelerate the process of modernization and cultivate social, moral and spiritual values. The national goals cannot be achieved without educational development. Teacher education has a significant role to play in maintaining the quality of education. Quality management is not an overnight process and it is not the product of a single hand. Teacher training institutions are the places where skilled and developed individuals train and produce better, responsible and productive citizens. Therefore, quest for total quality management in teacher training institutions has become a watchword all over the world.

      1. What is Quality?

Quality is generally defined as conformance to requirements. It is also conformance to a standard that is required. However, many consider that quality need not just be conformance to requirements but should be an assurance of being the best in the world of that type. In addition, it should also keep a constancy of purpose. Quality is the keyword for survival of organizations in the globalize economy. Quality is excellence which leads one firm’s product to dominate another and to guarantee its survival by establishing a new standard of quality.
In this sense quality is a mark of excellence, persistent and maintained over long periods of time. Such excellence is, of course a function of habits, culture and values and may thus vary from person to person and from time to time. Quality is defined by implication in terms of attributes and some scales used to measure and combine these attributes. In some cases, these attributes may be observed and measured precisely. But they can also be difficult to observe directly and impossible to measure with precision.
Quality is defined relative to available alternatives and can be measured and valued by some imputation associated with these alternatives. Quality is not a term that can be defined simply. Rather is a composite term, expressed in terms of attributes which define quality by implication. These attributes express-

  • The relative desirability of product’s, items and services.

  • The potential for substitution and product differentiation, both objective and subjective.

In this sense the concept of quality is both objective and subjective and is based on product and service differentiation. TQM is not a remedial procedure for better products. It is a march towards excellence and perfection.

What is Total Quality?

Total quality refers not only to the product but also to the way the product is made as well as presented to the customer. Total quality asks for customer orientation, process orientation, people management and leadership. All these are continuous processes.

Approaches to Quality

The concept and vocabulary of quality are difficult to express. Different people interpret quality differently. Few can define quality in measurable terms that can be operationalized. When asked what differentiates their product or service the banker will answer “service”, the healthcare worker will answer “quality healthcare”, the hotel or restaurant employee will answer “customer satisfaction”, and the manufacturer will simply answer “quality product”. When pressed to provide a specific definition and measurement, few can do so. There is an old maxim in management which says “If you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it”, and so it is with quality.

Harvard Professor David Garvin, in his book Managing Quality summarized five Principal approaches to defining quality.

  1. Transcendent

  2. Product based

  3. User Based

  4. Manufacturing Based

  5. Value Based

1). Transcendent---- People from around the world travel to view the Mona Lisa or Michael Angelo’s David and most would agree that these works of art represent quality. But can they define it? Those who hold the transcendental view would say “I cannot define it, but I know it when I see it”. Television and print media are awash with such indefinable claims and therein lays the problem; quality is difficult to define or to operationalize.

2). Product Based---Product Based definitions are different. Quality is viewed as quantifiable or measurable characteristics or attribute. Quality is determined objectively.
3). User Based--- These definitions are based on the idea that quality is an individual matter and products that best satisfy their preferences (i.e. perceived quality) are those with the highest quality.
4). Manufacturing Based---- These definitions are concerned primarily with engineering and manufacturing practices and use the universal definition of “conformance to requirements”. Requirements or specification are established by design and any deviation implies a reduction in quality. The concept applies to services as well as product.
5). Value Based----Quality is defined in terms of costs and prices as well as a no. of other attributes. Thus the consumers purchase decision is based on quality at an acceptable price.

1.1.2 Quality in Education

Whenever quality in education is discussed it may be important to reflect on what is understood by the term ‘quality’. Many educators, researchers and politicians have tried to define this term and a number of different definitions can be found in the literature. One almost classical definition is the way in which Coombs described quality in his book The World Crisis in Education: the View from the Eighties ―Qualitative dimension means much more than the quality of education as customarily defined and judged by student learning achievements, in terms of traditional curriculum and standards. Quality also pertains to the relevance of what is taught and learned - to how well it fits the present and future needs of the particular learners in question, given their particular circumstances and prospects. It also refers to significant changes in the educational system itself, in the nature of its inputs (students, teachers, facilities, equipment, and supplies); its objectives, curriculum and educational technologies; and its socioeconomic, cultural and political environment (Coombs, 1985).

The World Bank has also tried to define quality. In the report “Priorities and Strategies for Education” (1995) education policy issues was discussed and following observations concerning quality was made: ―Quality in education is difficult to define and measure. An adequate definition must include student outcomes. Most educators would also include in the definition the nature of the educational experience that helps to produce thus outcomes – the learning environment (World Bank, 1995). There is also a large amount of other reports and publications discussing quality from a perspective of quality assurance and quality improvement. Spanbauer discusses the need for schools to have a quality policy. As an example he uses the Fox Valley Technical College Policy: ―It is the policy of Fox Valley Technical College to provide quality instruction and service consistent with the highest educational standards. We endeavour to provide precise, prompt, and courteous service and instruction to our students, to one another, and to the employers who hire our graduates and use our services. (Spanbauer, 1992).
Morgatroyd and Morgan propose three basic definitions of quality: 1) ―Quality assurance refers to the determination of standards, appropriate methods and quality requirements by an expert body, accompanied by a process of inspection or evaluation that examines the extent to which practice meets these standard; 2) ―... contract conformance, where some quality standards has been specified during the negotiation of forming a contract; 3) ―Customer-driven quality refers to a notion of quality in which those who are to receive a product or service make explicit their expectations for this product or service and quality is defined in terms meeting or exceeding the expectations of customers. (Morgatroyd & Morgan, 1994).
Morgatroyd and Morgan argue that the quality concept is undergoing a development from what has been referred to as ―quality assurance to ―contract conformance and most important to a ―customer-driven perspective. There are, however, two broad elements that most observers agree and characterize teacher quality as: (1) teacher preparation and qualifications, and (2) teaching practices. The first refers to pre-service learning (e.g., postsecondary education, certification) and continued learning (e.g., professional development, mentoring). The second refers to the actual behaviours and practices that teacher’s exhibit in their classrooms (U.S. Department of Education, 1996). Of course, these elements of teacher quality are not independent; but excellent teacher preparation and qualifications should lead to exemplary teaching behaviours and practices.
We need to assure quality since we see that education over the last decades has developed towards lower quality. We see also an increased concern about education, the quality of education and the best way of spending money in education. According to the World Bank, 1994, lack of quality is a major problem in many education systems: ―The quality of education is poor at all levels in low- and middle-income countries. Students in developing countries have a mean level of achievement below that in industrial countries, and their performance shows a much greater variance around the mean. UNESCO's International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (often referred to as the Delors Commission after its chairperson and former EU Commissioner Jacques Delors) published in 1996 its report “Learning: the Treasure Within”. In this report they concluded that: ― a greater focus on quality is desirable everywhere, even in countries where all children are enrolled in basic education. It can be noted that quality has since the eighties become a key concept in the education discussion. Everyone wants to improve the quality in education.
1.1.3 What is Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management is a people driven process. It involves changes in people’s attitudes primarily. In addition, it deals with process orientation and continuous improvement of the process. It strives for empowerment and autonomy of the people involved in using processes of production. It asks people to continuously look for new ways to adapt to the changing environment. It is a continuous improvement plan, with an effort to bring out the best for the stakeholders as well as for the institution.

Misconceptions about Total Quality Management

It is not an imposition from top downwards. It is not done through inspections. It can work only when stakeholders understand the importance of guaranteeing quality and improving continuously. Unless the institution and the stakeholders have a keen desire and a constancy of purpose, TQM cannot be introduced. TQM is not about working according to someone else's agenda, it should be owned by the institution and the members should feel for the cause and act for it.

Continuous Learning

If TQM is to have relevance in education, it needs to address the quality of the learner’s experience. Learners are all different and adapt to the learning process in a style suited to their individual needs and interests. An educational institution with TQM must evolve strategies for individualizations and differentiation in learning as the learner is the primary customer. Thus educational institutions and teachers have an obligation to make learners aware of the variety of student centred learning methods. Similarly, the learning loop is one of periodic reflection, introspection, innovation and improvements.

The Quality Element

Quality control formerly meant end of the line inspection. But total quality does not mean this. An advocate of total quality is not satisfied with the improvement or increase in the top management quality only or in any other single level. TQM is an improvement in all levels of functioning. Total quality management can guarantee not only greater amount of production or improved service but also the conformance to specific standards without fail.

Total Quality Managers

They believe in a learning organization. They want people not only to learn but also to internalize the learning. Statistical control of quality is very important to them. They believe that work ethic is an important part of any organization’s growth process. They don’t believe that there is a substitute for work ethic, which should become a part of every individual.

Total Quality Management and Dr. Edward Deming

Dr. Deming was recruited by the Supreme Commander for Allied Powers to help prepare for the 1957 Japanese census. Though an American, he did not closet himself with American companies that sprang up in post war Japan. Associating himself with Japanese scientists and engineers, numbering at that time fewer than a dozen, he proceeded to improve the conditions of Japanese industry. Deming conducted several seminars for several groups of people. On his instructions, more than twenty thousand engineers were trained in rudimentary statistical methods within the next ten years. Among various interventions that he made, there was one for a camera company which was producing 200 cameras per month, which increased its production to 400 per month. It had some additional facilities too, with no increase in workers or hours, as he said, simply better control of quality.

Elements of Total Quality Management

  1. Customer Focus

It is important to focus on the customer, both internal and external i.e., the employees and the users of the end product - the students. In TQM parlance, the customer is the next process and not just a person who pays for the product or service. This concept helps to strengthen the co-operation within the organization, eliminate internal competition and drives away fear.

  1. Employee involvement

People at all levels make up an organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for an institution's benefit.

  1. Continuous Improvement

There is a beginning to the process of TQM, but there is no end. Checking, rechecking, valuation, revaluation, engineering and re-engineering are essential to ensure continuous improvement.

  1. Universal Responsibility

A TQM leader has to learn that inspection is not a means to achieve quality. One eliminates the need for inspection by building quality into the product in the first place. TQM helps us to recognize the fact that it is we ourselves who are responsible for quality work, not someone else who will check it after it is done.

  1. A Sustained Management Commitment to Quality

An organization’s performance and culture will ultimately reflect its senior management's values. If an organizations serious about implementing TQM, the commitment to do so has to start at the top, and the organization’s senior management has to be unwavering in its commitment to quality.

  1. Addressing Deficiencies

TQM is a management philosophy that seeks to prevent poor quality in products and services, rather than simply to detect and sort out defects. "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure".

  1. Quality Measurement

"If you do not know where you are going, you will probably end up somewhere" is a saying particularly relevant to TQM. The quality measurement aspect of TQM asks the question: where are we and where are we going? A basic concept is that quality is a measurable commodity, and in order to improve, we need to know where we are (or stated differently, what the current quality levels are), and we need to have some idea of where we are going (or what quality levels we aspire to reach).

  1. Benchmarking

Benchmarking consists of identifying other organizations that perform well and incorporating their wisdom into one’s organization. This TQM philosophy consists of defining the competitors' best features from both internal and customer perspectives, and then adapting the best practices of these organizations to one's functioning.

  1. Value Improvement

The essence of value improvement is the ability to meet or exceed customer expectations while eliminating unnecessary expenditure. Removing unnecessary costs while simultaneously satisfying customer expectations and requirements can only serve to increase customer satisfaction (after all, the customer is receiving the same level of quality for a lower cost). Simply cutting costs, however, will not improve value if the focus does not remain on satisfying customer requirements and expectations.

  1. Training

Training is basic to the TQM process. Several concepts and technologies are inherent to TQM. In order to use these concepts and technologies effectively, people have to be trained. Yet another saying comes to mind: "If you think training is expensive try ignorance."
Important Elements in Initiating Total Quality Management

1. SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis has become a common tool of strategic planning in organizations. SWOT is an acronym, which stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, and Opportunities and Threats. It is the most effective means of locating an organization’s potential in order to decide on promotions, replacements or rehabilitation. SWOT analysis is an effective way of identifying strengths and weaknesses which can lead to an examination of the available opportunities and possible threats. The SWOT tool can automatically lead to useful changes in the structure or functioning of an organization.

2. Strengths

To identify strengths an analyst has to answer a few questions and list the answers. What are the positive aspects of the systems, methods, techniques, and services and products of the institution? When does the institution Dowell? What makes the institution different from other similar institutions? What is the net worth of the institution as well as its people? What sort of support is available from customers or even the general public? What type of financial investment is responsible for maintaining the institution?

3. Weaknesses

To identify weaknesses an analyst has to answer a few other questions and list the answers. What are the areas of work which could be improved? What is not working effectively? Why is it not working effectively? Which are the jobs that are badly done? Which are the offices that are not working to standard? What actions are to be avoided? What is responsible for low productivity? Which process is responsible for inferior quality production or performance?

4. Opportunities

To identify opportunities an analyst has to ask some other questions and list the answers. What are the chances of improvement? Which are the places where one could sell the products? What action can assure better quality of the product? What new technology will guarantee quality? What policy will help increase production? What are the new trends in the area of work? What area of the organization needs improvement for producing better?

5. Threats

To identify threats an analyst has to ask different questions and list the answers. What are the obstacles on the ways to success? Who are the competitors in the field? Are the standards set too ambitious? Are there people who are not competent? Has the approach become obsolete? Is the demand lesser? Is there any value addition in the services or products? Is the gap between investment for product and proceeds of sales getting reduced? Are the products performing badly in their places of choice? Are there legitimate complaints from customers?

6. Analysis

Once a matrix is ready the analysts will have to divide the matrix into external and internal. They will also identify issues after which action plans will be drawn up to ensure that something is done about every issue. Brainstorming sessions may be needed. All Quality Control Tools become useful once the SWOT analysis is ready. The SWOT analysis has to be reviewed from time to time to examine whether anything has changed. This will also help in measuring achievements.

7. Values and Principles

A SWOT analysis automatically leads towards a clarification of values and principles of an organization or institution. Once these are clarified the vision will become clearer. The vision will have to be taken to all the people involved, for their understanding as well as approval. An accepted vision demands several missions to be fulfilled. Quality control tools will have to be used to promote and monitor activities of the organization. However, it is empowering the people to function better that are going to help in the use of quality control tools.

8. The 5 Ss

Any organization or institution which initiates a TQM movement has to go through the 5 Ss.

S No. 1 – Sorting

SWOT analysis would have brought up plenty of matter. There is a need to segregate the necessary from the unnecessary. There must be a process for removing dead wood and nurturing processes or departments that show promise.

S No. 2 – Systematizing

Setting up systems is not enough. Right systems have to be in the right places. Everything has a place and everything should be in its place. Systems become habits and then they become a part of regular functioning.

S No. 3 – Sanitizing

However accurately any system may work, it needs spring cleaning from time to time. Systems have to be continuously checked for their effectiveness and successes. A sort of housekeeping has to be done so that the house remains clean.

S No. 4 – Standardizing

Each institution or organization has to set its own process checks, systems and standards for improvement. This process of development from an existing standard to a higher standard has to have its own parameters for checking improvements. Each time a standard is fixed, systems have to be developed and implemented to reach it.

S No. 5 - Self-Discipline

If or when the first four are taken care of in implementation, the completion of TQM tasks becomes a habit and there is no need for anyone else to pressurize people or groups to do what they are expected to do. This becomes a discipline or habit, which is embedded in the self, which continues to be productive.

9. Top Management Initiative

It is the responsibility of the top management of any organization or institution to take the initiative or recognize a demand for an initiative for total quality management. In consultation with the senior officers the top management should either do a SWOT analysis or hire a consultant to do a SWOT analysis. Once a core team consisting of the most efficient members of the staff is ready, they should be given the task of environment building. Discussions have to take place at every level right up to the last class of employees, both as separate units and as cross sections. TQM means participation of all involved.

10.Vision Statement

The institution or organization will have to make a vision statement. It is better to make a vision statement by involving all the stakeholders. The vision statement has to be ratified by every person who will join the TQM movement. Once the vision statement is ready, several missions have to be defined. Each mission may have several streams of tasks. Once the tasks are described, methodology and techniques of implementation have to be identified and action plans drawn up.

11. Decision Making and Problem Solving

TQM involves plenty of decision making and problem solving. For achieving both of these satisfactorily, identification and descriptions of tasks is the base. There will be a need for macro and micro level planning to map decisions and solutions. Implementing these tasks would necessarily ask for checking and verifying. Further, they may have to be standardized and care taken for assuring the upkeep of such standards. Prioritization of problems and fixing teams to work on them will be necessary. All these can happen only when a basic understanding of definitions of TQM is available to all involved in the movement.

12. Long Term Action Plans

As the TQ movement gathers strength, it is indeed necessary to establish long term plans. Though TQM asks the involved parties to brainstorm ideas, to fix standards, to develop competencies, to establish systems or to identify processes, it will be worthwhile to make use of the advice of experts or build on the experience of other institutions who would have conducted similar activities.

13. Values and Principles

Identified and declared values of the institution that are converted to principles to become beacons of operations will help the vision and its missions. They express the aspirations and desires of the institution. They influence the employees to be driven by such declared values and to check from time to time whether these declared values have become the principles that govern their everyday actions.

14. Goal Setting

The vision and mission, clearly understood by everyone will ask for setting short term and long term goals. As each task gets described, the goals also will have to be set and made clear to the doers of the task. A transformation of vision and mission into achievable goals helps an institution become transparent to its own employees and associated stakeholders.

15. Team Building

Clear vision, achievable mission and set goals will naturally lead to building teams. Teams have to be built so that described tasks can be performed through desired methodologies and designed techniques. There will not only be teams for specific tasks or for a particular area of development but also cross-functional teams for general purposes.

16. Continuous Learning

Teams have to continue to work for quality control. This is possible only when they become continuous learning teams. Innovations and experiments will lead every member of the team to learn new things. However successful a team is, the members have to understand that there is no end to learning. Successes themselves should assure better quality. This is possible only when there is continuous learning.

17. Critical Success Factors (CSF)

Critical success factors are indicators of what must be achieved if an institution is not only to satisfy its customers but also move ahead on the paths of its vision statements. There could be internal critical success factors as well as external critical success factors. An accessible admission system, properly functioning teams, improved examination pass rates, learner development of ethical values, improvement in teaching-learning strategies and involvement of majority of staff in activities are examples of internal CSFs. Greater customer satisfaction, increased participation of disadvantaged groups, greater community participation and care and stronger relationship with industry and commerce are examples of external CSF.

1.1.4 Implementing Total Quality Management

In any institution a TQM movement has to be initiated and implemented by the top management. Nevertheless, it is possible that the initiative can come from the middle or the lowest rung too. Yet unless the top management feels the need for quality improvement, implementing TQM would be difficult. Thus, TQM can begin only when the necessity of quality in education is felt by one and all. The implementation of TQM in educational institutions will begin by first identifying the reasons for change. This exercise may be initiated through brain storming among key functionaries. In this exercise a sincere effort should be made to identify core problems and issues and to bring to surface, deficiencies and inadequacies. Once it is decided to introduce TQM, then an environment building exercise should be followed through workshops and seminars to create awareness about quality issues and to open up the communication channels. Planning teams headed by the Principal of the college or Head of the Institution (Management) or his nominee should be constituted. The planning team will provide guidance and leadership to the TQM movement.

Development of vision and mission statements as well as strategic action plan could be taken up through workshops. The assistance of trained facilitators may be taken to organize the workshops. Based on the framework of the mission statements and the strategic objectives evolved from the vision statement, specific Core Teams/Improvement Teams may be identified to address the issues.
Simultaneously, flow charts of the core processes which require change may be drawn up. Thereafter attempts must be made to develop norms and standards for key processes. Special training and skills in TQM tools and techniques may be imparted to the members of the planning team as well as the Core Teams/Improvement Teams in the change process. The stakeholders too may be imparted training to appreciate the importance of data driven decision making and systematic problem solving processes.
For every theme or activity identified under TQM, the Core Team/Improvement Team or taskforce will be primarily responsible. The said teams must identify strategies and techniques for addressing the theme/issue. The improvement team must fix dates and the time for team meetings. The teams should be encouraged to complete their task in a time bound manner. It would be useful for the Improvement Team to benchmark important processes with similar organizations. The Improvement Teams must document the status of the processes before and after initiating TQM - Base Line Study, midterm assessment and continuous monitoring and assessment. This will enable the institution to measure tangible results.

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