To demonstrate To add facts: In addition



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Common Transitional Words and Phrases
To introduce ideas:

For example

To illustrate

To demonstrate




To add facts:

In addition

Moreover

Similarly


Furthermore

Likewise


Besides


Also

Equally important

First, second, third

To show emphasis:

Most important

Most significant

Most noteworthy

Significantly

To show contrast:

On the other hand


Despite this

However

Although

Contrary to

To show conclusion:

Therefore

On the basis of the above

For these reasons

To sum up

To conclude

In conclusion

As a result


Part III. List of Literary Works we read in class this year. (You should review your study guides and class notes for each story we have read to refresh your memory).
In order to review the works we read in class, please try your best to complete the questions for each story. On the final exam, you may be asked to compare/contrast, setting, plot, themes, characters of a story we have read in class with a new story on the final.

1) Kaffir Boy by Mark Mathabane

Plot Summary: The author Mark Mathabane, was born and raised in Alexandra, South Africa during a time when the South African system was under Apartheid. The book deals with Johannes' struggle to overcome devastating poverty, unemployment, police raids in the middle of the night, hunger and starvation, daily beatings by schoolteachers, and bloody gang wars. Johannes' life in Alexandra was horrible. The alleyways were rat infested and his parents could not find employment. Johannes, his brother and five sisters could not eat and would go hungry for days. During one of the police raids, his father was beaten and imprisoned for not having his papers in order. His mother had to go out and find work to feed her

children. Their shack was raided so many times by police, that it became a common event.

After his father was released from prison, he began to drink. He tried to be a Good father, but he was destroyed by Apartheid. Johannes' went to school, against father's wishes, but with the encouragement of his Granny and mother. He went to get an education. He did very well in school, but

suffered beatings from the teachers for not having his books and uniform. The books and uniforms cost money and his family could not afford these items. Johannes could not understand how he could be punished when it was something he had no control over. Johannes was the smartest in his class.

Granny worked for Mrs. Smith in Johannesburg, which is a city where many wealthy people live. During one of his visits, Johannes was encouraged by Mrs. Smith to play tennis. Johannes started practicing and became good. Through Johannes' meeting and friendship with Stan Smith, a famous tennis player, he competed in tennis tournaments and received a scholarship to an American University in South Carolina, which would pay his full tuition and allow him to play tennis on the college level. This opportunity enabled Johannes to break free from Apartheid and go to America.

Setting: Alexandra and various locations throughout South Africa.

Main Characters: Johannes, Papa, Mama, Granny, Mrs. Smith, Stan Smith, Flora and George.

Conflict(s): black vs. white


Johannes vs. street gangs Johannes vs. his father

Resolution of Conflicts: Johannes overcame his conflicts by getting an education, which kept him off the streets and away from gangs. He also took an interest in tennis and received a scholarship which enabled him to break free from Apartheid and move to America. Johannes also made his father proud by receiving an education and becoming a tennis star.

Theme(s): Racism and overcoming adversities (problems).

2) "Master Harold... & the Boys" by Athol Fugard

Plot Summary: (See Plot Summary attached hereto)

Setting: St. George's Park Tea Room in Port Elizabeth, South Africa.



Main Characters:

Sam: a black man who works as a waiter in the Tea Room.

Willie: a black man who works in the Tea Room. He also enters a Ballroom Dance Contest.

Master Harold: a seventeen year old boy; parents own the Tea Room; goes to a private school; looks after Tea Room when his parents cannot and is called Hally by Sam.

Conflict: Apartheid damages Sam and Hally's relationship. Hally starts to treat Sam like a worker and not a friend.

Resolution of Conflict: Sam reaches out to Hally to try to save their friendship, but Apartheid makes it difficult for blacks and whites to be equal.


Theme(s) Apartheid and Racism
3) Somehow Tenderness Survives:

"Crackling Day" - On Crackling Day, the children trek to Elsburg to buy a square of pig rind. Lee and Andries make the long trek barefoot in the bitter cold. When they arrive, they are forced to wait in line, and the white man who sells the rind humiliates Lee by insisting on being called "baas". That night, the boys and a white man visit Lee, Uncle Sam and Aunt Liza. The white man threatens Lee's uncle into beating Lee, "to teach him a lesson". Aunt Liza later comforts Lee by tending to his injuries and cuddling him to sleep. Uncle Sam, feeling very bad about what he was made to do, brings Lee an orange and some other gifts.



Author's Message: Blacks and Whites are not equal in South Africa. To be black is to be inferior. Being black in South Africa is to be bound by a different system from the white man. The author shows us the injustice of racism through Lee's eyes.

"A Day in the Country" - The narrator and his family, while talking a drive in the country, come upon what they presume to be an accident. A black child is lying on the road. After pulling over, they find that there is a group of whites taunting and frightening the child. The child shrieks and kicks. Some blacks are standing at the side of the road. The narrator's father pulls away and yells something out of the car that angers the white man. The white man begins to pursue the father. The confrontation almost results in a fight, but surprisingly does not.
"Country Lovers" - Paulus and Thebedi play together as children. As they grow up, their relationship changes and becomes sexual, leading to Thebedi getting pregnant and having a child. Thebedi marries a black man, but has Paulus' baby. Paulus who is white goes away to a private school, but he comes back to visit. Paulus goes to see the baby and when he realizes it is his baby, he murders it. Thebedi's husband buries the baby, but it is dug up by the police. Thebedi testifies against Paulus in court, but the court frees him for lack of evidence. The story tells of the suffering and inequality Thebedi must endure because she is a black woman in a racist society. It is clear in this story that whites are superior to blacks and are therefore not bound by the same laws and morals. The author tells us, through the baby's death, that mixing the races is intolerable to the white society in South Africa.

Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
Plot Summary: Romeo, a Montague, meets Juliet, a Capulet and they fall in love. The Capulets and Montagues families are feuding. Romeo and Juliet secretly get married by Friar Lawrence. Juliet takes a sleeping potion that will make her look dead. Friar Lawrence sends a messenger to Romeo to tell him of this plan, but it never gets to him. Instead Romeo goes to Juliet's tomb and finds her and he thinks that she is dead. Romeo is devastated and kills himself. Juliet then awakens and sees Romeo dead and kills herself. Both lovers are dead and the family feud comes to an end.

Characters: Romeo, Juliet, Benvolio, Mercutio, Tybalt, Friar Lawrence, Nurse, Capulets and Montagues.


Setting: Verona, Italy in the 14th Century.
Conflict: The Capulets and Montagues are feuding and Romeo and Juliet have fallen in love, but cannot be together because of their families.
Resolution: Romeo and Juliet devise a plan to be together, but it back fires and they both die in the end.


Theme(s): unattainable love




Short Stories: (World Writers Today Book) ,
"From Behind the Veil" - Siham, a middle-eastern girl, wears a veil to

cover her face. In the middle-eastern society woman must wear a veil to hide their face. Ihsan, a young middle-eastern man, finds Siham attractive especially because she wears a veil and they start to meet each other for a period of time. Siham learns to love her veil because it provides mystery and makes her more outgoing. This story provides an insight into the middle-eastern cultures and how women have to wear veils to cover up their appearance. Women in this culture are not equal to men.



The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan

MothersS Daughters

Suyuan Woo Jing-mei "June" Woo

An-mei Hsu Rose Hsu Jordan


Lindo Jong Waverly Jong

Ying-ying St. Clair Lena St. Clair


“The Joy Luck Club" - Jing-Mei, (June), the narrator tells how her mother Suyuan has died and she must now take her place at the Joy Luck Club table. June tells the story of how her mother left two babies on the side of the road during the war. Her mother left the twin babies because she couldn't take them and was scared they would get killed in the war. June wishes she could meet her two half-sisters in China.

"Scar" - An-mei's mother became the concubine of a man named Wu-Tsing when An-mei was four, so she and her little brother went to live with their grandmother, Popo, who forbade them to speak their mother's name. After a few years, An-mei forgot her mother entirely. An-mei has memories of her mother.


When An-mei's mother came back looking to take An-mei, An-mei cried out for her mother and a bowl of boiling soup spilled over her neck. The burned turned into a scar. An-mei saw her mother cut a piece of her own flesh out of her arm and put it in a soup for Popo. She did this because her mother, Popo, was dying and it was believed that human flesh in a soup could save the person from dying.

"The Red Candle" - Lindo Jong was promised in marriage to Huang-

Tyan yu at the age of two. Lindo was not happy in this marriage and devised a plan to get out of it. Her husband and her did not have any children and this really upset her husband's mother. She came up with a plan that one of the peasant women was carrying her husband's baby and she was immediately sent away. Lindo was very happy that she was no longer married to Huang Tyan-yu.

"The Moon Lady" - Ying- Ying tells the story of the Moon Festival she

attented when she was four. The feast was held on a boat on the lake. Ying- Ying watched the chef kill and gut the fish for the meal. Some of the blood from the fish got on Ying- Ying's clothes. Hoping to hide the blood, Ying- Ying smeared her clothes with some turtle blood that was being kept in the kitchen. When Amah saw her, she became angry and stripped Ying- Ying of her clothes. Amah left Ying- Ying alone on the boat with only her underclothes and slippers. When the firecrackers started to go off, Ying- Ying got startled and fell overboard into the water. A fisherman caught her in his net and pulled her on to his boat. The fisherman finally brought her ashore. Ying- Ying felt so alone and she watched a play that was being staged about a Moon Lady and she made a wish that she would be found.

"The Rules of the Game" - Waverly Jong, one of the daughters, tells

the story about how she became a great chess player. As a young girl she practiced chess and entered tournaments and won. Her mother was very proud of her daughter's success, however, she wanted to display her like a trophy. Waverly became mad at her mother because she wanted her mother to love her for just being herself and not because she was a chess champion.

"Two Kinds" - In this story, Jing-mei speaks and she describes her

childhood. Jing-Mei is disappointed that she could never become the piano prodigy that her mother, Suyuan, wanted her to be. Jing-mei always fell short of her mother's expectations. It seemed she could never please her mother. Her mother made her take piano lessons because she wanted her to be a great pianist. There is a

conflict her between mother and daughter and daughter not living up to mother's expectations, but in the end they come to an understanding with each other.

"Best Quality" - A few months before Suyuan's death, she cooked a

crab dinner for ten people to celebrate the Chinese New Year. Waverly came to the dinner party and right away her and Jing-Mei started to clash. They were very different. Jing-Mei was a nice person and Waverly was "tricky" and not a very nice person. At the dinner, Jing-mei chose the legless crab to eat. Her mother commented that that was a very great thing to do. Her mother told her that many people would only take the best quality crab to eat for themselves and the fact that Jing-mei took the legless crab showed to her mother that she has "good qualities". Jing-mei is a nice person and that is the most important thing one would want in their daughter. This make Jing-mei's mother proud of her, finally.

"A Pair of Tickets" - Jing-mei plans her trip to China to meet her two

twin half-sisters. But she is concerned because her mother is dead and the half- sisters don't know it. She knows she will be the one to tell them when they meet. This makes her very sad. When Jing-mei gets off the plane, her sisters recognize her immediately. They all embrace and the twins call for "Mama" wondering where she is. Jing-mei tells them of their mother's death. After taking a picture, Jing-mei can see the resemblance between the three of them and she can clearly see how they all look like Suyuan.




CHECKLIST FOR BETTER ESSAYS


Please remember:

Write about all literature in the present tense.

Answer the questions with specific references (quotes, facts, examples) from

the story.

Begin your essay with an attention getting technique. Include a thesis statement in your introduction.

Use many examples to support your thesis statement.

Restate and summarize your introduction in your concluding paragraph. Stick to your topic as you write.
Proofread your essay before handing it in. Make sure you have answered the question(s) and have provided sufficient examples to support your thesis.

Check for correct punctuation, run on sentences,



etc.

If you don't know the entire answer to a question, start writing what you do know. You may earn partial credit and the rest of the answer may come to you as you write.
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