Tina Eskandarian English 1010

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Tina Eskandarian

English 1010

Letter of Transmittal

It was definitely a challenge to learn a whole new type of writing this semester. I had to get out of my usual comfort zone of writing research papers, to analyzing texts thoroughly. I also had to think about my audience when writing each paper. In the literacy narrative paper, my audience was my former classmates; in the rhetorical analysis, my audience was politicians and businessmen; and in the issue exploration essay, my audience was anybody associated with ADHD as in doctors, patients, parents, teacher, etc. In each revised piece, I hope that accomplished the purpose of the assignment. For each essay, we had to write in a certain way for our audience, which was very challenging for me.

For my first essay, the literacy narrative, it wasn’t that hard of a revision because the paper was mostly about me. For the other two essays, rhetorical analysis and issue exploration, it was definitely more difficult to revise. In rhetorical analysis, I had to analyze a piece of text and share my own opinion about it. My first draft for that was written in a research form, so I had to go back and change the way I wrote it so I could share my opinion as why I agree or disagree. For the issue exploration, we were not allowed to share our view until the ending paragraph which was a little hard. For my revision, I had to go back and compare and contrast my viewpoints so both views of the issue were talked about and it was clear to see.

I was always used to writing research papers, and honestly, I never really thought about other types of writing. This semester, I grew as a writer because I have a different mindset now. I have learned to consider my audience when I write, which is very important. I have learned to analyze texts in ways that I never thought possible; for example, who is the audience, who is the author, and what is the main topic. All these tools I can use for later writing classes and hopefully I won’t struggle as much. Writing was never a strong subject for me, but it was doable. It’s always hard for me to get started on a specific paper, but once I do, there’s no stopping me. After my first draft, I usually get help from others when it comes to revising, which I did for all three of my essays this semester. I’m happy that I learned so much.

Literacy Narrative

I was born in Iran and moved to the United States when I was eight years old with my family. We are a total of four people: My mom and dad, my brother Nami, and I. Most Iranians are known as being Muslims; however, my family and I are Baha’i. Because of our religion we were discriminated against and treated poorly. The Iranian government does not allow Baha’is to further continue their education, like going to college. The most education a Baha’i can get is through high school. My parents were both great students throughout their school years, but they always wished that they could have gone to college and made something out of their lives. Other than the fact that Baha’is are discriminated against, another big reason for us moving here was so Nami and I could have a great education and go to college. Knowledge is everything to my parents. They couldn’t continue school, but they expect a lot from me and Nami. However, Nami and I can’t reach our goals and make our parents proud unless we are dedicated.

When I came here I didn’t know the alphabet, let alone speak English. One night when we first got here, my dad and I were walking around and he decided to teach me the alphabet by reading license plates on cars. Now that I think back, it wasn’t the best idea learning the alphabet from my dad. My dad has a strong Persian accent, so I probably learned how to pronounce all of the letters wrong. I was not at all prepared for what was coming next.

I started out at the end of third grade here in the United States. Those times were very hard for me and I remember them perfectly. I would sit in class not knowing what’s going on; I felt so lonely. When the teacher would ask me to do something, I wouldn’t understand and I would just say: “I don’t know.” One day, they brought in a little girl my age, Nasrin, to translate for me. I could not believe it! Finally someone who spoke the same language I did. We were supposed to say the pledge of allegiance. Nasrin said to me in Farsi, “put your hand on your heart.” I giggled. It was funny to hear that in Farsi because it sounds weird. I did it anyway and pretended to say it with the rest of the class. Then later that day, I was with another girl a couple years older than me, Nassi, to translate. Nassi asked me to what number I could count to. I answered in Farsi, “ummm, 100?” Then they asked me to count to demonstrate, so I did. That was definitely the happiest day of my life. My heart was pounding and I didn’t feel so sad anymore. For the first time, I felt like I belonged in that school.

When I started fourth grade the following fall, I was put in ESL classes. I remember my hand writing being really bad because I wrote so big. Trying to get used to the alphabet and writing sentences was a huge challenge for me. Everything looked so strange. That never stopped me from being dedicated and pushing myself to learn as fast as I could. The only thing that wasn’t so challenging was math. It’s true that mathematics is a language known all around the world.

I stayed in the ESL classes just for that one year. My teachers believed that I had improved enough to not take those classes anymore. They also agreed that I had very fast learning abilities since I went for a year only. My hard work and dedication paid off. English was my second language, but that didn’t stop me from trying my hardest to be number one in my class. I remember my teacher giving us spelling tests and I would get a 100% every time; I was great at spelling. I started learning the alphabet just the year before and I was already one of the top students in my class.

In my elementary school, we would have reading competitions every month. Each book that we would pick in the library had a certain number on. The number on the book counted as points and it ranged according to the difficulty of the book. Certain amount of points had to be met each month, and whoever had the highest score would get a prize. I was never the fastest reader in the world and it isn’t my favorite thing to do. If I chose a long book to read, it would take too long for me and I wouldn’t have enough points at the end of the month. Therefore, I chose to read the small length books. I don’t remember ever having the highest points in class for reading, but I met my goal every month and got enough points to get a good grade.

My favorite subject in school was always math. Unlike most people, math comes easy to me and I understand it. One night at parent teacher conferences, my teacher was trying to explain to my parents how good of a student I was. She said, “Tina is so bright and smart, especially at math! She’s Miss Mathematics.” My dad still calls me that to this day. My parents were so proud of me that night.

So I continued my education in junior high and high school getting A’s and a few B’s here and there. During my high school years, I took advantage of the AP (advanced placement) classes that were offered. Those classes were college leveled for students who were capable of taking them. There was a test at the end of the year and if passed, around six to eight college credits depending on the subject would be given. My senior year, I decided to take calculus AP. Lucky for me, I passed the end of year test and I started college with eight credits of math and only calculus II to take for my future career. I graduated high school the year of 2012 with an overall GPA of 3.8.

I decided to continue my education and follow my dreams the fall of 2012 in Salt Lake Community College because they offered me a scholarship to pay for all my classes. For my future career, I hope to become a pharmacist. I have been going to school every semester, except summer, finishing my pre-requirements since that fall of 2012; this is my fourth semester at Salt Lake Community College. I want to apply to Roseman University. If I get accepted to Roseman University, I will attend the fall of 2015. After that, it’s only three years of intense pharmacy school and I can have my PharmD.

I have dedicated myself to my education ever since the day I started school here in the third grade. This is just a reminder that if the mind is set to a goal, it can be achieved by dedication. Growing up, school was the number one thing to me. I was more dedicated than all of my friends. Yes, I was called a nerd every now and then, but I didn’t care. Sometimes, my friends would make fun of me for being sad over a bad grade. I knew that being a nerd was a good thing because look how far it got me. My parents always dreamt of continuing their education and making something of their lives. They brought my brother and I here to get that opportunity and I plan on making them proud. I started out a little girl not knowing the alphabet, and now I’m almost done with my schooling and hopefully becoming a pharmacist in about four years.

Hungry People are the Result of a bad Economy

It is right before Thanksgiving, and our economy is at its worst since 2008. People all around the country are going hungry for this special holiday; we ask ourselves, why them? “Five Myths about Hunger in America,” an article written by Robert Egger on November 21, 2010, published in The Washington Post, makes a powerful argument by providing us logical and emotional examples proving that because of the loss of jobs, a lot of our people are going hungry and it effects our economy. Egger calls out to politicians and businessmen across the country to create a movement by stating that not only do our people go hungry, but it is also hurting our economy severely. So, who is hungry in America and why?

Robert Egger claims that the reason why a lot of our people are going hungry is because of our economy. People have lost lots of jobs and are not able to pay for important things, such as food. Children go to school hungry and are not able to get a well enough education to succeed. Adults, because of desperation, choose to buy really cheap, unhealthy food to get through the day and to feed their children; they have no choice but to do that. Eating unhealthy food causes serious illnesses which then develop a lot of debt for healthcare. While this is happening, “40% of the food we produce gets thrown away” that we could use to feed the poor. Egger reaches out to politicians and businessmen to work towards the issue like he is. Egger is the owner of D.C. Central Kitchen and Campus Kitchens Project. He has offered jobs to 30 well-paid employees and provides healthy, made-from-scratch, meals for people. If the businessmen and politicians could provide more jobs, then the taxes the employees would be paying could create a change to our economy.

According to Egger, “a kid who is hungry cannot learn.” Children are our future, and that is why education is so important. Nowadays, without a college degree, not many people are provided with well-paying jobs. When children are left hungry, they are not capable of concentrating at school and eventually end up dropping out. Dropout kids have a tendency to end up doing bad things and get arrested for crimes in or to survive. He says, “A kid without an education can’t get a job and help America complete in a global economy.” As citizens, part of our taxes will go to prisons. If more people are going to prison, we end up paying way more taxes than we regularly should. It starts to become a never ending cycle. This reaches out to the audience stating that their taxes will be going towards the prisons, and by the time they retire, those children will be in jail instead of working and paying taxes to have a better economy.

Egger then moves forward by using more logos to help us relate to this situation by pointing out that unhealthy food causes lots of health problems. In Egger’s words, “Obesity is related to hunger, too, thanks to our poor food choices. Diet-related illnesses such as heart disease and diabetes are now on the list of the leading causes of death in America.” When health problems increase, so do the medical expenses. When medical expenses increase, without proper health care, people go in debt. Not only are they going into debt, but dying by consuming unhealthy food. This works with the audience because all the money spent on healthcare, $147 billion annually to be exact, could be going towards their business instead, and giving them another reason to help solve this issue and our economy. He also gives his audience facts and statistics.

However, children aren’t the only ones that go hungry. Egger uses a lot of emotional appeal in his article. He points out that single, working moms are more likely to be hungry. Other than the fact that this is a sympathetic issue, Egger also uses this to break the superstition of people not working on purpose to live off of the government; there are mothers out there who work really hard in order to survive. He says, “federal programs ensure that low-income children can get free meals at school, but their mothers often have to make tough choices between food, rent, gas, health care or new shoes for their kids.” Unfortunately, this is something that happens on a daily basis. Single mothers all around the country have to make tough decisions, as in going without meals themselves to feed their children. The image of these single moms working to earn their money and yet not having enough money is moving. Egger uses this strategy for politicians and businessmen to think about the women in their families and imagine them is such a situation, causing them to reach out and help. Another issue is that the 80 million baby boomers are approaching retirement. More than half of these elders admit to needing help because they have to choose between food, medicine, and utilities. Most of the politicians and businessmen are from the baby boomer era. Sooner or later, they will be dependent on the taxes that the young people pay when they retire to help out with their food, medical, and utility costs.

At the end of his article, Egger uses ethos to let us know what he is doing to help out with this issue and the economy. Robert Egger is the president of D.C. Central Kitchen, which he founded in 1989, and the Campus Kitchens Project. They provide meals that are made from scratch for public and charter schools in Washington. During these rough times, they added employees, some of them felons or former drug addicts. The company “earned more than $2 million in salaries and paid more than $200,000 in local payroll taxes.” If businessmen were to hire more people, all the taxes that the employees would pay could really help our economy. Also, it would create more business for the businessmen.

In conclusion, Robert Egger made a powerful argument in his article “Five Myths about Hunger in America” by using logical and emotional examples, and reaching out to businessmen and politicians to start making a change to this economy. He convinces his audience that if they were to provide our people with more jobs and more nutritious food, maybe we wouldn’t be in this situation. Egger, as a business man himself, is trying to make a movement by providing jobs for people in need of one because “hunger isn’t just about food, it’s about jobs and wages.” He also does, what most of us would never do: spends extra time on his meals to make them from scratch just so they are healthy. So, we ask businessmen and politicians all across the country, do you think you could make a movement and improve our economy by helping out Americans in need?

Are children getting over diagnosed with ADHD?

Children can be a handful sometimes. Some days they get really energetic and hyper all of sudden and there’s no stopping them; therefore, many have wondered if they’re ill. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a “psychiatric disorder marked by difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior and incidences of hyperactivity” (ProQuest Staff). The diagnosis of ADHD can be difficult because in most cases, there is no known cause. Some believe that this disorder is for people who are unable to control their behavior only; others believe that it’s based off of genetics (ProQuest Staff). Over the past years, more people have been diagnosed with ADHD, so it makes us wonder if the diagnosis is based off of general symptoms, as in children simply being hyper. Unfortunately, children are the ones who get diagnosed with this disorder more often in most cases. So, are children getting over diagnosed with ADHD?

The first viewpoint is directed towards doctors; obviously, they can’t distinguish between ADHD and other mental disorders. In an article in the Wall Street Journal, Dr. Sanford Newmark states: “people making the diagnoses aren't distinguishing, in many cases, between normal developmental immaturity and ADHD. The author of the U.S. study estimates that this mistake could account for 20% of the current ADHD diagnoses in the U.S., or about 900,000 children, by his count” (Newmark & Koplewicz, B.9.). Let’s face it, that’s a lot of children! Some children come from stressful homes with both parents working and having tight schedules. The children end up distracting themselves with electronics and the discipline that’s needed from the parents fade away, causing them to stop concentrating and having similar symptoms to ADHD (Newmark & Koplewicz, B.9.). Unfortunately, doctors don’t spend the amount of time and attention needed to make the proper diagnosis; instead, they just prescribe them medication. Another article in the Wall Street Journal talks about the correct way to diagnose patients. It says that what doctors should be doing is going through history records of the patients to rule out other mental disorders such as depression or learning disabilities (Hinshaw & Scheffler, A.19.). They should also have a checklist of the patients behavior and or if their behavior changes.

Doctors are actually trained to diagnose patients. After so many years of schooling, we shouldn’t think that they make a diagnosis without thinking it through. In fact, doctors continuously get trained throughout their medical career. Dr. Peter Jensen, the associate at the National Institute of Mental Health, performed a show of scenarios for doctors to help them better diagnose ADHD (Schwarz, A.10.). In their show, they performed several incidents of parents coming in with their children and wanting a diagnosis of why their child acts the way they do. Dr. Newmark argued that doctors will not spend the proper time to diagnose, but Dr. Jensen showed that doctors check histories of the patients and spend more time on them to make the correct diagnosis. Even if the parents of the child in the scenario were pushy, the doctor still stayed calm which reminded the doctors in the audience to do the same. Another argument towards Dr. Newmark would be about medications being prescribed. In the Indianapolis Star, it states that medical treatment is better than therapy (Grossman). There was a study done by Dr. Jensen that included children who were being treated by therapy and medications. At the end of the study, they found that “medicine alone normalized about half of the subjects, therapy worked in about one-third of the cases” (Grossman). Therapy tends to work better for children who are dealing with other mental disorders such as anxiety or poor social skills.

What if ADHD did not exist at all? In the New York Post, an article, written by Kyle Smith, was posted about a book written by Richard Saul, a neurologist, about how he believes that ADHD is not real. In this issue, Saul states that “ADHD is a collection of symptoms, not a disease, and shouldn't be listed in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual” (Smith). Some parents get tired of dealing with their children and demand that they get prescribed ADHD medicine just so their children could shut up for a while. Sometimes, ADHD is used as an excuse of why we act the way that we do. The bad part is these highly addictive ADHD medications seem to be handed out like candy. Dr. Saul has had plenty of patients who thought that they had ADHD. Nearly all of his patients were diagnosed by some other disease after a certain period of time (Smith). Instead of taking just a couple of minutes to prescribe ADHD medication for his patients, Dr. Saul spent more time to figure out what causes trouble for his patients and made the proper diagnosis; therefore, coming up with the idea that ADHD is not real. The Independent, a newspaper in London, England, discussed if we are treating bad behavior as an illness (Cooper). Instead of teaching their kids how to behave and have manners, most parents take the easy way out and feed their children medications to calm them down, “so when does being a naughty become ADHD?” (Cooper). It has gotten to a point where any symptom of not being able to focus or pay attention is diagnosed as ADHD. Even we adults sometimes have trouble concentrating. There is no possible way that every human being in the world could have ADHD.

ADHD is actually a very serious illness and should be treated as soon as possible for children. In arguing the article about Dr. Saul’s book, Christina Samuels states that “using imaging technology that can probe the deepest workings of the brain, researchers have found that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are using less of a certain part of their brains to hold back their itchy trigger fingers, compared with typically developing children performing the same task” (Samuels, 1-3). One would never know how it feels to have ADHD, unless you have it yourself. Children with this illness have trouble writing in a straight line because they can’t focus (Samuels, 1-3). These children need to get the treatment they need immediately to succeed in their everyday life. Children become inattentive, have lack of focus, and have low self-esteem. They also start to have poor socializing skills and fall behind in school. ADHD causes “a developmental failure in brain circuitry that underlies inhibition and self-control. This loss of self-control in turn impairs other important brain functions crucial for maintaining attention” (Szegedy-Maszak). What’s worse is that in most cases, ADHD follows children throughout their adulthood.

I think that ADHD is a serious illness but is over diagnosed. Doctors definitely need to put more time and effort into diagnosing little children. I work in a pharmacy as a pharmacy technician. I see plenty of prescriptions for ADHD medications come in everyday; most of the time, its parents dropping them off for their young children. It truly makes me wonder whether these children all have ADHD or not. Personally, I agree with Dr. Newmark about how doctors prescribe without taking the proper time to diagnose. Doctors need to take caution when diagnosing and look at patient history, just like they would with any other illnesses (Hinshaw, A.19.). I have not met anyone who truly has ADHD yet, but I’m sure there are people out there with this illness. In no way am I implying that it isn’t real; I definitely think that there are people out there who suffer from not being able to concentrate, just like Christina Samuels said in her article. For people with this disorder have so much difficulty trying to function on a normal day. It’s just a little hard for me to believe that there are so many people who are being medicated. Of course, we all have moments where it’s difficult for us to focus, but that doesn’t mean we have ADHD. Someone might have a high degree of ADHD, but that might just means that they have a sparking personality because there’s no impairment (Szegedy-Maszak).

Works Cited

Cooper, Charlie. "Hyperactive or Just Hype?." The Independent. 20 Aug. 2013: 34. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.

  • This article is about if prescriptions are being prescribed for ADHD or if children are just being naughty. “Medication has become a substitute for authoritative teaching and child-rearing.” People have a hard time identifying childhood and children with a serious mental disorder. Prescriptions get diagnosed too much.

  • I agreed with this article because I have seen incidents where parents have their children take medication just so they can calm down. Children get hyper sometimes and out of control, but that’s just part of their childhood.

Grossman, Kate N. "Medicine Helps ADHD More Than Therapy." Indianapolis Star (Indianapolis, IN). Dec. 14 1999: n.p. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 19 Apr. 2014.

  • Medicine can be helpful in curing children with ADHD. Community care is actually the least effective. The only way to treat children with this disorder is to medicate them. Medication normalizes more children’s behaviors than therapy alone. Children still get seen by the doctor and are under supervision.

  • I agree with this because it’s true that some children are in need of medication. Doctor’s wouldn’t want to destroy a child’s life for their benefit. However, I also disagree with it because they prescribe it too much to help children. If they were to spend a little more time before they diagnose ADHD, maybe the illness could be something and fixed properly.

Hinshaw, Stephen P., and Richard M. Scheffler. "How Attention-Deficit Disorder Went Global." Wall Street Journal. 12 Mar. 2014: A.19. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.

  • Children could have other disorders as in anxiety and depression, but doctors automatically diagnose it as ADHD. Doctors need to spend more time going through patients’ history and diagnosing. They also keep an eye on the patient. Maybe check on behavioral changes.

  • I absolutely agree with this article because the only to stop overmedicating children, is to spend more time. I work in a pharmacy and parents come in multiple times a day to drop off prescriptions for their children. It’s sad in a way to see how many children are becoming dependent on their medication. So it makes me wonder if all of these children have ADHD or they get diagnosed too quickly.

Newmark, Sanford, and Harold S. Koplewicz. "Are ADHD Medications Overprescribed?." Wall Street Journal. 18 Sep. 2012: B.9. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.

  • Doctors don’t take the proper to distinguish between ADHD and other types of illnesses. Medication is being overprescribed even for children with ADHD. There haven’t been much studies done. We can do healthy things as in changing diet.

  • I agree with this article as well because doctor’s need to spend more time to tell whether a disorder is ADHD or something else. Healthy options are always the way to go to find cure for children. It’s best to keep children off medication as much as we can.

ProQuest Staff. "At Issue: ADHD." ProQuest LLC. 2014: n.pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 19 Apr. 2014.

  • ADHD, with is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a condition where people are not able to focus or pay attention and they are not able to control their behavior. This disorder is most common in children; however, there is a small percent of adults who suffer from this as well. The cause of ADHD is generally unknown. The issue is whether it is possible to diagnose ADHD correctly.

  • This is a great explanation of the ADHD disorder. Not being able to focus and pay attention is so difficult. Some patients literally can’t go on with their day because they can’t finish their work. That is the proper definition of ADHD and I completely agree with it.

Samuels, Christina A. "Project Aims to Bridge Neuroscience and Schools." Education Week Vol. 28, No. 7. 08 Oct. 2008: 1-3. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.

  • Children with ADHD have trouble writing in a straight line. ”These are kids for whom the very basic things don't run on autopilot," Dr. Martha Bridge Denckla, a neurology professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, told the audience. "They may have to use all of their organization just to get their handwriting to stay on a line."

  • Not many people have actually met a child with ADHD, and I happen to be one of those people. I agree with this because it has a clear example of what someone with ADHD deals with. We all have that moment where we can’t focus, but it’s not 24/7 thing.

Schwarz, Alan. "Doctors Train to Spot Signs of A.D.H.D. in Children." New York Times. 19 Feb. 2014: A.10. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.

  • Doctors are being trained again to spot ADHD properly. Dr. Jensen put on a show of a child whose father wanted ADHD medicine for him and they showed different scenarios and how they should be handled. They did a show on parents trying to convince the doctor that their child is in need of medication.

  • I agree and disagree with this article. I agree with it because proper training is needed for doctors. I disagree with it because it might make it as if any parents that walks in and has a concern for their child, they’re just overreacting. Sometimes, we don’t know what’s going on in the patient’s house and we can’t point the finger.

Smith, Kyle. "ADHD Does Not Exist." New York Post. 05 Jan. 2014: 21. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.

  • Neurologist Richard Saul says that ADHD is a series of symptoms, not a disease. ADHD is a series of different illnesses. “ADHD makes a great excuse.” Being stressed out and living life gets mistaken for an illness called ADHD.

  • I disagree with this because ADHD is not an excuse. Yes, some people tend to overreact. However, we can never be judgmental. We would never know how a person with ADHD really feels unless we have that disorder ourselves.

Szegedy-Maszak, Marianne. "Driven to Distraction." U.S. News & World Report. 26 Apr. 2004: 52+. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.

  • This article talks about how children with ADHD are stuck with this disorder throughout their adulthood as well. Children with ADHD have low self-esteem and have lack of focus. They show low performance in school because they can’t concentrate. They don’t fit in with other children and have poor relationships with them.

  • I have never met a person with ADHD, but I could only imagine what kids with ADHD go through. However, having poor relationships with other children seems odd to me and I don’t agree with that. I don’t think that children with ADHD aren’t able to socialize; they’re just unable to focus.

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