TIc talk Number 62, 2006

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Matthew, Mark

M. J. J. Menken, Matthew’s Bible: The Old Testament Text of the Evangelist (Leuven: Leuven/Peeters, 2004), previously published essays with additional material to include all of Matthew’s quotations of the OT.

Emerson Powery, “Where are the Quotations? Citation-less introductory formulae in the Gospel of Mark,” Journal of Biblical Studies 4(2004):1‑22. Available here.


Gert J. Steyn, Septuagint Quotations in the Context of the Petrine and Pauline speeches of the Acta Apostolorum (Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1995).


Maarten J. J. Menken, Old Testament Quotations in the Fourth Gospel: Studies in Textual Form (Kampen: Kok Pharos, n.d., [pref. 1996]).


For a useful introduction to Paul see Moisés Silva “Old Testament in Paul,” in Dictionary of Paul and His Letters (Wheaton: IVP, 1993), pp. 630-642. Timothy H. Lim, Holy Scripture in the Qumran Commentaries and Pauline Letters (Oxford: Clarendon, 1997), focuses on the value of Qumran OT usage in evaluating NT writers, especially Paul. “To be distinctively septuagintal, as is often claimed, the cited verse or individual reading should agree with the LXX in those passages where the Septuagint differs from all other text-types” (p. 141).

Florian Wilk, Die Bedeutung des Jesajabuches für Paulus (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1998).

Thorsten Moritz, A Profound Mystery. The Use of the Old Testament in Ephesians (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1996.

Shiu-Lun Shum, Paul’s Use of Isaiah in Romans (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2002).

Christopher D. Stanley, “The Significance of Romans 11:3-4 for the Text History of the LXX Book of Kingdoms.” JBL (1993):43-54.

Christopher D. Stanley, Paul and the Language of Scripture. Citation Technique in the Pauline Epistles and Contemporary Literature (Cambridge: University Press, 1992), an important, detailed discussion of this crucial topic. Stanley continues to write on the general subject: Arguing with Scripture: The Rhetoric of Scripture in the Letters of Paul (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2004). He also contributed two essays on methodology in Early Christian Interpretation of the Scriptures in Israel, Craig Evans and James Sanders, editors (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997). Most of the essays in this volume deal with NT passages, but there are five essays on methodology, including Stanley Porter’s “The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament: A Brief Comment on Methodology and Terminology,” pp. 79-96.


Radu Gheorgehita, The Role of the Septuagint in Hebrews. An Investigation of Its Influence with Special Consideration of the Use of Hab 2:3-4 in Heb 10:37-38 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003).

Other NT Books

It is well known that the book of Revelation contains no explicit quotations from the OT, but textual allusions and intertextuality abound. While of limited value for a study of the form of the OT text in the NT, G. K. Beale’s John’s Use of the Old Testament in Revelation (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998) provides a comprehensive introduction and survey.


The theory of Testimonia books as the source of “OT” quotations in the NT (Edwin Hatch postulated a Jewish compilation; J. Rendel Harris argued for Testimonia compiled by Christians for use in the early Jewish-Christian debates) had faded in interest until the discovery of 4QTestimonia and other composite collections of scripture passages. Martin C. Albl, in his “And Scripture cannot be broken”: The Form and Function of the Early Christian Testimonia Collections (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1999), provides a thorough discussion, including reference to testimonia-type literature from Qumran.


Several publications offer the ancient Hebrew/LXX texts in parallel with the relevant NT passages. Gleason Archer and G. Chirichigno, Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament (Chicago: Moody, 1983), offer the texts with categorizations and discussions, frequently arguing that particular quotations sometimes thought to be based on the LXX may actually be based on MT. A major multi-volume resource (two of four projected volumes have now been published) is Hans Hübner, Vetus Testamentum in Novo: Corpus Paulinium (1997) and Johannesevangelium (2003) (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1997- ). Hübner’s chapter, “New Testament Interpretation in the Old Testament,” in Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, The History of Interpretation; Part 1, Antiquity (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1996), pp. 332-372, is quite helpful. A handy online resource, lacking the technical sophistication of the previously described volumes is R. Grant Jones, “The Septuagint in the New Testament” available here.

One specific aspect of citation studies is the use of citation formulae, usually treated in conjunction with specific quotations. For a comprehensive survey see Kevin L. Spawn, “As It Is Written” and Other Citation Formulae in the Old Testament: Their Use, Development, Syntax and Significance (Berlin; New York: W. de Gruyter, 2002).

Two works focus specifically on Psalm citations in the NT: Craig A. Evans, “Praise and Prophecy in the Psalter and in the New Testament” in The Book of Psalms: Composition and Reception, P. Flint and P. Miller, editors (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 551-579; and Ulrich Rüsen-Weinhold, Der Septuagintapsalter im Neuen Testament: Eine textgeschichtliche Untersuchung (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 2004).

The LXX in the Early Church

One of the arguments that is sometimes used to support the notion that THE Septuagint was the Bible of the NT writers is the dominance of the LXX in the early Church. However, the situation in the first centuries of the Church is more complex than such an argument presupposes. It goes without saying that the Church used Greek extensively, since Greek, after all, was an international language of communication. But this fact does not settle the issue of what OG text(s) the NT writers used, nor their relative competence in Hebrew. A drift toward nearly universal acceptance/use of the LXX Christian recension was not seriously challenged until Jerome, emerging from both the earlier text-critical work of Origen and more particularly the influence of Jerome’s Hebrew-speaking Jewish tutors. The study of Jerome’s attitude towards the LXX and his correspondence with Augustine has its own extensive literature, but a good introduction to the topic is A. Kamesar’s Jerome, Greek Scholarship and the Hebrew Bible (Oxford: Clarendon, 1993). Robert Shedinger’s Tatian and the Jewish Scriptures: A Textual and Philological Analysis of the Old Testament Citations in Tatian’s Diatessaron (Louvain: Peeters, 2001) offers a perspective on the nature and use of the OT text in the 2nd century. In terms of the literary and theological impact of the LXX in the wider Greco-Roman world, there is little evidence that “secular” writers before the Christian era knew (or cared about) the Greek translation of the Jewish sacred scriptures. But, as Christianity grew and claimed allegiance to the Old/First Testament as part of their sacred texts, several classical writers did discuss the relative merits of the LXX. This part of the picture is conveniently and thoroughly supplied by John Granger Cook in The Interpretation of the Old Testament in Greco-Roman Paganism (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2004).

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