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University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Bryan School of Business and Economics

BUS/ ENT 342-01: International Entrepreneurship

Fall 2009
This syllabus is subject to change as the semester progresses to accommodate instructional and/or student needs.

Instructor: Nir Kshetri, Ph D Class Time: MW 1530-1645

Phone: 334-4530 Classroom: BRYN 112

Fax: 334-4141 Office hours: W 12-2 PM

Email: nbkshetr@uncg.edu Office location: 368 BRYAN




Suggested Text:

Shawn Carraher and Dianne Welsh (ed.) Global Entrepreneurship ISBN# is 978-0-7575-6211-2


Prerequisite: None.



Course Description


This course is designed for students interested in starting, joining, or holding stakes in international ventures. It examines the creation and management of business ventures that have international dimensions and provides insights into economic and formal/informal institutions affecting entrepreneurship.

Course Overview and Expectations


Business ventures are becoming increasingly global. For a venture, opportunities, resources, uncertainties and customers thus can come from anywhere in the world. In a related sense, countries characterized by economic, social and political environments that are conducive to entrepreneurship tend to grow and develop faster.

This course examines: (a) how entrepreneurs create and manage business ventures that have international dimensions; and (b) how economic factors, physical factors, trade factors and formal and informal institutions affect entrepreneurship.

This course is multidisciplinary in nature and scope and provides broad global perspectives on cultures, nations and sub-nationalities in the industrialized and developing world from the standpoint of entrepreneurship. This course also examines how cultural, social, political, economic and historical changes taking place in the world, especially in the economies in transition, affect entrepreneurial development. It places a special emphasis on inter-connections between regions through such mechanisms as global flow of goods, services, labor, capitals, technology and people; and the roles of supra-national institutions (e.g., the WTO, World Bank, International Monetary Funds, etc.). Case analyses and classroom discussions draw on concepts, skills, and insights from such disciplines as marketing, operations, finance, control, decision-making, leadership, ethics, governance, negotiation.

The course will be organized around three major sections: (1) international entrepreneurship: drivers, performance, and impact, (2) entrepreneurship in economies with diverse economic and institutional conditions, and (3) cases related to international entrepreneurship.

Student Learning Outcomes:
At the completion of the course, students will be able to:


  1. Identify opportunities in international business ventures.

  2. Evaluate the obstacles and challenges in international business ventures.

  3. Analyze the attractiveness of international business ventures.

  4. Apply the tools and concepts learnt in the course to identify, evaluate, start, and manage international ventures.

  5. Assess economic and institutional factors affecting entrepreneurship in an economy.

  6. Demonstrate an understanding of the interconnectedness among regions of the world in such aspects as colonial and neocolonial relationships, human rights, discourses of justice, cultural and aesthetic developments, technology, ecology, or epistemology.

  7. Locate, interpret, and evaluate information on diverse global culture from the entrepreneurial angle.

  8. Demonstrate sensitivity to cultural differences on a global scale from the perspective of entrepreneurship.



Format


The course will be organized around short lectures, case analyses, in-class and online discussions and paper presentations. Operations at various stages of the entrepreneurial process will be examined in a range of countries across the five continents.

Topics covered include:



  • Initiating international entrepreneurial ventures

  • Market entry and international expansion

  • Forming international alliances

  • Negotiations in the international context

  • Managing the growth of an international venture

  • Managing entrepreneurial ventures under changing contexts

  • Traditional financing in a range of economies

  • Cross-border financing (including the development of venture capital in different countries)

  • Formal and informal institutions influencing entrepreneurship

  • Entrepreneurial promotion institutions and mechanisms (including High-technology clusters and other local government supports)

  • Cultural, ethical, legal and human resource issues facing the global entrepreneur

  • Entrepreneurship in emerging economies with special emphasis on China and India.

Evaluation Items

Individual Components

Physical Attendance, Participation and Contribution (75 points)


You are encouraged to attend all the classes. I will take attendance at every class. If you miss a class, it is your responsibility to check with another student to find out if any changes were made and to be prepared for such items when you return to the next class.
You should complete all reading assignments and be prepared to discuss those assignments, especially the cases. It is important that you participate in class discussions. However, please note that quality, not quantity, is important in the discussion.

In addition, the following factors will also be considered:




  • Courtesy (cell phones/pagers off; absence of extensive side conversations)

  • Attentiveness (focus directed to the presenter, not distracting others)

  • Asking questions to groups presenting the cases

  • Providing comments and critiquing reading materials and cases.


Inclement Weather Policy: If we experience snow, sleet, etc., we will follow the University’s decision as to holding class. Use your good judgment in such cases. If you do not feel you can safely make it to class, do not come.

Online Attendance, Participation and Contribution (125 points)


Blackboard is an important component of this course. You are expected to login regularly and post to the discussion topics (at least NINE posts are required). The purpose of online discussions is to supplement the materials covered in class. Your postings enhance not only your own learning but also that of your fellow students. However, please feel free to post anything that contributes to our learning of international entrepreneurship.
Your posts are evaluated in terms of the following criteria:


  1. Have you connected your discussion with materials from your textbook or those discussed in the class?

  2. Have you done additional research and included source(s) of your information?

  3. Have you related your postings with current business related events?

  4. Have you posted regularly throughout the semester?

The last day for posting on the blackboard is December 6, 2009. Please copy all of your posts in ONE word document and email me by this date. Make sure that each of your posts has the date you posted on the blackboard.




Quizzes (50 points)


There will be THREE quizzes. You are allowed to drop your lowest score and the scores of the remaining TWO quizzes (25 points each) will be considered in your grade. All quizzes will be given online on the Blackboard. Please inform me immediately if you have any problem in taking a quiz on the Blackboard.

Exam 1 (100 points)


Exam 1 will be held on 9/28. More details about this exam will be available on the Blackboard.

Exam 2 (100 points)


Exam 2 will be held on 10/26. More details will be available on the Blackboard.

Exam 3 (250 points)


Exam 3 will be held on 12/7. Details will be announced on the blackboard.

Group Components

Final Project: International Business Plan (225 points)*




Working in a group, you are required to prepare a detailed international business plan (IBP) for a new start up or an existing venture. Your final report of the IBP will include the following elements:





  1. Title Page

  2. Executive Summary

  3. History/Overview of Company: This section will provide a brief description of the company's operations and products. Other relevant information include the company’s evolution to the present stage, backgrounds and experiences of the owners, number of years in business, number of employees, etc. You may also want to include additional information such as why and by whom was the organization formed? It will also be important to see if the organization’s mission changed since the organization was formed.

  4. Identification of the Industry and Competitors: In this section, you also need to discuss the macroeconomic factors influencing the organization’s operations and performance.

  5. Potential Profitability of the industry

  6. Political /legal forces that are likely to shape the industry

  7. Social forces that are likely to shape the industry

  8. Technical forces that are likely to shape the industry

  9. Statement of Objectives: What are the owner's business objectives? You may also want to discuss whether they are quantifiable, specific, measurable, and attainable.

  10. Strategic Gap Analysis: In this section, you will measure and examine the difference between the desired performance levels and the extrapolated results of the current performance levels. This measurement indicates what needs to be done and what resources are required to achieve the goals of an organization's strategy.

  11. SWOT Analysis: In this section, you will examine the firm’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

  12. Marketing strategy: This section will deal with the 4Ps of marketing.

  13. Organizational Overview. How is the organization structured?, What are the Human Resource and Production strategies?

  14. Financial Overview. How is the business financed?

  15. What are the future prospects for the organization?

  16. References: Use any reference style (e.g., APA) consistently.

  17. Appendices and Supporting information: Include relevant data, pertinent financial statements, market survey information, etc., that were used in the preparation of your business plan. Note that all appendices MUST be referred in the text of your report.

Each group may plan on spending up to 20 minutes for presentation, followed by a 5-minute question and answer period. Each group will also submit a report (about 5000 words) on the day of the presentation. You may form your own group (3-5 members).


The performance of your team (maximum: 100 points) and your evaluation by other members of the team (maximum: 125 points) will determine your group project grade. You are required to submit a peer evaluation form.
You will have to submit your progress reports three times during the semester. You will get feedbacks within a week of submission of your progress report. Please note that the group project entails an extensive amount of work that needs to be conducted throughout the semester. So, don’t let it slide to the last week of the semester!
Presentation of a Case/an article (75 points) *
Each group is also required to present a case or an article. The presenting group will also submit a written analysis of the case/article (6-8 pages, double-spaced). Cases/articles are assigned to you on first-come first-served basis.

*Each group member is also required to submit the “Peer evaluation form” no later than the last day of the class.



Note: In all of the above activities, you are expected to abide by the Honor Code, which includes the Academic Honesty Policy.

Scoring System for the Final Grade


The following scoring system will be used for the final grade.
Score

Grade


Score

Grade


Score

Grade


960-1000

A+

790 – 829



B

630 – 669

C-

930 - 959



A

750 – 789

B-

590 – 629



D+

870 - 929

A-

710 – 749



C+

550 – 589

D

830 – 869



B+

670 – 709

C

0 – 549


F

TENTATIVE COURSE SCHEDULE


Date

Detail

Remarks

8/24- 8/26

  • Course Overview

  • Unit 1-2

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

8//31-

9/2


  • Unit 1-2

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

  • Quiz 1

9/7

9/9


  • Unit 3

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • 9/7: Labor Day Holiday

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

9/14

9/16


  • Unit 3

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard




9/21

9/23


  • Unit 4

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard




9/28

9/30


  • Unit 5

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

  • Exam 1

10/5

10/7


  • Unit 6

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

10/12

10/14



  • Unit 6

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

10/12: Fall Break—No Class

  • Quiz 2

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

10/19

10/21


  • Unit 7

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

10/26

10/28


  • Unit 7

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

Exam 2

11/2

11/4


  • Unit 8
  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)


  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

11/9

11/11


  • Unit 8

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

11/16

11/18


  • Unit 9

  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)

  • Quiz 3

  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

11/23

11/25


  • Unit 9
  • Case/article presentation (presenters: TBA)


11/25: Thanksgiving holiday—No Class

11/30

12/2

  • Final project presentation (presenters: TBA)


  • Handout/readings in the blackboard

12/7

  • Exam 3




Detailed Table of Content

Part 1: International Entrepreneurship: Drivers, Performance, and Impact

Unit 1: International Entrepreneurship: Definitions, Types and Measures



International Entrepreneurship is a relatively new discipline and area of inquiry. This chapter begins by considering the definitions and scope of international entrepreneurship. Then, entrepreneurship types are analysed in terms of motivations, actors and impacts to the society. Finally, this chapter discusses various indicators related to entrepreneurial performance and impact of entrepreneurship.


    1. Definitions of global and international entrepreneurship

    2. Types of entrepreneurship and their variation across the world

Necessity-based vs. opporunity-based

Private vs. public sector entrepreneurship

Productive, unproductive and destructive entrepreneurship

Political entrepreneurship

Elite entrepreneurship

Institutional entrepreneurship

Market entrepreneurship


    1. Some indicators of entrepreneurship and their variations across economies

      1. Entrepreneurial performance

Firm creation

Birth rate

Survival rate

Deeath rate

Self-employment rate

Concentration of SMEs and micro-enterprises



      1. Impact of entrepreneurship and its variation across economies

Job creation

Economic growth

Poverty reduction

Formalising the informal sector



    1. Concluding comments

Readings



  • Isenberg, Daniel J. 2008. The Global Entrepreneur, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 86 Issue 12, 107-111 (Isenberg.pdf).

  • David G Blanchflower, Andrew Oswald, Alois Stutzer. 2001. Latent entrepreneurship across nations, European Economic Review. 45(4-6), p. 680 (BB: Blanchflower-Oswald-Stutzer.pdf).

  • Ahmad, N. (2006) A Proposed Framework For Business Demography Statistics, June 2006, Working Paper, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development STD/DOC(2006)3 24-Oct-2006 available at http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2006doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT00007122/$FILE/JT03216475.PDF (BB: Ahmad.pdf)

  • Geoff Lewis. 2007. Who in the World is Entrepreneurial? FSB : Fortune Small Business. June 17(5): 14 (BB: Lewis)

  • Carl J. Schramm. 2004. Building Entrepreneurial Economies; Foreign Affairs. Jul/Aug. 83(4), 104-115 (BB: Schramm).

  • Ahmad, N. and Anders N. Hoffmann (2008) A Framework for Addressing and Measuring Entrepreneurship, OECD Statistics Working Paper, January, http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2008doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT000009FA/$FILE/JT03239191.PDF (BB: Ahmad-Hoffmann.pdf)

  • FORA 2006. Quality Assessment of Entrepreneurship Indicators, Version 2, #16 October 2006, The National Agency for Enterprise and Construction’s Division for Research and Analysis International Consortium for Dynamic Benchmarking of Entrepreneurship, Denmark (BB: FORA 2006)



Unit 2: Environmental and Contextual Sources of International Variation in Entrepreneurial Activities


This chapter examines economic and institutional factors affecting entrepreneurial activities. Factors analyzed include entrepreneurial opportunities, skills, access to capitals, incentives, culture as well as overall macro-economic environment and institutional contexts. The focus is thus on the demand- as well as supply- side perspectives of entrepreneurship. We also discuss examples of measures taken by various governmental and non-governmental agencies to change some of the institutional factors to stimulate entrepreneurship.
3.1. Introduction

3.1.1. “Best” and “worst” countries for entrepreneurs

3.2. Demand and supply-side perspectives

3.3. Economic factors


Physical infrastructures

Financial infrastructures


Access to capital

A country’s credit rating


3.4. Institutional factors

3.4.1. Formal institutions

Laws, policies and regulations to promote entrepreneurship

Political stability


Processes to start a business and their variation across the world

3.4.2. Informal institutions

Values and norms

Risk taking behavior

Entrepreneurial skills


3.5. Concluding comments

Reading: Kshetri, Nir (2009) “Environmental and Contextual Sources of International Variation in Entrepreneurial Activities,” Shawn Carraher and Dianne Welsh (ed.) Global Entrepreneurship

Unit 3: Sources of Entrepreneurial Finance and Their Variation across the World



Economists have provided strong evidence that the lack of capital is a major barrier hindering potential entrepreneurs’ ability to start their own businesses. This chapter examines how economies across the world differ in terms of the patterns of major sources of finance. Geographical and sectoral distributions of major sources of finance such as development of the capital market, venture capital (VC), micro-financing and foreign direct investment are analysed.
3.1. Introduction

3.2. The barriers to finance for potential entrepreneurs

3.3. The development of capital market

3.3.1. The global IPO market

IPO markets in emerging economies

3.4. Patterns of Global VC

Early stage venture capital

Expansion stage venture capital

Hot industries for venture capital investment

3.5. Micro-financing

Altruistic mission vs. the pursuit of profits

3.6. Foreign direct investment

3.7. Other sources of finance

3.8. Concluding comments


Readings:

  • The Economist. 2007. Survey: The alchemists of finance, May 19, 383(8529), p. 4 (BB: alchemists)

  • Global Venture Capital Insights Report, 2007 http://www.ey.com/Global/assets.nsf/International/SGM_Global_VC_Insights_2007/$file/Global_VC_Insight_Report_2007.pdf (BB: Global Venture Capital).

  • Epstein, Keith , Geri Smith, Nandini Lakshman 2007. Microfinance Draws Mega Players; Hedge funds, VCs, and other big investors are seeing the huge profit potential in tiny loans, Business Week. July 9, 4042, p. 96 (BB: Epstein)

  • Charles L Dokmo, Larry Reed. 1998/1999. Building blocks, Harvard International Review. 21(1), pp. 66-67. (BB: Dokmo).


Part 2: Entrepreneurship in Economies with Diverse Economic and Institutional Conditions

Unit 4: Entrepreneurship in Free Market OECD Economies



OECD economies provide prominent examples of entrepreneurial activities. Most OECD economies are characterised by well developed physical infrastructures as well as financial infrastructures. These are free market economies, which have well-developed regulatory framework for entrepreneurial activities. This chapter examines various measures and indicators related to entrepreneurial activities in OECD Economies. It also analyses heterogeneity in terms of formal and informal institutions and economic factors across OECD economies.
4.1. Introduction

4.2. The free market-entrepreneurship nexus

4.3 A survey of Entrepreneurship in OECD Economies

4.4. Some indicators related to entrepreneurship in OECD economies

4.5. Sources of hetereogeneity of entrepreneurship in OECD economies

Economic factors

Institutional factors

4.6. Concluding comments


Readings:

Kshetri, Nir (2009) “Determinants of Birth, Survival and Mortality of Entrepreneurial Firms in OECD Economies”.

Case: Webber, Alan M. 1992. Japanese-Style Entrepreneurship: An Interview with Softbank's CEO, Masayoshi Son, Harvard Business Review. 70(1), pp. 93-103 (BB: Webber)

Christian Muller, Takao Fujiwara, Cornelius Herstatt. 2004. Sources of Bioentrepreneurship: The Cases of Germany and Japan, Journal of Small Business Management. 42(1), 93-(BB: Muller-Fujiwara-Herstatt)


Unit 5: Entrepreneurship in Post-Socialist Economies


There is growing recognition among post-socialist (PS) economies that free-market entrepreneurship is essential for ultimately improving their economic future. The promotion of market entrepreneurship, however, has been a challenging experience for these economies. This paper examines various forms of entrepreneurship in PS economies. We also highlight the clear contexts and attendant mechanisms associated with institutions-entrepreneurship nexus in PS economies’ contexts.
4.1. Introduction

4.2. Productive, unproductive and destructive entrepreneurship in various forms in PS Economies

4.2.1. Productive market entrepreneurship

4.2.2. Unproductive and destructive entrepreneurship

Political entrepreneurship

Blurred boundary between political entrepreneurship and institutional entrepreneurship


4.3. Variation across PS economies in terms of different forms of entrepreneurship

4.4. Institutional environment for market entrepreneurship in PS economies

4.4.1. Regulative institutions and entrepreneurship in PS economies

Rule of law and market entrepreneurship

The government’s basis of legitimacy

4.4.2. Normative institutions and entrepreneurship in PS economies

4.4.3. Cognitive institutions and entrepreneurship in PS economies

4.5. Concluding comments


Readings:

  • Kshetri, Nir (2009) “Entrepreneurship in Post-Socialist Economies: A Typology and Institutional Contexts for Market Entrepreneurship”, Journal of International Entrepreneurship (BB: Kshetri-Post-Socialist)

  • Dabla-Norris, E. Inchauste, G. 2008. Informality and Regulations: What Drives the Growth of Firms?, IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 55, Iss. 1, 50-82.



Unit 6: Entrepreneurship in Arab Economies


Experts argue that a genuinely entrepreneurial class is lacking in Arab economies. Institutions promoting free enterprise economy are lacking in the region and institutions have been slow to change in the region. This chapter provides a framework for identifying clear contexts and attendant mechanisms associated with institutional changes in the context of Arab economies. The explanations offered in this chapter shed light on the nature of power balance among various institutional actors in Arab economies and their cognitive frameworks.
6.1. Introduction

6.2. A survey of entrepreneurship in Arab economies

6.3. Economic environment in Arab economies


Development of capital market

6.4. Institutional environment in Arab economies

6.4. 1.The “holistic order” and the “extended order”

6.4.2. Western-educated leaders, technocrats and citizens

6.4.3. The government’s dependence on businesses and a merger of economic and political elites

6.4.4. Dependence on Western countries

6.4. 5.Ability to achieve economic development without reforms


6.5. Concluding comments
Reading: Kshetri, Nir and Riad Ajami (2008) “Institutional Reforms in the Gulf Cooperation Council Economies: A Conceptual Framework,” Journal of International Management, 14(3), 300-318.

Unit 7: Entrepreneurship in Africa


7.1. Introduction

7.2. A survey of entrepreneurship in Africa

Entrepreneurial activities of foreign multinationals in Africa

7.3. Some indicators related to entrepreneurship in Africa

7.4. Economic factors influencing entrepreneurship in Africa

7.5. Institutional factors influencing entrepreneurship in Africa

Entrepreneurship culture

The commercial class and the national elite

Functioning of private and public firms

7.6. Some entrepreneurial success stories in Africa

Elements of successful business models employed in the African context

7.7. Concluding comments


Readings:

  • Kshetri, Nir (2009) “The Drivers of South-South Economic Links: A Comparison of Chinese and Indian Trade and Investment in Africa” Working Paper

  • Commission on the Private Sector & Development, United Nations Development Program, 2004, Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor (http://www.undp.org/cpsd/report/index.html#english): Chapter 2: Constraints on the private sector in developing countries (BB: UNDP)

  • Alamine Ousm. 2006. Entrepreneurship in Africa, New African. 457, p. 84 (BB: Alamine)

  • The Economist. 2006. Special Report: The flicker of a brighter future - Business in Africa, September 9, 380(8494), p. 80 (BB: The Economist-Africa)

  • C.K. Prahalad. 2005. Aid is Not the Answer, Wall Street Journal. (Eastern edition) Aug 31, p. A.8.

Unit 8: Entrepreneurship in China


Institutions influencing entrepreneurship are undergoing significant transformation in China. During the Mao era, private entrepreneurship was virtually eradicated and was a political taboo. As reflected in the macro-level economic data, there has been an evolution of entrepreneur-friendly institutions in the country. A constellation of factors linked to China’s global integration is pushing through a fundamental changes in institutions related to Chinese entrepreneurship. The logics or governance structures and organizing principles related to entrepreneurship are rapidly changing in the country. This chapter examines entrepreneurship in China and analyses forces influencing the diffusion of instrumental values promoting entrepreneurship among Chinese institutional actors.
8.1. Introduction

8.2. Some indicators related to entrepreneurship in China

8.3. Institutional changes affecting entrepreneurship: theoretical explanations

8.4. Institutional changes influencing entrepreneurship in China

8.4.1. Changes in regulative institutions

The CCP’s orientation towards entrepreneurship

Strong rules of laws and enforcement mechanisms

Entrepreneurs as institutional change agents

Shift from double entrepreneurship to legal entrepreneurship

8.4.2. Changes in normative institutions

Societal perception of entrepreneurs

Societal expectation from entrepreneurs


8.4.3. Changes in cognitive institutions


Chinese culture and entrepreneurship

Cognitive assessment of entrepreneurship as an occupation

8.5. Concluding comments
Reading: Kshetri, Nir (2007) “Institutional Changes Affecting Entrepreneurship in China” Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 12(4), 415–432

Unit 9: Entrepreneurship in India


Because of India’s entrepreneurial performance in recent years, analysts consider the country as “the next Asian miracle”. According to the World Bank, the country has set an “explicit policy objective to become a leading business-friendly economy”. Observers have also argued that India is “shifting away from a legacy of state-dominated commerce toward a market-oriented system”. Bureaucratic barriers in the country, however, lead to longer time, higher cost, and reduced speed and flexibility for entrepreneurs to create and expand their ventures. A related point is that influential entrepreneurs take advantage of various institutional holes in the country. This chapter examines the Indian entrepreneurial landscape and sheds light on its facilitators and inhibitors.
9.1. Introduction

9.2. Some indicators related to Entrepreneurship in India

9.3. Formal institutions influencing Entrepreneurship in India

Regulative Institutions supporting entrepreneurship: A Comparison of China and India

Regulatory roles of the state

Participatory roles of the state

Supportive roles of the state

9.4. Informal institutions influencing entrepreneurship in India

Roles of non-government sectors in promoting entrepreneurship

9.5. Economic factors influencing entrepreneurship in India

9.6. Concluding comments
Reading: Kshetri, Nir (2009) “Regulative institutions supporting entrepreneurship in emerging economies: A comparison of China and India”, Working Paper.


Part 3: Cases Related to International Entrepreneurship


The cases deal with entrepreneurial activities of not only commercial enterprises but institutional actors at various levels such as trade and professional associations, non-government agencies and international institutions. The cases cover diverse industrial sectors in a range of countries across the five continents. The cases provided in this section thus shed some light on contexts, mechanisms and processes associated with entrepreneurial performance and patterns in economies characterised by various combinations of economic and institutional factors.
Case 1: Lenovo’s Internationalization through Acquisition

Case 2: TCL’s Merger and Acquisition Activities in Europe

Case 3: World Trade Point Federation: Bringing E-Commerce Capabilities to Developing Nations

Case 4: Microsoft’s Measures to Change Institutions Related to IPR in China

Case 5: IBM’s Cloud Computing Centers in Developing Countries

Case 6: Teleradiology Solutions’ Offshore Radiology Services

Case 7: The NASSCOM Effect on Entrepreneurship in the Indian Offshoring Industry

Case 8: Institutionalization of IPR in China


Case 9: Thamel.Com: A Nepal-Based E-Commerce Service Provider Serving the Expatriate Market


Case 10: Chinese Firms’ Entrepreneurship in Africa

Case 11: Cbay’s Healthcare Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Venture



Case 12: Grameen Bank's Micro-Financing and Entrepreneurial Phone Ladies in Bangladesh

Case 13: Islamic Financing

Case 14: Selling Nepalese Handicrafts in Foreign Markets




Instructor information


Nir Kshetri is an Associate Professor at Bryan School of Business and Economics, The University of North Carolina-Greensboro. Nir holds a Ph D in Business Administration from University of Rhode Island; an M.B.A. from Banaras Hindu University (India); and an M. Sc. (Mathematics) and an M. A. (Economics) from Tribhuvan University (Nepal). His undergraduate degrees are in Civil Engineering and Mathematics/Physics from Tribhuvan University. Nir is also a Visiting Professor at Bad Mergentheim Business School, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany. Nir’s previously held positions include faculty member at Management School, Kathmandu University (Nepal), visiting lecturer at Management School, Lancaster University (U.K.) and visiting professor at European Business School in Paris. During 1997-99, Nir was a consultant and a trainer for the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and Agricultural Development Bank of Nepal.

Nir’s book, The Global Cyber-crime Industry: Economic, Institutional and Strategic Perspectives (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York) is forthcoming in 2010. His another book titled The Rapidly Transforming Chinese High Technology Industry and Market: Institutions, Ingredients, Mechanisms and Modus Operandi (Caas Business School, City of London and Chandos Publishing: Oxford) was published in 2008 (http://www.amazon.com/Rapidly-Transforming-Chinese-High-Technology-Industry/dp/1843344645/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1218228152&sr=8-1 ). Nir’s works have also been published in journals such as Foreign Policy, European Journal of Marketing, Journal of International Marketing, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Journal of International Management, Communications of the ACM, IEEE Security and Privacy, IEEE Software, Electronic Markets, Small Business Economics, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, IT Professional, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Journal of Technology Management in China, First Monday, Pacific Telecommunications Review, Journal of Interdisciplinary Mathematics, Journal of Asia Pacific Business and International Journal of Cases on Electronic Commerce. He has also contributed chapters to several books including Outsourcing and Offshoring (Cambridge University Press, New York), Handbook of Technology Management (Wiley, 2009), In the wave of M&A: Europe and Japan (Kobe University, RIEB Center, Kobe, Japan, 2007), M-commerce in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific: Country Perspectives (Idea Group Publishing, 2006), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology (Idea Group Publishing, 2005), Indian Telecom Industry - Trends and Cases (The ICFAI University Press, 2005), The Internet Encyclopedia (John Wiley & Sons, 2004); Wireless Communications and Mobile Commerce (Idea Group Publishing, 2003); The Digital Challenges: Information Technology in the Development Context (Ashgate Publishing, 2003); Architectural Issues of Web-enabled Electronic Business (Idea Group Publishing, 2003), Internet Marketing (2nd edition, Stuttgart, Germany: Schaeffer-Poeschel, 2001). Nir has presented over 80 research papers at various national and international conferences in Canada, China, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, Portugal, South Korea, Sweden, Thailand, the Philippines and the U.S. He has also given invited talks at Harvard University, Cornell University, Duke University, Kobe University, University of Maryland (College Park) and Temple University. In 2008, the Kauffman Foundation awarded Nir a grant to study Entrepreneurial Firms in OECD Economies.

Nir was the winner of the 2008 Bryan School Teaching Excellence Award. He was also a finalist in the 2009 UNCG Alumni Teaching Excellence Award. His recent research related awards include Pacific Telecommunication Council’s 2008 Meheroo Jussawalla Research Paper Prize for his work on the Chinese IPTV market and a finalist in the Management and Organization Review (MOR) Best Paper Award in the China Goes Global Conference organized by the Harvard University (October 10-11, 2008). Nir was also the runner up in the 2004 dissertation competition of the American Marketing Association's Technology and Innovations Special Interest Group and the winner of the 2001 Association of Consumer Research/Sheth Foundation dissertation award. He also won the first place in the Pacific Telecommunication Council’s Essay competition in 2001 and second place in the same competition in 2000. In May, 2006, the Information Resources Management Association (IRMA) presented Nir with the Organization Service Award for the Best Track Chair in the IRMA 2006 International Conference. Nir ranks 13th among the most popular authors of the NetAcademy Universe.

Nir’s works have been featured in Foreign Policy’s Global Newsstand section (a publication of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) and in Providence Journal. He was pictured in the front page of Global Perspective, a publication of the Fox School’s Temple CIBER and Institute of Global Management Studies (Fall 2004). Nir has been quoted in magazines and newspapers such as Telecommunications, The Business Journal of the Greater Triad Area, Greensboro News and Record and High Point Enterprise.



University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Bryan School of Business and Economics

BUS/ ENT 342-01: International Entrepreneurship

Student Information and Course Commitment Form
Please email me this form by August 30, 2009 (You can copy and paste in your email).
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I have read the syllabus, and understand that this class requires a significant amount of work outside of class. I meet the prerequisites for this class. I also understand that this class has team projects that carry 30% of the available grade points. I also understand that teams have the option to dismiss an unproductive or disruptive team member (with two written email warnings that copy the instructor). I also understand the attendance requirements, and the policy on tests and assignments. I understand that if I have any questions, that I can contact Nir by phone or email as listed on the first page of the syllabus.

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