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[Gries et al. 1991] Gries, David and Dorothy Marsh. "CS Produced 734 Ph.D.s in 1989‑90; CE Added 173 for a Total of 907." Computing Research News, January 1991, 6-10. An annual report on the number of men and women earning PhDs and working as professors in computer science and engineering.
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[Hall 1982] Hall, Roberta M., with the assistance of Bernice R. Sandler. "The Classroom Climate: A Chilly One for Women?" Copyright 1986 by the Project on the Status and Education of Women, Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC, 1986. An excellent overview of the problems women face at universities, with a great bibliography.
[Harragan 1987] Harragan, Betty Lehan. Games Mother Never Taught You. Warner Books: New York, 1987. The classic guide to "corporate gamesmanship for women." Although intended for businesswomen, it had useful advice for any female professional.
[Harrigan 1989] Harrigan, Kristina E. Letters to the Editor. International Herald Tribune, exact date unknown, 1989.
[Harrington 1990] Harrington, Susan Marie. "Barriers to Women in Undergraduate Computer Science: The Effects of the Computer Environment on the Success and Continuance of Female Students." PhD Thesis, Division of Teacher Education, University of Oregon, 1990. A study of female undergraduates' computer science experiences at a large public university, based on interviews, class records, and the literature. One of its major findings is that, although women drop out of the school's computer science program more than men, women outperformed men in most of the required computer science courses, suggesting that their underrepresentation was not due to lack of ability. The author can currently be contacted at Columbia Union College, Maryland.
[Hess et al. 1985] Hess, Robert D. and Irene T. Miura. "Gender Differences in Enrollment in Computer Camps and Classes." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 13 (1985) 193‑203.
[Hofstadter 1986] Hofstadter, Douglas R. Metamagical Themas: Questing for Essence of Mind and Pattern. New York: Bantam Books, 1986. A collection of interesting essays, most of which which were published in the Scientific American column of the same name. Two of the chapters deal with sexism in language and provided the powerful arguments that first convinced me.
[Holland 1990] Holland, Dorothy C. and Margaret A. Eisenhart. Educated in Romance: Woman, Achievement, and College Culture. The University of Chicago Press, 1990. Based on a study commissioned by the National Institute of Education, this book describes how the cultures at two southern universities encourages women to drastically lower their career ambitions and to instead seek status through boyfriends and husbands.
[Holloway 1990] Holloway, Marguerite. "Profile: Vive la Difference." Scientific American, October 1990, 18 42. A profile of psychologist Doreen Kimura, whose research has found a correlation between hormonal levels and spatial and verbal abilities.
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[Horner et al. 1990] Horner, Blair and Nadya Lawson. "Letters to the Editor." The New York Times, November 29, 1990. A letter from two members of the New York Public Interest Group, one the legislative director and the other with its Education Watch, on how the SAT underpredicts women's performance.
[Horner 1970] Horner, Matina S. "Femininity and Successful Achievement: A Basic Inconsistency," in Judith Bardwick, et al., editors, Feminine Personality and Conflict. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1970. A paper about Horner's highly‑influential research, which showed women's negative feelings toward achievement.
[Hunt 1991] Hunt, Marion. "Letters to the Editor." The New York Times, June 19, 1991, page A24.
[Kamen 1990] Kamen, Paula. "Feminism, a Dirty Word." The New York Times, November 23, 1990, page A37. An opinion column describing the author's experiences as a college journalist: Once she began writing about sexism, she was labeled a feminist and suspected of hating men and other radical positions.
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[Keith et al. 1990] Keith, Sandra Z. and Philip Keith, editors, Proceedings of the National Conference on Women in Mathematics and the Sciences. St. Cloud, MN: St. Cloud University, 1990.
[Kelly 1982] Kelly, Alison. "Why Girls Don't Do Science." New Scientist 94 (May 20, 1982), 497‑500. A summary of bias against girls in science in the classroom and at home.
[Kidder 1982] Kidder, Tracy. The Soul of a New Machine. New York: Avon, 1982. One of the hacker culture classics, describing the intense effort behind the design of a computer at Data General.
[Kierstead et al. 1988] Kierstead, Diane, Patti D'Agostino, and Heidi Dill. "Sex Role Stereotyping of College Professors: Bias in Students' Ratings of Instructors," Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 (1988), 342344. Further evidence that students judge female professors more harshly than they do male professors.
[Kiesler et al. 1985] Kiesler, Sara, Lee Sproull, and Jacquelynne S. Eccles. "Pool Halls, Chips, and War Games: Women in the Culture of Computing." Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9 (1985) 451‑462. Presents results from a study of sex‑based arcade and home video game usage along with a discussion of the consequences.
[Koblitz 1990] Koblitz, Neal. "Are Student Ratings Unfair to Women?" Newsletter of the Association for Women in Mathematics, September October 1990. An informative survey of studies of bias in student ratings of professors.
[Komisar 1972] Komisar, Lucy. "The Image of Woman in Advertising," in [Gornick 1990, pages 304‑317] . A discussion of the biased manner in which females were presented in advertising twenty years ago. While some of the ads described would not appear today, many can still be seen.
[Kramer et al. 1990] Kramer, Pamela E. and Sheila Lehman. "Mismeasuring Women: A Critique of Research on Computer Ability and Avoidance." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 16 (1990) 158 172.
[Kundsin 1973] Kundsin, Ruth B., editor. Women and Success: The Anatomy of Achievement. New York: William Morrow & Company, 1974. Originally published as an annal of the New York Academy of Sciences under the title Successful Women in the Sciences: An Analysis of Determinants, this book provides autobiographical sketches of a dozen successful female scientists and essays on the topics of family attitudes, the impact of education, economic factors, determinants in individual life experiences, and related problems of professional women. Although nearly twenty years old, many of the essays are still valuable.
[Lakoff 1975] Lakoff, Robin. Language and Woman's Place. Harper & Row, Publishers: New York, 1975. A pioneering work on how women's lower status is reflected by the language women speak and in which they are spoken of.
[LaPlante 1989] LaPlante, Alice. Sexist Images Persist at Comdex. Infoworld, November 27, 1989, page 58. A trade journal article describing the sexism displayed at one of the industry's most important trade shows.
[Lattin 1984] Lattin, Patricia Hopkins. "Academic women, affirmative action, and middle America in the eighties," in Resa L. Dudovitz, ed., Women in Academe. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1984, pages 223 230.
[Leveson 1989] Leveson, Nancy. "Women in Computer Science: A Report of the NSF CISE Cross‑Disciplinary Activities Advisory Committee." Recommendations to the National Science Foundation for ways to encourage women, describing a variety of approaches. Can be obtained by anonymous ftp at
[Leveson 1990] Leveson, Nancy. "Educational Pipeline Issues for Women." Computing Research News, October 1990 and January 1991. A report on women in different stages of the "pipeline," providing reasons they drop out and suggestions for retaining them. Can be obtained by anonymous ftp at
[Levy 1984] Levy, Steven. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984. A computer hacker classic, describing the early hackers at MIT and then the Silicon Valley hackers, capturing the intensity of the hacking culture.
[Lewin 1990] Lewin, Tamar. "Winner of Sex Bias Suit Set to Enter Next Arena." The New York Times, May 19, 1990, page 7. A description of a lawsuit in which a court ordered Price Waterhouse to provide a partnership to Ann Hopkins, who was found to have been denied because of her unfeminine personality.
[Lockheed 1985] Lockheed, Marlaine E. "Women, Girls, and Computers: A First Look at the Evidence." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 13 (1985) 115‑122. Part of a special issue on sex‑related computer use, summarizing a number of studies.
[McNeil 1991] McNeil, Donald G., Jr. "Should Women Be Sent Into Combat?" The New York Times, July 21, 1991, page E3. A summary of the arguments for against allowing women to serve in combat positions. It includes the statistic that, even with pregnancy leave, enlisted women spend less time off work than enlisted men.
[MTQ 1989A] MacTech Quarterly, Summer, 1989. Volume 1, number 2. In this issue of the magazine (now called MacTech Journal), the editor announced the magazine's policy of using "she" as the default thirdperson pronoun.
[MTQ 1989B] MacTech Quarterly, Fall, 1989. Volume 1, number 3. This issue printed letters reacting to its progressive grammar policy announced in the previous issue and had an article on biases women face in computer science.
[Markoff 1989] Markoff, John. "Hacker's World: Woman‑Unfriendly?" International Herald Tribune, February 4, 1989. A brief article describing women's discomfort with the hacker environment.
[Marriott 1991] Marriott, Michael. "Beyond `Yuck' for Girls in Science." The New York Times, June 15, 1991, page unknown. A summary of a study on how to teach science more effectively to girls.
[Martin 1984] Martin, Elaine, "Power and Authority in the Classroom: Sexist Stereotypes in Teaching Evaluations," Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 9 (1984), 482‑492. A write‑up of an experiment that found that college students judged female professors more harshly than they did male professors.
[MIT 1983] "Barriers to Equality in Academia: Women in Computer Science at MIT." Prepared by female graduate students and research staff in the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT. An early influential report describing problems women encountered at MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
[MIT 1987] Presidential Committee on Women Students Interests, "Survey of Graduate Students," Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1987. A survey which found that many female graduate students at MIT felt they encountered significant barriers due to their sex.
[Mednick et al. 1975] Mednick, Martha Tamara Shuch, Sandra Schwartz Tangri, and Lois Wladis Hoffman, editors. Women and Achievement. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation (John Wiley & Sons), 1975. A collection of essays studying women's uneasiness with achievement.
[Miller et al. 1980] Miller, Casey and Kate Swift, Words and Women. New York: Doubleday, Anchor Press, 1977.
[Ott 1975] Ott, Mary. "Female Engineering Students‑-Attitudes, Characteristics, Expectations, Responses to Engineering Education." Final report for NSF grant #SMI‑75‑18013A01. ERIC Document #ED 160400.
[Paludi et al. 1983] Paludi, Michele A., and William D. Bauer. "Goldberg Revisited: What's in an Author's Name." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 9 (1983) 387-390. Results of a study that asked male and female college students to rate articles on a range of subjects, where the author's name was male, female, or ambiguous. Both male and female subjects rated the papers with the male author highest and the female author lowest.
[Paludi et al. 1985] Paludi, Michele A., and Lisa A. Strayer, "What's in an Author's Name? Different Evaluations of Performance as a Function of Author's Name," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 12 (1985) 353‑361.
[Pearl et al. 1990] Pearl, Amy, Martha E. Pollack, Eve Riskin, Becky Thomas, Elizabeth Wolf, and Alice Wu. "Becoming a Computer Scientist." Communications of the ACM, November 1990, 47-57. The first report of the newly‑created ACM Committee on the Status of Women and Minorities in Computer Science, in an issue featuring "Women and Computing." An excellent short survey of the topic, with a good bibliography.
[Perl 1978] Perl, Teri. Math Equals: Biographies of Women Mathematicians + Related Activities. Addison‑Wesley, 1978. A set of biographical sketches of female mathematicians and mathematical puzzles and concepts designed to encourage girls to study math.
[Persing 1978] Persing, Bobbye Sorrels. The Nonsexist Communicator. East Elmhurst, New York: Communication Dynamics Press, 1978. Strongly argues avoiding traditional biased English and provides some useful guidelines for improvement.
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[Pomerleau et al. 1990] Pomerleau, Andree, Daniel Bolduc, Gerard Malcuit, and Louise Cossette. "Pink or Blue: Environmental Gender Stereotypes in the First Two Years of Life." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 22 (1990) 359‑367. A survey of research on the difference of toys given to and play behavior encouraged in young boys and girls, also describing the authors' research in the difference of physical environments (clothing, room decorations, and toys) in infants' rooms.
[Pringle 1989] Pringle, Rosemary. Secretaries Talk: Sexuality, Power and Work. New York: Verso. Based on interviews at offices and secretarial schools in Australia, this book explores the sexual dynamics of the secretary‑boss relationship.
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[Rowe 1981] Rowe, Mary P. "Dealing with Sexual Harassment." Harvard Business Review, May‑June 1981, 42‑47. Advice by the special assistant to the president of MIT to managers on how to deal with sexual harassment of employees.
[Rowe 1985] Rowe, Mary P. "Dealing with Harassment Concerns." Transcript of a talk given at Yale University on May 10, 1985. Copies are available through the Office for Women in Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510 (203)‑785‑4680. A talk by the MIT ombudsperson on her experience in the job and advice about dealing with harassment concerns.
[Rowe 1990] Rowe, Mary P. "Barriers to Equality: The Power of Subtle Discrimination to Maintain Unequal Opportunity." Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1990, pages 153 163. An article arguing that "subtle discrimination is now the principal scaffolding for segregation in the United States."
[Sadker et al. 1985] Sadker, Myra and David Sadker. "Sexism in the Schoolroom of the 80's." Psychology Today, March 1985.
[Sandler 1986] Sandler, Bernice R., with the assistance of Roberta M. Hall. "The Campus Climate Revisited: Chilly for Women Faculty, Administrators, and Graduate Students." Copyright 1986 by the Project on the Status and Education of Women, Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC, 1986. A report describing the subtle and less‑subtle ways in which the university provides an unpleasant environment for women.
[Sandler 1988] Sandler, Bernice R. "The Classroom Climate: Chilly for Women?" in Deneef, et al., editors, The Academic Handbook, Durham: Duke University Press, 1988, pages 146‑152. A good overview of research on subtle subconscious bias, although it does not contain references.
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[Sidner 1980] Sidner, Candace L. "On Being a Woman Student at MIT or How to Miss the Stumbling Blocks in Graduate Education." Unpublished report, 1980.
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[Tidwell 1990] Tidwell, Jenifer. "Hackers in the Garden: A Case Study of Women in Computer Engineering," unpublished, 1990. A report on how the environment in the MIT Media Lab, while not intentionally sexist, was less hospitable to women.
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[Turkle 1984] Turkle, Sherry. The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984. A feminist classic on individuals' reactions to computers.
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[Van Nostrand 1990] Van Nostrand, Catharine Herr. "Gender‑Responsible Leadership: Do Your Teaching Methods Empower Women?" in [Keith et al. 1990, pages 186 191]. A manual of the same title is to be published by Sage Publications, Inc., in Spring 1991. Direct inquiries, with a SASE, to the author at: 36854 Winnebago Road, St. Cloud, MN 56303.
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[Widnall 1988] Widnall, Sheila E. "AAAS Presidential Lecture: Voices from the Pipeline." Science 241 (September 30, 1988), 1740‑1745. A discussion, with quantitative data, of the rate at which male and female students drop out of the study of science and engineering, focusing on why women leave more frequently.
[Wolpert et al. 1988] Wolpert, Lewis and Alison Richards. A Passion for Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. A collection of essays on how scientists view their work, intending to dispel the myth that science is cold and dry.
[Zappert et al. 1984] Zappert, Laraine T. and Kendyll Stansbury. "A Comparative Analysis of Men and Women in Graduate Programs in Science, Engineering and Medicine at Stanford University." Working Papers, Institute for Research on Women and Gender, Stanford University, 1985. Single copies are available at no cost from the Institute for Research on Women and Gender, Stanford University (415‑723‑1994).

1    Coleman, R. "Woman's Relations to the Higher Education and Professions, as Viewed from Physiological and Other Standpoints." Transactions, Medical Association of Alabama (1889), page 238. Quoted in [Ehrenreich et al. 1978, page 128].

2    Readers outside of the field may be confused by my use of the term "engineer" to include computer scientists. I do this because the field of computer science does not fit neatly into either engineering or science. Despite the "science" in the name, university computer science departments are often attached to electrical engineering departments or are part of the school of engineering. Additionally, computer programmers and designers tend to think of themselves more as engineers than as scientists, although some individuals and organizations consider computer science as a branch of the mathematical sciences.

3    Of course, the stereotype also exists of male engineers being less attractive than other males. See, for example, [Wolpert et al. 1988, page 2], [Turkle 1984, Chapter 6], and [Holland 1990, pages 164‑165].

4    Usenet, a large electronic bulletin board system, is described in the appendix on methods.

5    Katz, Douglas J. Comp.society, May 14, 1990.

6    The experience of women I have talked with is that if females are in an extreme minority, they stand out so much that the teachers are likely to know their names.

7    It is fascinating to read about how female professionals and secretaries interact with each other. One professor reports that she used to sneak to the typewriter and type her own letters, rather than ask a secretary to do the work for her. Correspondingly, secretaries generally do not like to work for women. "They experience women's authority as `unnatural', whereas men's authority is taken for granted" [Pringle 1989, page 58]. Additionally, as hinted by a comment in [MIT 1983, page 21], female secretaries feel demeaned when female professionals complain about being mistaken for secretaries. On the other hand, most of the secretaries I have worked with have treated me the same as they treated my male colleagues, and one has even told me outright how happy she was to see women as computer professionals.

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