The Victorian Age (1830-1901) Sambourne House, London. Victoria became queen at the age of 18; she was graceful and self-assured



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The Victorian Age (1830-1901)

  • Sambourne House, London.

Victoria became queen at the age of 18; she was graceful and self-assured.

  • Victoria became queen at the age of 18; she was graceful and self-assured.
  • Her reign was the longest in British history.
  • Franz Xavier Winterhalter, The young Queen Victoria, 1842
  • 1. Queen Victoria
  • The Victorian Age
  • 1. Queen Victoria
  • In 1840 she married a German prince, Albert of Saxe-Coburg.
  • They had nine children and their modest family life provided a model of respectability.
  • During this time Britain changed dramatically.
  • Franz Xavier Winterhalter, The young Queen Victoria, 1842
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  • England grew to become the greatest nation on earth “The sun never sets on England.
  • The Victorian Age
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  • British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection.
  • 2. The growth of the British Empire
  • British Empire included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, Kenya, and India.
  • The Victorian Age
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  • British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection.
  • 2. The growth of the British Empire
  • Great Britain imported raw materials such as cotton and silk and exported finished goods to countries around the world.
  • The Victorian Age
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  • British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection.
  • 2. The growth of the British Empire
  • By the mid-1800s, Great Britain was the largest exporter and importer of goods in the world. It was the primary manufacturer of goods and the wealthiest country in the world.
  • The Victorian Age
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  • British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection.
  • 2. The growth of the British Empire
  • Because of England’s success, the British felt it was their duty to bring English values, laws, customs, and religion to the “savage” races around the world.
  • The Victorian Age
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  • British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection.

1832: The First Reform Act granted the vote to almost all male members of middle-class.

  • 1832: The First Reform Act granted the vote to almost all male members of middle-class.
  • 1833: The Factory Act regulated child labour in factories.
  • 1834: Poor Law Amendment established a system of workhouses for poor people.
  • 3. An age of social and political reforms
  • The Victorian Age
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  • 3. An age of social and political reforms
  • The Victorian Age
  • 1867: The Second Reform Act gave the vote to skilled working men.
  • 1871: Trade Union Act legalised trades unions.
  • 1884: The Third Reform Act granted the right to vote to all male householders.
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Women’s suffrage did not happen until 1918.

  • Women’s suffrage did not happen until 1918.
  • The Rights of Women or Take Your Choice (1869)
  • 4. The woman’s question
  • The Victorian Age
  • Suffragettes
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  • Industrial revolution: factory system emerged; for the first time in Britain’s history there were more people who lived in cities than in the countryside.
  • Technological advances: introduction of steam hammers and locomotives; building of a network of railways.
  • 5. Positive aspects of the age
  • The Victorian Age
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  • 5. Positive aspects of the age
  • The Victorian Age
  • Economical progress: Britain became the greatest economical power in the world; in 1901 the Usa became the leader, but Britain remained the first in manufacturing.
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  • Workers in a Tobacco Factory

Crystal Palace was built for the Great Exhibition of 1851; it was destroyed by fire in 1936.

  • Crystal Palace was built for the Great Exhibition of 1851; it was destroyed by fire in 1936.
  • 6. Crystal Palace
  • The Victorian Age
  • The Crystal Palace
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  • 6. Crystal Palace
  • The Victorian Age
  • It was made of iron and glass, exhibited hydraulic presses, locomotives, machine tools, power looms, power reapers and steamboat engines.
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  • The Crystal Palace
  • It had a political purpose  it showed British economic supremacy in the world.
  • 6. Crystal Palace
  • The Victorian Age
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  • The Crystal Palace

Pollution in towns due to factory activity.

  • Pollution in towns due to factory activity.
  • London in 1872
  • Homeless Boys (1880)
  • 7. Negative aspects of the age
  • The Victorian Age
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  • 7. Negative aspects of the age
  • The Victorian Age
  • Lack of hygienic conditions: houses were overcrowded, most people lived in miserable conditions; poor houses shared water supplies.
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  • London in 1872
  • Homeless Boys (1880)

Epidemics, like cholera, thyphoid, caused a high mortality in towns. They came to a peak in the Great Stink of 1858.

  • Epidemics, like cholera, thyphoid, caused a high mortality in towns. They came to a peak in the Great Stink of 1858.
  • This expression was used to describe the terrible smell in London, coming from the Thames.
  • The “Miasmas”, exhalations from decaying matter, poisoned the air.
  • 8. The “Great Stink”
  • Caricature appearing on the magazine «Punch» in 1858
  • The Victorian Age
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The Victorians were great moralisers they supported: personal duty, hard work, decorum, respectability, chastity.

  • The Victorians were great moralisers they supported: personal duty, hard work, decorum, respectability, chastity.
  • 9. The Victorian compromise
  • The Victorian Age
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  • W. H. Hunt, The Awakening Conscience, 1853-4, London, Tate Britain.
  • ‘Victorian’, synonym for prude, stood for extreme repression; even furniture legs had to be concealed under heavy cloth not to be “suggestive”.
  • New ideas were discussed & debated by a large part of society.
  • 9. The Victorian compromise
  • The Victorian Age
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  • W. H. Hunt, The Awakening Conscience, 1853-4, London, Tate Britain.

The middle-class was obsessed with gentility, respectability, decorum.

  • The middle-class was obsessed with gentility, respectability, decorum.
  • Respectability  distinguished the middle from the lower class.
  • 9. The Victorian compromise
  • The Victorian Age
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  • John Lamb, Victorian family portrait, 1879.
  • Decorum meant:
  • Victorian private lives were dominated by an authoritarian father.
  • Women were subject to male authority; they were expected to marry and make home a “refuge” for their husbands.
  • 9. The Victorian compromise
  • The Victorian Age
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  • John Lamb, Victorian family portrait, 1879.
  • John Stuart Mill and his ideas based on Bentham’s Utilitarianism.
  • 10. Key thinkers
  • The Victorian Age
  • John Stuart Mill
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  • Karl Marx and his studies about the harm caused by industrialism in man’s life.
  • 10. Key thinkers
  • The Victorian Age
  • Karl Marx
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  • Charles Darwin and the theory of natural selection.
  • 10. Key thinkers
  • The Victorian Age
  • Charles Darwin
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  • There was a communion of interests and opinions between the writers and their readers.
  • The Victorians were avid consumers of literature. They borrowed books from circulating libraries and read various periodicals.
  • The Victorian Age
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  • 11. The rise of the novel
  • Novels made their first appearance in instalments on the pages of periodicals.
  • The voice of the omniscient narrator provided a comment on the plot and erected a rigid barrier between «right» and «wrong», light and darkness.
  • The Victorian Age
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  • 11. The rise of the novel
  • The setting chosen by most Victorian novelists was the town.
  • Victorian writers concentrated on the creation of characters and achieved a deeper analysis of their inner life.
  • The Victorian Age
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  • 12. Poetry
  • Alfred, Lord Tennyson: the most popular Victorian poet. He wrote narrative poems.
  • The Victorian Age
  • Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, by George Frederic Watts (died 1904), given to the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1895.
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  • 12. Poetry
  • Robert Browning: he raised the dramatic monologue to new heights making it a vehicle for a deep psychological study.
  • The Victorian Age
  • Robert Browning
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  • 12. Poetry
  • Elizabeth Barrett Browning: she wrote love sonnets valued for their lyric beauty.
  • The Victorian Age
  • Elizabeth Barrett Browning
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