82 FO 371/65787 N13486, NA, London. On the endeavours to bring about an alliance between the Social Democrats and the National Socialists: Heumos, ‘Die Sozialdemokratie in Ostmitteleuropa 1945-1948. Zum gesellschaftlichen Potential des Demokratischen Sozialismus in Polen, der Tschechoslowakei und Ungarn’, in: Hans Lemberg ed., Sowjetisches Modell und nationale Prägung. Kontinuität und Wandel in Ostmitteleuropa nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, (Marburg an der Lahn 1991), 69.
83 FO 371/65802 N13414, NA, London. In a newspaper article published on the eve of the congress, Fierlinger, though perhaps in an attempt to perform some damage control, asserted that the CSSD ‘would not allow itself to be upset by attacks from outside’. Furthermore, he ‘advocated co-operation with western Socialists and declared himself opposed to the creation of a Socialist International, as well as to the new “Cominform”’. FO 371/65787 N13486, NA, London.
84 Heumos, Die Konferenzen, 40-41.
85 LPA, LP/ID, Box 9, LHASC, Manchester. Healey may well have been right. During their visit to Rome, the Polish Socialists were reported to have surprised their Italian hosts, insisting ‘on the need for unity between the Right Wing and the Left Wing Socialists and by their open statements to the effect that they do not believe that the violent attacks against Right Wing Socialists serve any useful purpose’. FO 371/66250 N14131, NA, London.
86 LPA, LP/ID, Box 9, LHASC, Manchester.
87 ‘Report on the 27th Congress of the Polish Socialist Party in Wroclaw, December 14-16, 1947’. LPA, LP/ID, International Sub-Committee 1944-1949, LHASC, Manchester.
88 LPA, LP/ID, Box 9, LHASC, Manchester. In addition to Cyrankiewicz’s speech, Bolesław Drobner, deputy chairman of the Central Committee of the PPS, stated that ‘whereas the “stooge” Democratic Party was a serf, the Socialists wished to be free and warned M. Gomulka that any purge of the Socialist Party must be effected by the Socialists themselves’. ‘Twenty-Seventh Congress of the Polish Socialist Party’. FO 371/66097 N14846, NA, London.
89 ‘Twenty-Seventh Congress of the Polish Socialist Party’. FO 371/66097 N14846, NA, London.
90 LPA, LP/ID, Box 9, LHASC, Manchester.
91 In this context, it was established for the Italian political scene in mid-1946 that all parties were ‘regarded […] if not as the instrument, so at least as the “protégé” of one of the big foreign powers: the Communists as the champions of the Soviet Union, Christian-Democrats as the champions of the Vatican, of the North- and South-American Catholics and of the French M.R.P., the Liberals as the champions of the State Department […], and the Socialists, quite naturally, as the champions of the British Labour Party and government’. ‘Notes on the Situation in Italy’. LPA, LP/ID, Box 3 LHASC, Manchester.
92 FO 800/490 Pol/47/4, NA London.
93 ‘Het XXVIIe Congres van de Poolse Socialistische Partij (P.P.S.) Wroclaw (Breslau), 14-18 december 1947’. Archief PvdA, IISH, Amsterdam.
94 ‘European Socialism’. LPA, LP/ID, Box 13, LHASC, Manchester. This memorandum calls into question the suggestion, implied in the work of some authors, that the Labour Party, from late 1947 onwards, steered towards a split with the Eastern European Social Democrats. See: Steininger, Deutschland und die Sozialistische Internationale, 91; Misgeld, Sozialdemokratie und Außenpolitik, 122.
95 ‘The Labour Party and Italy’. LPA, LP/ID, Box 13, LHASC, Manchester.
96 FO 800/450 G/48/26, NA, London.
97 See: Healey ed., The Curtain Falls. The Story of the Socialists in Eastern Europe, (London 1951). This volume contains articles from such exiled Eastern European Social Democrats as Antal Bán and Vaclav Majer, the former leader of the right-wing of the CSSD. While these essays dwell extensively upon Communist brutality and the undermining activities of inner-party traitors, very little regard is given to the question to what extent the Eastern European Social Democrats were implicated in their own demise.
98 FO 371/67173 R 5129, NA, London.
99 The American State Department even went as far as giving outright financial support to the Italian Workers’ Socialist Party (PSLI), the anti-Communist grouping led by Giuseppe Saragat which broke away from the pro-Communist Italian Socialist Party in January 1947. See: Donald Sassoon, One Hundred Years of Socialism. The West European Left in the Twentieth Century, (London 1996), 135.
100 ‘The Fusion of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS)’. LPA, LP/ID, Box 13, LHASC, Manchester.
101 LPA, LP/ID, Box 13, LHASC, Manchester.
102 According to Juan Linz and Alfred Stephan ‘a significant de facto degree of societal pluralism’ survived in post-1948 Poland, thereby not corresponding to the typology of a totalitarian state. See: Linz and Stephan, Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Southern-Europe, South America and Post-Communist Europe, (Baltimore 1996), 255-261.