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The Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia Volume 1, of 28 plus Index !!!Remember. . .the information contained herein is OLD. . .!!! *!!!It reflects the mindset of the turn of the last century!!!* {\rtf0\ansi{\fonttbl\f0\fnil Times-Roman;\f3\fmodern Courier;\f2\ftech Symbol;\f4\fswiss Helvetica;\f1\fmodern Ohlfs;} \paperw9840 \paperh8400 \margl120 \margr120 \pard\tx480\tx960\tx1440\tx1920\tx2400\tx2880\tx3360\tx3840\tx4320\tx4800\b\fc0\cf0 A \b0 . This letter of ours corresponds to the first symbol in \ the Phoenician alphabet and in almost all its descendants. In \ Phoenician, \i a \i0 , like the symbols for \i e \i0 and for \i o \i0 , did not \ represent a vowel, but a breathing; the vowels originally were \ not represented by any symbol. When the alphabet was adopted by \ the Greeks it was not very well fitted to represent the sounds \ of their language. The breathings which were not required in \ Greek were accordingly employed to represent some of the vowel \ sounds, other vowels, like \i i \i0 and \i u \i0 , being represented by \ an adaptation of the symbols for the semi-vowels \i y \i0 and \i w. \i0 \ The Phoenician name, which must have corresponded closely to \ the Hebrew \i Aleph \i0 , was taken over by the Greeks in the form \ \i Alpha \i0 ( \f2 alya). \f0 The earliest authority for this, as for the \ names of the other Greek letters, is the grammatical drama \ ( \f2 grammatikh Iewria \f0 ) of Callias, an earlier contemporary of \ Euripides, from whose works four trimeters, containing the names \ of all the Greek letters, are preserved in Athenaeus x. 453 d. \ \ The form of the letter has varied considerably. In the \ earliest of the Phoenician, Aramaic and Greek inscriptions \ (the oldest Phoenician dating about 1000 \fs20 B.C. \fs24 , the oldest \ Aramaic from the 8th, and the oldest Greek from the 8th \ or 7th century \fs20 B.C. \fs24 ) A rests upon its side thus--@. In \ the Greek alphabet of later times it generally resembles \ the modern capital letter, but many local varieties can be \ distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle \ at which the cross line is set-- @, &c. From the Greeks of \ the west the alphabet was borrowed by the Romans and from them \ has passed to the other nations of western Europe. In the \ earliest Latin inscriptions, such as the inscription found \ in the excavation of the Roman Forum in 1899, or that on a \ golden \i fibula \i0 found at Praeneste in 1886 (see A \fs20 LPHABET \fs24 ). \ Fine letters are still identical in form with those of the \ western Greeks. Latin develops early various forms, which \ are comparatively rare in Greek, as @, or unknown, as \ @. Except possibly Faliscan, the other dialects of Italy \ did not borrow their alphabet directly from the western Greeks \ as the Romans did, but received it at second hand through the \ Etruscans. In Oscan, where the writing of early inscriptions \ is no less careful than in Latin, the A takes the form \ @, to which the nearest parallels are found in north Greece \ (Boeotia, Locris and Thessaly, and there only sporadically) . \ \ In Greek the symbol was used for both the long and the short \ sound, as in English \i father \i0 ( \i a \i0 ) and German \i Ratte \i0 \ \i a \i0 ; English, except in dialects, has no sound corresponding \ precisely to the Greek short \f2 a \f0 , which, so far as can be \ ascertained, was a mid-back-wide sound, according to the \ terminology of H. Sweet ( \i Primer of Phonetics \i0 , p. 107). \ Throughout the history of Greek the short sound remained practically \ unchanged. On the other hand, the long sound of \f2 a \f0 in the \ Attic and Ionic dialects passed into an open e-sound, which \ in the Ionic alphabet was represented by the same symbol as \ the original e-sound (see A \fs20 LPHABET \fs24 : \i Greek). \i0 The vowel \ sounds vary from language to language, and the \i a \i0 symbol has, \ in consequence, to represent in many cases sounds which are \ not identical with the Greek \f2 a \f0 whether long or short, and \ also to represent several different vowel sounds in the same \ language. Thus the \i New English Dictionary \i0 distinguishes about \ twelve separate vowel sounds, which are represented by \i a \i0 in \ English. In general it may be said that the chief changes \ which affect the \i a \i0 -sound in different languages arise from \ (1) rounding, (2) fronting, \i i.e. \i0 changing from a sound \ produced far back in the mouth to a sound produced farther \ forward. The rounding is often produced by combination with \ rounded consonants (as in English \i was, wall \i0 , &c.), the \ rounding of the preceding consonant being continued into \ the formation of the vowel sound. Rounding has also been \ produced by a following \i l \i0 -sound, as in the English \i fall, \ small, bald \i0 , &c. (see Sweet's \i History of English Sounds \i0 , \ 2nd ed., '' 906, 784). The effect of fronting is seen in \ the Ionic and Attic dialects of Greek, where the original \ name of the Medes, \i Madoi \i0 , with a in the first syllable \ (which survives in Cyprian Greek as \f2 Madoi \f0 ), is changed \ into \i Medoi \i0 ( \f2 Mhdoi \f0 ), with an open \i e \i0 -sound instead \ of the earlier a. In the later history of Greek this \ sound is steadily narrowed till it becomes identical with \ i (as in English \i seed). \i0 The first part of the process \ has been almost repeated by literary English, a ( \i ah \i0 ) \ passing into e ( \i eh \i0 ), though in present-day pronunciation \ the sound has developed further into a diphthongal \i ei \i0 \ except before \i r \i0 , as in \i hare \i0 (Sweet, \i op. cit. \i0 ' 783). \ \ In English \i a \i0 represents unaccented forms of several \ words, e.g. \i an \i0 (one), \i of, have, he \i0 , and or various \ prefixes the history of which is given in detail in the \i New \ English Dictionary \i0 (Oxford, 1888), vol. i. p. 4. (P. G \fs20 I \fs24 .) \ \ As a symbol the letter is used in various connexions \ and for various technical purposes, \i e.g. \i0 for a note in \ music, for the first of the seven dominical letters (this \ use is derived from its being the first of the \i litterae \ nundinales \i0 at Rome), and generally as a sign of priority. \ \ \i In Logic \i0 , the letter A is used as a symbol for the universal \ affirmative proposition in the general form ``all \i x \i0 is \i y. \i0 '' \ The letters I, E and O are used respectively for the particular \ affirmative ``some \i x \i0 is \i y \i0 ,'' the universal negative ``no \i x \i0 \ is \i y \i0 ,'' and the particular negative ``some \i x \i0 is not \i y \i0 .'' \ The use of these letters is generally derived from the vowels \ of the two Latin verbs \i AffIrmo \i0 (or \i AIo \i0 ), ``I assert,'' and \ \i nEgO \i0 , ``I deny.'' The use of the symbols dates from the 13th \ century, though some authorities trace their origin to the Greek \ logicians. A is also used largely in abbreviations ( \i q.v. \i0 ). \ \ \i In Shipping \i0 , A1 is a symbol used to dennote quality of \ construction and material. In the various shipping registers \ ships are classed and given a rating after an official \ examination, and assigned a classification mark, which \ appears in addition to other particulars in those registers \ after the name of the ship. See S \fs20 HIPBUILDING. \fs24 It is \ popularly used to indicate the highest degree of excellence. \ \ \b AA \b0 , the name of a large number of small European rivers. \ The word is derived from the Old German \i aha \i0 , cognate to \ the Latin \i aqua \i0 , water (cf. Ger. \i -ach \i0 ; Scand. U, \i aa \i0 , \ pronounced o). The following are the more important \ streams of this name:--Two rivers in the west of Russia, both \ falling into the Gulf of Riga, near Riga, which is situated \ between them; a river in the north of France, falling into \ the sea below Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer; \ and a river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Lucerne and \ Aargau, which carries the waters of Lakes Baldegger and \ Hallwiler into the Aar. In Germany there are the Westphalian \ Aa, rising in the Teutoburger Wald, and joining the Werre at \ Herford, the Mvnster Aa, a tributary of the Ems, and others. \ \ \b AAGESEN, ANDREW \b0 (1826-1879), Danish jurist, was educated \ for the law at Kristianshavn and Copenhagen, and interrupted \ his studies in 1848 to take part in the first Schleswig war, \ in which he served as the leader of a reserve battalion. In \ 1855 he became professor of jurisprudence at the university of \ Copenhagen. In 1870 he was appointed a member of the commission \ for drawing up a maritime and commercial code, and the navigation \ law of 1882 is mainly his work. In 1879 he was elected a member \ of the Landsthing; but it is as a teacher at the university \ that he won his reputation. Among his numerous juridical \ works may be mentioned: \i Bidrag til Laeren om Overdragelse \ af Ejendomsret \i0 , \i Bemaerkinger om Rettigheder over Ting \i0 \ (Copenhagen, 1866, 1871-1872); \i Fortegnelse over Retssamlinger, \ Retslitteratur i Danmark \i0 , \i Norge, Sverige \i0 (Copenhagen, \ 1876). Aagesen was Hall's successor as lecturer on Roman law \ at the university, and in this department his researches were \ epoch-making. All his pupils were profoundly impressed by \ his exhaustive examination of the sources, his energetic \ demonstration of his subject and his stringent search after \ truth. His noble, imposing, and yet most amiable personality \ won for him, moreover, universal affection and respect. \ \ See C. F. Bricka, \i Dansk. Brog. Lex. \i0 vol. i. (Copenhagen, 1887); \i Szmlade \ Skrifter \i0 , edited by F. C. Bornemann (Copenhagen, 1863). (R. N. B.) \ \ \i AAL \i0 , also known as A \fs20 ' \fs24 L \fs20 , \fs24 A \fs20 CH \fs24 , or A \fs20 ICH \fs24 , the Hindustani \ names for the \i Morinda tinctoria \i0 and \i Morinda citrifalia \i0 , \ plants extensively cultivated in India on account of the \ reddish dye-stuff which their roots contain. The name \ is also applied to the dye, but the common trade name \ is \i Suranji. \i0 Its properties are due to the presence \ of a glucoside known as \i Morindin \i0 , which is compounded \ from glucose and probably a trioxy-methyl-anthraquinone. \ \ \b AALBORG \b0 , a city and seaport of Denmark, the seat of a bishop, \ and chief town of the \i amt \i0 (county) of its name, on the south \ bank of the Limfjord, which connects the North Sea and the \ Cattegat. Pop. (1901) 31,457. The situation is typical of \ the north of Jutland. To the west the Linifjord broadens \ into an irregular lake, with low, marshy shores and many \ islands. North-west is the Store Vildmose, a swamp where the \ mirage is seen in summer. South-east lies the similar Lille \ Vildmose. A railway connects Aalborg with Hjprring, \ Frederikshavn and Skagen to the north, and with Aarhus and \ the lines from Germany to the south. The harbour is good \ and safe, though difficult of access. Aalborg is a growing \ industrial and commercial centre, exporting grain and \ fish. An old castle and some picturesque houses of the \ 17th century remain. The Budolphi church dates mostly from \ the middle of the 18th century, while the Frue church was \ partially burnt in 1894, but the foundation of both is of \ the 14th century or earlier. There are also an ancient \ hospital and a museum of art and antiquities. On the north \ side of the fjord is Nprre Sundby, connected with Aalborg \ by a pontoon and also by an iron railway bridge, one of the \ finest engineering works in the kingdom. Aabborgt received \ town privileges in 1342 and the bishopric dates from 1554. \ \ \b AALEN \b0 , a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wvrttemberg, \ pleasantly situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian \ Alps, about 50 m. E. of Stuttgart, and with direct railway \ communication with Ulm and Cannstatt. Pop. 10,000. Woollen \ and linen goods are manufactured, and there are ribbon \ looms and tanneries in the town, and large iron works in the \ neighbourhood. There are several schools and churches, and a \ statue of the poet Christian Schubart. Aalen was a free imperial \ city from 1360 to 1802, when it was annexed to Wvrttemberg. \ \ \b AALESUND \b0 , a seaport of Norway, in Romsdal \i amt \i0 (county), 145 \ m. N. by E. from Bergen. Pop. (1900) 11,672. It occupies \ two of the outer islands of the west coast, Aspp and \ Nprvp, which enclose the picturesque harbour. Founded \ in 1824, it is the principal shipping-place of Spndmpre \ district, and one of the chief stations of the herring \ fishery. Aalesund is adjacent to the Jprund and Geiranger \ fjords, frequented by tourists. From #je at the head of \ Jprund a driving-route strikes south to the Nordfjord, and \ from Merck on Geiranger another strikes inland to Otta, on \ the railway to Liilehammer and Christiania. Aalesund is a \ port of call for steamers between Bergen, Hull, Newcastle \ and Hamburg, and Trondhjem. A little to the south of the \ town are the ruins of the reputed castle of Rollo, the \ founder, in the 9th century, of the dynasty of the dukes of \ Normandy. On the 23rd of January 1904, Aalesund was the \ scene of one of the most terrible of the many conflagrations \ to which Norwegian towns, built largely of wood, have been \ subject. Practically the whole town was destroyed, a gale aiding \ the flames, and the population had to leave the place in the \ night at the notice of a few minutes. Hardly any lives were \ lost, but the sufferings of the people were so terrible that \ assistance was sent from all parts of the kingdom, and by the \ German government, while the British government also offered it. \ \ \b AALI, MEHEMET \b0 , Pasha (1815-1871), Turkish statesman, was born \ at Constantinople in 1815, the son of a government official. \ Entering the diplomatic service of his country soon after reaching \ manhood, he became successively secretary of the Embassy in \ Vienna, minister in London, and foreign minister under Reshid \ Pasha. In 1852 he was promoted to the post of grand vizier, \ but after a short time retired into private life. During the \ Crimean War he was recalled in order to take the portfolio \ of foreign affairs for a second time under Reshid Pasha, \ and in this capacity took part in 1855 in the conference of \ Vienna. Again becoming in that year grand vizier, an office \ he filled no less than five times, he represented Turkey \ at the congress of Paris in 1856. In 1867 he was appointed \ regent of Turkey during the sultan's visit to the Paris \ Exhibition. Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates \ of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul \ Mejid and Abdul Aziz. A scholar and a linguist, he was a \ match for the diplomats of the Christian powers, against whom \ he successfully defended the interests of his country. He \ died at Erenkeni in Asia Minor on the 6th of September 1871. \ \ \b AAR \b0 , or A \fs20 ARE \fs24 , the most considerable river which both \ rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. Its total \ length (including all bends) from its source to its junction \ with the Rhine is about 181 m., during which distance it \ descends 5135 ft., while its drainage area is 6804 sq. \ m. It rises in the great Aar glaciers, in the canton of \ Bern, and W. of the Grimsel Pass. It runs E. to the Grimsel \ Hospice, and then N.W. through the Hasli valley, forming on the \ way the magnificent waterfall of the Handegg (151 ft.), past \ Guttannen, and pierces the limestone barrier of the Kirchet \ by a grand gorge, before reaching Meiringen, situated in a \ plain. A little beyond, near Brienz, the river expands \ into the lake of Brienz, where it becomes navigable. Near \ the west end of that lake it receives its first important \ affluent, the Lvtschine (left), and then runs across the \ swampy plain of the Bpdoli, between Interlaken (left) and \ Unterseen (right), before again expanding in order to form \ the Lake of Thun. Near the west end of that lake it receives \ on the left the Kander, which has just before been joined \ by the Simme; on flowing out of the lake it passes Thun, and \ then circles the lofty bluff on which the town of Bern is \ built. It soon changes its north-westerly for a due westerly \ direction, but after receiving the Saane or Sarine (left) \ turns N. till near Aarberg its stream is diverted W. by the \ Hagneck Canal into the Lake of Bienne, from the upper end of \ which it issues through the Nidau Canal and then runs E. to \ Bvren. Henceforth its course is N.E. for a long distance, \ past Soleure (below which the Grosse Emme flows in on the \ right), Aarburg (where it is joined by the Wigger, right), \ Olten, Aarau, near which is the junction with the Suhr on the \ right, and Wildegg, where the Hallwiler Aa falls in on the \ right. A short way beyond, below Brugg, it receives first the \ Reuss (right), and very shortly afterwards the Limmat or Linth \ (right). It now turns due N., and soon becomes itself an \ affluent of the Rhine (left), which it surpasses in volume \ when they unite at Coblenz, opposite Waldshut. (W. A. B. C.) \ \ \b AARAU \b0 , the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau. In 1900 \ it had 7831 inhabitants, mostly German-speaking, and mainly \ Protestants. It is situated in the valley of the Aar, on the \ right bank of that river, and at the southern foot of the range \ of the Jura. It is about 50 m. by rail N.E. of Bern, and 31 \ m. N.W. of Zvrich. It is a well-built modern town, with \ no remarkable features about it. In the Industrial Museum \ there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good \ painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring \ Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed \ 1841---the monks are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in \ Tirol). The cantonal library contains many works relating to \ Swiss history and many MSS. coming from the suppressed Argovian \ monasteries. There are many industries in the town, especially \ silk-ribbon weaving, foundries, and factories for the manufacture \ of cutlery and scientific instruments. The popular novelist \ and historian, Heinrich Zschokke (1771-1848), spent most of \ his life here, and a bronze statue has been erected to his \ memory. Aarau is an important military centre. The slopes \ of the Jura are covered with vineyards. Aarau, an ancient \ fortress, was taken by the Bernese in 1415, and in 1798 became \ for a time the capital of the Helvetic republic. Eight miles \ by rail N.E. are the famous sulphur baths of Schinznach, \ just above which is the ruined castle of Habsburg, the \ original home of that great historical house. (W. A. B. C.) \ \ \b AARD-VARK \b0 (meaning ``earth pig''), the Iyutch name for \ the mammals of genus \i Orycteropus \i0 , confined to Africa (see \ E \fs20 DEN- \fs24 T \fs20 ATAI. \fs24 Several species have been named. Among them \ is the typical form, \i O. capensis \i0 , or Cape ant-bear from \ South Africa, and the northern aard-vark ( \i O. aethiopicus \i0 ) \ of north-eastern Africa, extending into Egypt. In form \ these animals are somewhat pig-like; the body is stout, \ with arched back; the limbs are short and stout, armed with \ strong, blunt claws; the ears disproportionately long; and \ the tail very thick at the base and tapering gradually. The \ greatly elongated head is set on a short thick neck, and at \ the extremity of the snout is a disk in which the nostrils \ open. The mouth is small and tubular, furnished with a long \ extensile tongue. The measurements of a female taken in the \ flesh, were head and body 4 ft., tail 17S in.; but a large \ individual measured 6 ft. 8 in. over all. In colour the \ Cape aard-vark is pale sandy or yellow, the hair being scanty \ and allowing the skin to show; the northern aard-vark has \ a still thinner coat, and is further distinguished by the \ shorter tail and longer head and ears. These animals are of \ nocturnal and burrowing habits, and generally to be found near \ ant-hills. The strong claws make a hole in the side of the \ ant-hill, and the insects are collected on the extensile \ tongue. Aard-varks are hunted for their skins; but the \ flesh is valued for food, and often salted and smoked. \ \ \b AARD-WOLF \b0 (earth-wolf), a South and East African carnivorous \ mammal ( \i Proteles cristatus \i0 ), in general appearance like a \ small striped hyena, but with a more pointed muzzle, sharpe \ ears, and a long erectile mane down the middle line of the \ neck and back. It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and \ feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites. \ \ \b AARGAU \b0 (Fr. \i Argovie \i0 ), one of the more northerly Swiss \ cantons, comprising the lower course of the river Aar ( \i q.v. \i0 ), \ whence its name. Its total area is 541.9 sq. m., of which \ 517.9 sq. m. are classed as ``productive'' (forests covering \ 172 sq. m. and vineyards 8.2 sq. m.). It is one of the least \ mountainous Swiss cantons, forming part of a great table-land, \ to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura, above which \ rise low hills. The surface of the country is beautifully \ diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills alternating \ with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aar and its \ tributaries. It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of \ Baden ( \i q.v. \i0 ) and Schinznach, while at Rheinfelden there are \ very extensive saline springs. Just below Brugg the Reuss \ and the Limmat join the Aar, while around Brugg are the ruined \ castle of Habsburg, the old convent of Kpnigsfelden (with \ fine painted medieval glass) and the remains of the Roman \ settlement of Vindonissa [Windisch]. The total population \ in 1900 was 206,498, almost exclusively German-speaking, but \ numbering 114,176 Protestants to 91,039 Romanists and 990 \ Jews. The capital of the canton is Aarau ( \i q.v. \i0 ), while \ other important towns are Baden ( \i q.v. \i0 ), Zofingen (4591 \ inhabitants), Reinach (3668 inhabitants), Rheinfelden (3349 \ inhabitants), Wohlen (3274 inhabitants), and Lenzburg (2588 \ inhabitants). Aargau is an industrious and prosperous canton, \ straw-plaiting, tobacco-growing, silk-ribbon weaving, and \ salmon-fishing in the Rhine being among the chief industries. \ As this region was, up to 1415, the centre of the Habsburg \ power, we find here many historical old castles ( \i e.g. \i0 \ Habsburg, Lenzburg, Wildegg), and former monasteries ( \i e.g. \i0 \ Wettingen, Muri), founded by that family, but suppressed in \ 1841, this act of violence being one of the main causes \ of the civil war called the ``Sonderbund War,'' in 1847 in \ Switzerland. The cantonal constitution dates mainly from \ 1885, but since 1904 the election of the executive council \ of five members is made by a direct vote of the people. The \ legislature consists of members elected in the proportion of \ one to every 1100 inhabitants. The ``obligatory referendum'' \ exists in the case of all laws, while 5000 citizens have the \ right of ``initiative'' in proposing bills or alterations \ in the cantonal constitution. The canton sends 10 members \ to the federal \i Nationalrat \i0 , being one for every 20,000, \ while the two \i StYnderYte \i0 are (since 1904) elected by \ a direct vote of the people. The canton is divided into \ eleven administrative districts, and contains 241 communes. \ \ \ 1415 the Aargau region was taken from the Habsburgs by the Swiss \ Confederates. Bern kept the south-west portion (Zofingen, \ Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), but some districts, \ named the \i Freie #mter \i0 or ``free bailiwicks'' (Mellingen, \ Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten), with the county of Baden, \ were ruled as ``subject lands'' by all or certain of the \ Confederates. In 1798 the Bernese bit became the canton of \ Aargau of the Helvetic Republic, the remainder forming the \ canton of Baden. In 1803, the two halves (plus the Frick \ glen, ceded in 1802 by Austria to the Helvetic Republic) \ were united under the name of Kanton Aargau, which was then \ admitted a full member of the reconstituted Confederation. \ \ See also \i Argovia \i0 (published by the Cantonal Historical \ Society), Aarau, from 1860; F. X. Bronner, \i Der Kanton Aargau \i0 , \ 2 vols., St Gall and Bern, 1844; H. Lehmann, \i Die argauische \ Strohindustrie \i0 , Aarau, 1896; W. Merz, \i Die mittelalt. \ Burganlagen und Wehrbauten \i0 \i d. Kant. Argau \i0 (fine illustrated \ work on castles), Aarau, 2 vols., 1904--1906; W. Merz and \ F. E. Welti, \i Die Rechtsquellen d. Kant. \i0 \i Argau \i0 , 3 vols., \ Aarau, 1898--1905; J. Mvller, \i Der Aargau \i0 , 2 vols., Zvrich, \ 1870; E. L. Rochholz, \i Aargauer Weisthvmer \i0 , Atarau, 1877; E. \ Zschokke, \i Geschichte des Aargaus \i0 , Aarau, 1903. (W. A. B. C.) \ \ \b AARHUS \b0 , a seaport and bishop's see of Denmark, on the \ east coast of Jutland, of which it is the principal port; \ the second largest town in the kingdom, and capital of \ the \i amt \i0 (county) of Aarhus. Pop. (1901) 51,814. The \ district is low-lying, fertile and well wooded. The town \ is the junction of railways from all parts of the country. \ The harbour is good and safe, and agricultural produce is \ exported, while coal and iron are among the chief imports. \ The cathedral of the 13th century (extensively restored) is \ the largest church in Denmark. There is a museum of art and \ antiquities. To the south-west (13 m. by rail), a picturesque \ region extends west from the railway junction of Skanderborg, \ including several lakes, through which flows the Gudenaa, \ the largest river in Jutland, and rising ground exceeding \ 500 ft. in the Himmelbjerg. The railway traverses this \ pleasant district of moorland and wood to Silkeborg, a modern \ town having one of the most attractive situations in the \ kingdom. The bishopric of Aarhus dates at least from 951. \ \ \b AARON \b0 , the traditional founder and head of the Jewish \ priesthood, who, in company with Moses, led the Israelites \ out of Egypt (see E \fs20 XODUS \fs24 ; M \fs20 OSES \fs24 ) . The greater part of \ his life-history is preserved in late Biblical narratives, \ which carry back existing conditions and beliefs to the \ time of the Exodus, and find a precedent for contemporary \ hierarchical institutions in the events of that period. \ Although Aaron was said to have been sent by Yahweh (Jehovah) \ to meet Moses at the ``mount of God'' (Horeb, Ex.iv.27),he \ plays only a secondary part in the incidents at Pharaoh's \ court. After the ``exodus'' from Egypt a striking account \ is given of the vision of the God of Israel vouchsafed to \ him and to his sons Nadab and Abihu on the same holy mount \ (Ex. xxiv. 1 seq. 9-11), and together with Hur he was at the \ side of Moses when the latter, by means of his wonder-working \ rod, enabled Joshua to defeat the Amalekites (xvii. 8-16). \ Hur and Aaron were left in charge of the Israelites when \ Moses and Joshua ascended the mount to receive the Tables of \ the Law (xxiv. 12-15), and when the people, in dismay at the \ prolonged absence of their leader, demanded a god, it was at \ the instigation of Aaron that the golden calf was made (see \ C \fs20 ALF, \fs24 G \fs20 OLDEN). \fs24 This was regarded as an act of apostasy \ which, according to one tradition, led to the consecration \ of the Levites, and almost cost Aaron his life (cp. Deut. \ ix. 20). The incident paves the way for the account of the \ preparation of the new tables of stone which contain a series \ of laws quite distinct from the Decalogue ( \i q.v. \i0 ) (Ex. xxxiii. \ seq.). Kadesh, and not Sinai or Horeb, appears to have been \ originally the scene of these incidents (Deut. xxxiii. 8 \ seq. compared with Ex. xxxii. 26 sqq.), and it was for some \ obscure offence at this place that both Aaron and Moses were \ prohibited from entering the Promised Land (Num. xx.). In \ what way they had not ``sanctified'' (an allusion in the \ Hebrew to \i Kadesh \i0 ``holy'') Yahweh is quite uncertain, and \ it would appear that it was for a similar offence that the \ sons of Aaron mentioned above also met their death (Lev. x. 3; \ cp. Num. xx. 12, Deut. xxxii. 51). Aaron is said to have \ died at Moserah (Deut. x. 6), or at Mt. Hor; the latter is \ an unidentified site on the border of Edom (Num. xx. 23, \ xxxiii. 37; for Moserah see \i ib. \i0 30-31), and consequently \ not in the neighbourhood of Petra, which has been the \ traditional scene from the time of Josephus ( \i Ant. \i0 iv. 4. 7). \ \ Several difficulties in the present Biblical text appear to \ have arisen from the attempt of later tradition to find a \ place for Aaron in certain incidents. In the account of the \ contention between Moses and his sister Miriam (Num. xii.), \ Aaron occupies only a secondary position, and it is very doubtful \ whether he was originally mentioned in the older surviving \ narratives. It is at least remarkable that he is only thrice \ mentioned in Deuteronomy (ix. 20, x. 6, xxxii. 50). The \ post-exilic narratives give him a greater share in the plagues of \ Egypt, represent him as high-priest, and confirm his position \ by the miraculous budding of his rod alone of all the rods of \ the other tribes (Num. xvii.; for parallels see Gray \i comm. \ ad loc. \i0 , p. 217). The latter story illustrates the growth \ of the older exodus-tradition along with the development of \ priestly ritual: the old account of Korah's revolt against the \ authority of Moses has been expanded, and now describes ( \i a \i0 ) \ the divine prerogatives of the Levites in general, and ( \i b \i0 ) \ the confirmation of the superior privileges of the Aaronites \ against the rest of the Levites, a development which can \ scarcely be earlier than the time of Ezekiel (xliv. 15 seq.). \ \ Aaron's son Eleazar was buried in an Ephraimite locality \ known after the grandson as the ``hill of Phinehas'' (Josh. \ xxiv. 33). Little historical information has been preserved of \ either. The name Phinehas (apparently of Egyptian origin) \ is better known as that of a son of Eli, a member of the \ priesthood of Shiloh, and Eleazar is only another form of \ Eliezer the son of Moses, to whose kin Eli is said to have \ belonged. The close relation between Aaronite and Levitical \ names and those of clans related to Moses is very noteworthy, \ and it is a curious coincidence that the name of Aaron's \ sister Miriam appears in a genealogy of Caleb (1 Chron. iv. \ 17) with Jether (cp. J \fs20 ETHRO \fs24 ) and Heber (cp. K \fs20 ENITES). \fs24 In \ view of the confusion of the traditions and the difficulty of \ interpreting the details sketched above, the recovery of the \ \i historical \i0 Aaron is a work of peculiar intricacy. He may \ well have been the traditional head of the priesthood, and \ R. H. Kennett has argued in favour of the view that he was \ the founder of the cult at Bethel ( \i Journ. of Theol. Stud. \i0 , \ 1905, pp. 161 sqq.), corresponding to the Mosaite founder \ of Dan ( \i q.v.). \i0 This throws no light upon the \i name \i0 , which \ still remains quite obscure: and unless Aaron ( \i Aharon \i0 ) is \ based upon \i Aron \i0 , ``ark'' (Redslob, R. P. A. Dozy, J. P. \ N. Land), names associated with Moses and Aaron, which are, \ apparently, of South Palestinian (or North-Arabian) origin. \ \ For the literature and a general account of the Jewish \ priesthood, see the articles L \fs20 EVTTES \fs24 and P \fs20 RIEST. \fs24 . (S. A. C.) \ \ \b AARON'S ROD \b0 , the popular name given to various tall flowering \ plants (``hag taper,', ``golden rod,'' &c.). In architecture \ the term is given to an ornamental rod with sprouting leaves, \ or sometimes with a serpent entwined round it (from the \ Biblical references in Exodus vii. 10 and Numbers xvii. 8). \ \ \b AARSSENS \b0 , or A \fs20 ARSSEN \fs24 , \b FRANCIS VAN \b0 (1572-1641), a \ celebrated diplomatist and statesman of the United Provinces. \ His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan \ van Oldenbarneveldt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, \ as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of \ France. He took a considerable part in the negotiations of \ the twelve years' truce in 1606. His conduct of affairs having \ displeased the French king, he was recalled from his post by \ Oldenbarneveldt in 1616. Such was the hatred he henceforth \ conceived against his former benefactor, that he did his \ very utmost to effect his ruin. He was one of the packed \ court of judges who in 1619 condemned the aged statesman to \ death. For his share in this judicial murder a deep stain \ rests on the memory of Aarssens. He afterwards became the \ confidential counsellor of Maurice, prince of Orange, and \ afterwards of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, in their \ conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic. He was sent \ on special embassies to Venice, Germany and England, and \ displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Richelieu \ ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time. \ \ \b AASEN, IVAR \b0 (1813-1896), Norwegian philologist and \ lexicographer, was born at Aasen i #rsten, in Spndmpre, \ Norway, on the. 5th of August 1813. His father, a small \ peasant-farmer named Ivar Jonsspn, died in 1826. He was \ brought up to farmwork, but he assiduously cultivated all \ his leisure in reading, and when he was eighteen he opened an \ elementary school in his native parish. In 1833 he entered \ the household of H. C. Thoresen the husband of the eminent \ writer Magdalene Thoresen, in Herp, and here he picked up \ the elements of Latin. Gradually, and by dint of infinite \ patience and concentration, the young peasant became master \ of many languages, and began the scientific study of their \ structure. About 1841 he had freed himself from all the \ burden of manual labour, and could occupy his thoughts with \ the dialect of his native district, the Spndmpre; his \ first publication was a small collection of folk-songs in \ the Spndmpre language (1843) . His remarkable abilities now \ attracted general attention, and he was helped to continue his \ studies undisturbed. His \i Grammar ofthe Norwegian Dialects \i0 \ (1848) was the result of much labour, and of journeys taken \ to every part of the country. Aasen's famous \i Dictionary \ of the Norwegian Dialects \i0 appeared in its original form in \ 1850, and from this publication dates all the wide cultivation \ of the popular language in Norwegian, since Aasen really did \ no less than construct, out of the different materials at his \ disposal, a popular language or definite \i folke-maal \i0 for \ Norway. With certain modifications, the most important of which \ were introduced later by Aasen himself, this artificial language \ is that which has been adopted ever since by those who write in \ dialect, and which later enthusiasts have once more endeavoured \ to foist upon Norway as her official language in the place of \ Dano-Norwegian. Aasen composed poems and plays in the composite \ dialect to show how it should be used; one of these dramas, \ \i The Heir \i0 (1855), was frequently acted, and may be considered \ as the pioneer of all the abundant dialect-literature of the \ last half-century, from Vinje down to Garborg. Aasen continued \ to enlarge and improve his grammars and his dictionary. He \ lived very quietly in lodgings in Christiania, surrounded by \ his books and shrinking from publicity, but his name grew into \ wide political favour as his ideas about the language of the \ peasants became more and more the watch-word of the popular \ party. Quite early in his career, 1842, he had begun to \ receive a stipend to enable him to give his entire attention \ to his philological investigations; and the Storthing--. \ conscious of the national importance of his woth---treated hm \ in this respect with more and more generosity as he advanced in \ years. He continued his investigations to the last, but it \ may be said that, after the 1873 edition of his \i Dictionary \i0 , \ he added but little to his stores. Ivar Aasen holds perhaps \ an isolated place in literary history as the one man who has \ invented, or at least selected and constructed, a language \ which has pleased so many thousands of his countrymen that \ they have accepted it for their schools, their sermons \ and their songs. He died in Christiania on the 23rd of \ September 1896, and was buried with Public honours. (E. G.) \ \ \b AB \b0 , the fifth month of the ecclesiastical and the \ eleventh of the civil year of the Jews. It approximately \ Corresponds to the period of the 15th of July to the 15th of \ August. The word is of Babylonian origin, adopted by the \ Jews with other calendar names after the Babylonian exile. \ Tradition ascribes the death of Aaron to the first day of Ab. \ On the ninth is kept the Fast of Ab, or the Black Fast, to \ bewail the destruction of the first temple by Nebuchadrezzar \ (586 \fs20 B.C. \fs24 ) and of the second by Titus ( \fs20 A.D. \fs24 70). \ \ \b ABA. \b0 (1) A form of altazimuth instrument, invented by, and Cabled \ after, Antoine d'Abbadie; (2) a rough homespun manufactured in \ Bulgariai (3) a long coarse shirt worn by the Bedouin Arabs. \ \ \b ABABDA \b0 (the Gebadei of Pliny, probably the Troglodytes of \ classical writers), a nomad tribe of African ``Arabs,, of Hamitic \ origin. They extend from the Nile at Assuan to the Red Sea, \ and reach northward to the Kena-Kosseir road, thus occupying \ the southern border of Egypt east of the Nile. They call \ themselves ``sons of the Jinns.'' With some of the clans of \ the Bisharin ( \i q.v. \i0 ) and possibly the Hadendoa ( \i q.v. \i0 ) they \ represent the Blemmyes of classic geographers, and their location \ to-day is almost identical with that assigned them in Roman \ times. They were constantly at war with the Romans, who at \ last subsidized them. In the middle ages they were known as \ Beja ( \i q.v. \i0 ), and convoyed pilgrims from the Nile valley to \ Aidhab, the port of embarkation for Jedda. From time immemorial \ they have acted as guides to caravans through the Nubian \ desert and up the Nile valley as far as Sennar. To-day many of \ them are employed in the telegraph service across the Arabian \ desert. They intermarried with the Nuba, and settled in small \ Colonies at Shendi and elsewhere long before the Egyptian \ invasion ( \fs20 A.D. \fs24 1820-1822). They are still great trade \ carriers, and visit very distant districts. The Ababda of \ Egypt, numbering some 30,000, are governed by an hereditary \ ``chief.'' Although nominally a vassal of the Khedive he pays no \ tribute. Indeed he is paid a subsidy, a portion of the \ road-dues, in return for his safeguarding travellers from Bedouin \ robbers. The sub-sheikhs are directly responsible to him. \ The Ababda of Nubia, reported by Joseph von Russegger, who \ visited the country in 1836, to number some 40,000, have since \ diminished, having probably amalgamated with the Bisharin, \ their hereditary enemies when they were themselves a powerful \ nation. The Ababda generally speak Arabic (mingled with \ Barabra [Nubian] words), the result of their long-continued \ contact with Egypt; but the southern and south-eastern portion \ of the tribe in many cases still retain their Beja dialect, \ ToBedawiet. Those of Kosseir will not speak this before \ strangers, as they believe that to reveal the mysterious \ dialect would bring ruin on them. Those nearest the Nile \ have much fellah blood in them. As a tribe they claim an Arab \ origin, apparently through their sheikhs. They have adopted \ the dress and habits of the fellahin, unlike their kinsmen \ the Bisharin and Hadendoa, who go practically naked. They \ are neither so fierce nor of so fine a physique as these \ latter. They are lithe and well built, but small: the average \ height is little more than 5 ft., except in the sheikh clan, \ who are obviously of Arab origin. Their complexion is more \ red than black, their features angular, noses straight and hair \ luxuriant. They bear the character of being treacherous and \ faithless, being bound by no oath, but they appear to be honest \ in money matters and hospitable, and, however poor, never \ beg. Formerly very poor, the Ababda became wealthy after \ the British occupation of Egypt. The chief settlements are in \ Nubia, where they live in villages and employ themselves in \ agriculture. Others of them fish in the Red Sea and then \ hawk the salt fish in the interior. Others are pedlars, \ while charcoal burning, wood-gathering and trading in gums \ and drugs, especially in senna leaves, occupy many. Unlike \ the true Arab, the Ababda do not live in tents, but build \ huts with hurdles and mats, or live in natural caves, as \ did their ancestors in classic times. They have few horses, \ using the camel as beast of burden or their ``mount'' in \ war. They live chiefly on milk and durra, the latter \ eaten either raw or roasted. They are very superstitious, \ believing, for example, that evil would overtake a family \ if a girl member should, after her marriage, ever set eyes \ on her mother: hence the Ababda husband has to make his \ home far from his wife's village. In the Mahdist troubles \ (1882-1898) many ``friendlies'' were recruited from the tribe. \ \ For their earlier history see B \fs20 EJA \fs24 ; see also B \fs20 ISHARIN, \ HADEN \fs24 D \fs20 OA, \fs24 K \fs20 ABBABish \fs24 ; and the following authorities:---Sir \ F. R. Wingate, \i Mahdism and the Egyptian Sudan \i0 (Lond. \ 1891); Giuseppe Sergi, \i Africa: Antropologia della Stirpe \ Camitica \i0 (Turin, 1897); A. H. Keane, \i Ethnology of Egyptian \ Sudan \i0 (Lond. 1884); \i Anglo-Egyptian Sudan \i0 , edited by \ Count Gleichen (Lond. 1905); Joseph von Russegger, \i Die \ Reisen in Afrika \i0 (Stuttgart, 1841-1850). (T. A. J.) \ \ \b ABACA \b0 , or A \fs20 BAKA \fs24 , a native name for the plant \i Musa textilis \i0 , \ which produces the fibre called Manila Hemp ( \i q.v.). \i0 . \ \ \b ABACUS \b0 (Gr. \f2 abax \f0 , a slab Fr. \i abaque, tailloir \i0 ), in \ architecture, the upper member of the capital of a column. \ Its chief function is to provide a larger supporting surface \ for the architrave or arch it has to carry. In the Greek Doric \ order the abacus is a plain square slab. In the Roman and \ Renaissance Doric orders it is crowned by a moulding. In the \ Archaic-Greek Ionic order, owing to the greater width of the \ capital, the abacus is rectangular in plan, and consists of a \ carved ovolo moulding. In later examples the abacus is square, \ except where there are angle volutes, when it is slightly \ curved over the same. In the Roman and Renaissance Ionic \ capital, the abacus is square with a fillet On the top of an \ ogee moulding, but curved over angle volutes. In the Greek \ Corinthian order the abacus is moulded, its sides are concave \ and its angles canted (except in one or two exceptional Greek \ capitals, where it is brought to a sharp angle); and the same \ shape is adopted in the Roman and Renaissance Corinthian and \ Composite capitals, in some cases with the ovolo moulding \ carved. In Romanesque architecture the abacus is square with \ the lower edge splayed off and moulded or carved, and the \ same was retained in France during the medieval period; but \ in England,in Early English work, a circular deeply moulded \ abacus was introduced, which in the 14th and 15th centuries \ was transformed into an octagonal one. The diminutive of \ Abacus, A \fs20 BACISCUS \fs24 , is applied in architecture to the chequers \ or squares of a tessellated pavement . ``Abacus'' is also the \ name of an instrument employed by the ancients for arithmetical \ calculations; pebbles, hits of bone or coins being used as \ counters. Fig. 1 shows a Roman abacus taken from an ancient \ monument. It contains seven long and seven shorter rods \ or bars, the former having four perforated beads running \ on them and the latter one. The bar marked 1 indicates \ units, X tens, and so on up to millions. The beads on the \ shorter bars denote fives,--five units, five tens, &c. The \ rod \f2 O \f0 and corresponding short rod are for marking ounces; \ and the short quarter rods for fractions of an ounce. \ \ The \i Swan-Pan \i0 of the Chinese (fig. 2) closely resembles \ the Roman abacus in its construction and use. Computations \ are made with it by means of balls of bone or ivory running \ on slender bamboo rods, similar to the simpler board, \ fitted up with beads strung on wires, which is employed in \ teaching the rudiments of arithmetic in English schools. \ \ F \fs20 IG. \fs24 2.--Chinese Swan-Pan. The name of ``abacus'' is also \ given, in logic, to an instrument, often called the ``logical \ machine,'' analogous to the mathematical abacus. It is \ constructed to show all the possible combinations of a set of \ logical terms with their negatives, and, further, the way in which \ these combinations are affected by the addition of attributes \ or other limiting words, \i i.e. \i0 to simplify mechanically the \ solution of logical problems. These instruments are all more \ or less elaborate developments of the ``logical slate,'' on \ which were written in vertical columns all the combinations \ of symbols or letters which could be made logically out of a \ definite number of terms. These were compared with any given \ premises, and those which were incompatible were crossed \ off. In the abacus the combinations are inscribed each on a \ single slip of wood or similar substance, which is moved by a \ key; incompatible combinations can thus be mechanically removed \ at will, in accordance with any given series of premises. \ The principal examples of such machines are those of W. S. \ Jevons ( \i Element. Lessons in Logic \i0 , \fs20 C. \fs24 xxiii.), John Venn \ (see his \i Symbolic Logic \i0 , 2nd ed., 1894, p. 135), and Allan \ Marquand (see \i American Academy of Arts and Sciences \i0 , 1885, pp. \ 303-7, and \i Johns Hopkins University Studies in Logic \i0 , 1883). \ \ \b ABADDON \b0 , a Hebrew word meaning ``destruction.'' In poetry \ it comes to mean ``place of destruction,'' and so the \ underworld or Sheol (cf. Job xxvi. 6; Prov. xv. 11). In Rev. \ ix. 11 Abaddon ( \f2 (Abaddwn \f0 ) is used of hell personified, \ the prince of the underworld. The term is here explained \ as Apollyon ( \i q.v. \i0 ), the ``destroyer.', W. Baudissin \ (Herzog-Hauck, \i Realencyklo pYdie \i0 ) notes that Hades and \ Abaddon in Rabbinic writings are employed as personal names, \ just as \i shemayya \i0 in Dan. iv. 23, \i shamayim \i0 (``heaven''), \ and \i makom \i0 (``place'') among the Rabbins, are used of God. \ \ \b ABADEH \b0 , a small walled town of Persia, in the province of \ Fars, situated at an elevation of 6200 ft. in a fertile \ plain on the high road between Isfahan and Shiraz, 140 m. \ from the former and 170 m. from the latter place. Pop. \ 4000. It is the chief place of the Abadeh-Iklid district, \ which has 30 villages; it has telegraph and post offices, \ and is famed for its carved wood-work, small boxes, trays, \ sherbet spoons, &c., made of the wood of pear and box trees. \ \ \b ABAE \b0 ( \f2 rabai \f0 ), a town in the N.E. corner of Phocis, in \ Greece, famous in early times for its oracle of Apollo, \ one of those consulted by Croesus (Herod. i. 46). It was \ rich in treasures (Herod. viii. 33), but was sacked by the \ Persians, and the temple remained in a ruined state. The \ oracle was, however, still consulted, \i e.g. \i0 by the Thebans \ before Leuctra (Paus. iv. 32. 5). The temple seems to have \ been burnt again during the Sacred War, and was in a very \ dilapidated state when seen by Pausanias (x. 35), though \ some restoration, as well as the building of a new temple, \ was undertaken by Hadrian. The sanctity of the shrine \ ensured certain privileges to the people of Abac ( \i Bull. \ Corresp. Hell. \i0 vi. 171), and these were confirmed by the \ Romans. The polygonal wabs of the acropolis may still be \ seen in a fair state of preservation on a circular hill \ standing about 500 ft. above the little plain of Exarcho; \ one gateway remains, and there are also traces of town walls \ below. The temple site was on a low spur of the hill, below the \ town. An early terrace wall supports a precinct in which are \ a stoa and some remains of temples; these were excavated by the \ British School at Athens in 1894, but very little was found. \ \ See also W. M. Leake, \i Travels in Northern Greece \i0 , ii. p. 163i \i Journal \ of Hellenic Studies \i0 , xvi. pp. 291-312 (V. W. Yorke). . (E. G \fs20 R. \fs24 ) \ \ \b ABAKANSK \b0 , a fortified town of Siberia, in the Russian \ government of Yeniseisk, on the river Yenisei, 144 m. S.S.W. \ of Krasnoyarsk, in lat. 54J20' N., long. 91J40' E. This is \ considered the mildest and most salubrious place in Siberia, and \ is remarkable for certain tumuli (of the Li Kitai) and statues \ of men from seven to nine feet high, covered with hieroglyphics. \ Peter the Great had a fort built here in 1707. Pop. 2000. \ \ \b ABALONE \b0 , the Spanish name used in California for various \ species of the shell-fish of the Haliotidae family, with a \ richly coloured shell yielding mother-of-pearl. This sort \ of Haliotis is also commonly called ``ear-shell,'' and in \ Guernsey ``ormer'' (Fr. \i ormier \i0 , for \i oreille de mer). \i0 \ The abalone shell is found especially at Santa Barbara and \ other places on the southern Californian coast, and when \ polished makes a beautiful ornament. The mollusc itself is \ often eaten, and dried for consumption in China and Japan. \ \ \b ABANA \b0 (or A \fs20 MANAH \fs24 , classical \i Chrysorrhoas \i0 ) and \b PHARPAR \b0 , \ the ``rivers of Damascus'' (2 Kings v. 12), now generally \ identified with the Barada ( \i i.e. \i0 ``cold'') and the A`waj \ ( \i i.e. \i0 ``crooked'') respectively, though if the reference \ to Damascus be limited to the city, as in the Arabic \ version of the Old Testament, Pharpar would be the modern \ Taura. Both streams run from west to east across the plain of \ Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, and lose \ themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, on the \ borders of the great Arabian desert. John M'Gregor, who gives \ an interesting description of them in his \i Rob Roy on the \ Jordan \i0 , affirmed that as a work of hydraulic engineering, \ the system and construction of the canals, by which the Abana \ and Pharpar were used for irrigation, might be considered as \ one of the most complete and extensive in the world. As the \ Barada escapes from the mountains through a narrow gorge, \ its waters spread out fan-like, in canals or ``rivers'', the \ name of one of which, Nahr Banias, retains a trace of Abana. \ \ \b ABANCOURT, CHARLES XAVIER JOSEPH DE FRANQUE VILLE D' \b0 , \ (1758-1792), French statesman, and nephew of Calonne. He was \ Louis XVI.'s last minister of war (July 1792), and organized \ the defence of the Tuileries for the 10th of August. Commanded \ by the Legislative Assembly to send away the Swiss guards, he \ refused, and was arrested for treason to the nation and sent \ to Orleans to be tried. At the end of August the Assembly \ ordered Abancourt and the other prisoners at Orleans to \ be transferred to Paris with an escort commanded by Claude \ Fournier, ``the American.'' At Versailles they learned of the \ massacres at Paris, and Abancourt and his fellow-prisoners \ were murdered in cold blood on the 8th of September 1792. \ Fournier was unjustly charged with complicity in the crime. \ \ \b ABANDONMENT \b0 (Fr. \i abandonnement \i0 , from \i abandonner \i0 , to \ abandon, relinquish; \i abandonner \i0 was originally equivalent \ to \i mettreU bandon \i0 , to leave to the jurisdiction, \i i.e. \i0 of \ another, \i bandon \i0 being from Low Latin \i bandum, bannum \i0 , order, \ decree, ``ban''), in law, the relinquishment of an interest, \ claim, privilege or possession. Its signification varies \ according to the branch of the law in which it is employed, \ but the more important uses of the word are summarized below. \ \ A \fs20 BANDONMENT \fs24 O \fs20 F \fs24 A \fs20 N \fs24 A \fs20 CTION \fs24 is the discontinuance of proceedings \ commenced in the High Court of Justice either because the \ plaintiff is convinced that he will not succeed in his action \ or for other reasons. Previous to the Judicature Act of 1875, \ considerable latitude was allowed as to the time when a suitor \ might abandon his action, and yet preserve his right to bring \ another action on the same suit (see N \fs20 ONSUIT \fs24 ); but since 1875 \ this right has been considerably curtailed, and a plaintiff who \ has deilvered his reply (see P \fs20 LEADING \fs24 ), and afterwards wishes \ to abandon his action, can generally obtain leave so to do only \ on condition of bringing no further proceedings in the matter. \ \ A \fs20 BANDONMENT \fs24 I \fs20 N \fs24 M \fs20 ARINE \fs24 I \fs20 NSURANCE \fs24 is the surrender of the ship \ or goods insured to the insurers, in the case of a constructive \ total loss of the thing insured. For the requisites and \ effects of abandonment in this sense See I \fs20 NSURANCE, \fs24 M \fs20 ARINE. \fs24 \ \ A \fs20 BANDONMENT \fs24 O \fs20 F \fs24 W \fs20 IFE \fs24 A \fs20 ND \fs24 C \fs20 HILDREN \fs24 is dealt with under \ D \fs20 ESERTION \fs24 , and the \i abandonment or exposure \i0 of a \ young child under the age of two, which is an indictable \ misdemeanour, is dealt with under C \fs20 HILDREN, \fs24 C \fs20 RUELTY \fs24 T \fs20 O. \fs24 \ \ A \fs20 BANDONMENT \fs24 O \fs20 F \fs24 D \fs20 OMICILE \fs24 is the ceasing to reside permanently \ in a former domicile coupled with the intention of choosing a new \ domicile. The presumptions which will guide the court in deciding \ whether a former domicile has been abandoned or not must be \ inferred from the facts of each individual case. See D \fs20 OMICILE. \fs24 \ \ A \fs20 BANDONMENT \fs24 O \fs20 F \fs24 A \fs20 N \fs24 E \fs20 ASEMENT \fs24 is the relinquishment of some \ accommodation or right in another's land, such as right of \ way, free access of light and air, &c. See E \fs20 ASEMENT. \fs24 \ \ A \fs20 BANDONMENT \fs24 O \fs20 F \fs24 R \fs20 AILWAYS \fs24 has a legal signification in England \ recognized by statute, by authority of which the Board of \ Trade may, under certain circumstances, grant a warrant to a \ railway authorizing the abandonment of its line or part of it. \ \ \b ABANO, PIETRO D \b0 , (1250-1316), known also as P \fs20 ETRUS \fs24 D \fs20 E \fs24 \ A \fs20 PONO \fs24 or A \fs20 PONENSIS \fs24 , Italian physician and philosopher, \ was born at the Italian town from which he takes his name \ in 1250, or, according to others, in 1246. After studying \ medicine and philosophy at Paris he settled at Padua, where \ he speedily gained a great reputation as a physician, and \ availed himself of it to gratify his avarice by refusing \ to visit patients except for an exorbitant fee. Perhaps \ this, as well as his meddling with astrology, caused him to \ be charged with practising magic, the particular accusations \ being that he brought back into his purse, by the aid of the \ devil, all the money he paid away, and that he possessed the \ philosopher's stone. He was twice brought to trial by the \ Inquisition; on the first occasion he was acquitted, and he \ died (1316) before the second trial was completed. He was \ found guilty, however, and his body was ordered to be exhumed \ and burned; but a friend had secretly removed it, and the \ Inquisition had, therefore, to content itself with the public \ proclamation of its sentence and the burning of Abano in \ effigy. In his writings he expounds and advocates the medical \ and philosophical systems of Averroes and other Arabian \ writers. His best known works are the \i Conciliator differentiarum \ quae inter \i0 \i philosophos et medicos versantur \i0 (Mantua, 1472; \ V.enice, 1476), and \i De venenis eorumque remediis \i0 (1472), \ of which a French translation was published at Lyons in 1593. \ \ \b ABANO BAGNI \b0 , a town of Venetia, Italy, in the province of \ Padua, on the E. slope of the Monti Euganei; it is 6 m. S.W. \ by rail from Padua. Pop. (1901) 4556. Its hot springs and \ mud baths are much resorted to, and were known to the Ronlans \ as \i Aponi fons \i0 or \i Aquae Patavinae. \i0 Some remains of the \ ancient baths have been discovered (S. Mandruzzato, \i Trattato \ dei Bagni \i0 \i d' Abano \i0 , Padua, 1789). An oracle of Geryon lay \ near, and the so-called \i sortes Praenestinae (C.I.L. \i0 i., \ Berlin, 1863; 1438-1454), small bronze cylinders inscribed, and \ used as oracles, were perhaps found here in the 16th century. \ \ \b ABARIS \b0 , a Scythian or Hyperborean, priest and prophet \ of Apollo, who is said to have visited Greece about 770 \ \fs20 B.C. \fs24 , or two or three centuries later. According to \ the legend, he travelled throughout the country, living \ without food and riding on a golden arrow, the gift of \ the god; he healed the sick, foretold the future, worked \ miracles, and delivered Sparta from a plague (Herod. iv. 36; \ Iamblichus, \i De Fit. Pythag. \i0 xix. 28). Suidas credits him \ with several works: Scythian oracles, the visit of Apollo to \ the Hyperboreans, expiatory formulas and a prose theogony. \ \ \b ABATED \b0 , an ancient technical term applied in masonry and \ metal work to those portions which are sunk beneath the \ surface, as in inscriptions where the ground is sunk round \ the letters so as to leave the letters or ornament in relief. \ \ \b ABATEMENT \b0 (derived through the French \i abattre \i0 , from the \ Late Latin \i battere \i0 , to beat), a beating down or diminishing or \ doing away with; a term used especially in various legal phrases. \ \ A \fs20 BATEMENT \fs24 O \fs20 F \fs24 A \fs20 \fs24 N \fs20 UISANCE \fs24 is the remedy allowed by law to \ a person or public authority injured by a public nuisance \ of destroying or removing it, provided no breach of the \ peace is committed in doing so. In the case of private \ nuisances abatement is also allowed provided there be no \ breach of the peace, and no damage be occasioned beyond \ what the removal of the nuisance requires. (See N \fs20 UISANCE. \fs24 ) \ \ A \fs20 BATEMENT \fs24 O \fs20 F \fs24 F \fs20 REEHOLD \fs24 takes place where, after the death of \ the person last seised, a stranger enters upon lands before \ the entry of the heir or devisee, and keeps the latter out of \ possession. It differs from intrusion, which is a similar \ entry by a stranger on the death of a tenant for life, to \ the prejudice of the reversioner, or remainder man; and from \ disseisin, which is the forcible or fraudulent expulsion \ of a person seised of the freehold. (See F \fs20 REEHOLD. \fs24 ) \ \ A \fs20 BATEMENT \fs24 O \fs20 E \fs24 D \fs20 EBTS \fs24 A \fs20 ND \fs24 L \fs20 EGACIES. \fs24 When the equitable assets \ (see A \fs20 SSETS \fs24 ) of a deceased person are not sufficient to \ satisfy fully all the creditors, their debts must abate \ proportionately, and they must accept a dividend. Also, in \ the case of legacies when the funds or assets out of which \ they are payable are not sufficient to pay them in full, the \ legacies abate in proportion, unless there is a priority given \ specially to any particular legacy (see L \fs20 EGACY). \fs24 Annuities \ are also subject to the same rule as general legacies. \ \ \ A \fs20 BATEMENT \fs24 I \fs20 N \fs24 P \fs20 LEADING \fs24 , or plea in abatement, was the \ defeating or quashing of a particular action by some matter of \ fact, such as a defect in form or the personal incompetency \ of the parties suing, pleaded by the defendant. It did not \ involve the merits of the cause, but left the right of action \ subsisting. In criminal proceedings a plea in abatement was at \ one time a common practice in answer to an indictment, and was \ set up for the purpose of defeating the indictment as framed, \ by alleging misnomer or other misdescription of the defendant. \ Its effect for this purpose was nullified by the Criminal Law \ Act 1826, which required the court to amend according to the \ truth, and the Criminal Procedure Act 1851, which rendered \ description of the defendant unnecessary. All pleas in abatement \ are now abolished (R.S.G. Order 21, r. 20). See P \fs20 LEADING. \fs24 \ \ A \fs20 BATEMENT \fs24 I \fs20 N \fs24 L \fs20 ITIGATION. \fs24 In civil proceedings, no action \ abates by reason of the marriage, death or bankruptcy of any \ of the parties, if the cause of action survives or continues, \ and does not become defective by the assignment, creation or \ devolution of any estate or title \i pendente lite \i0 ( \fs20 R.S.C. \fs24 Order \ 17, r. 1). Criminal proceedings do not abate on the death of \ the prosecutor, being in theory instituted by the crown, but \ the crown itself may bring about their termination without any \ decision on the merits and without the assent of the prosecutor. \ \ A \fs20 BATEMENT \fs24 O \fs20 F \fs24 F \fs20 ALSE \fs24 L \fs20 IGHTS. \fs24 By the Merchant Shipping Act \ 1854, the general lighthouse authority (see L \fs20 IGHTHOUSE \fs24 ) has \ power to order the extinguishment or screening of any light \ which may be mistaken for a light proceeding from a lighthouse. \ \ A \fs20 BATEMENT \fs24 I \fs20 N \fs24 C \fs20 OMMERCE \fs24 is a deduction sometimes made at a \ custom-house from the fixed duties on certain kinds of goods, on \ account of damage or loss sustained in warehouses. The rate and \ conditions of such deductions are regulated, in England, by the \ Customs Consolidation Act 1853. (See also D \fs20 RAWBACK \fs24 ; R \fs20 EBATE. \fs24 ) \ \ A \fs20 BATEMENT \fs24 I \fs20 N \fs24 H \fs20 ERALDRY \fs24 is a badge in coat-armour, indicating some \ kind of degradation or dishonour. It is called also \i rebatement. \i0 \ \ \b ABATI \b0 , or D \fs20 ELL' \fs24 A \fs20 BBATO \fs24 , \b NICCOLO \b0 (1512--1571), a celebrated \ fresco-painter of Modena, whose best works are there and at \ Bologna. He accompanied Primaticcio to France, and assisted \ in decorating the palace at Fontainebleau (1552--1571). His \ pictures exhibit a combination of skill in drawing, grace \ and natural colouring. Some of his easel pieces in oil are \ in different collections; one of the finest, in the Dresden \ Gallery, represents the martyrdom of St Peter and St Paul. \ \ \b ABATIS \b0 ,A \fs20 BATTIS \fs24 or A \fs20 BBATTIS \fs24 (a French word meaning \ a heap of material thrown), a term in field fortification \ for an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid \ in a row, with the tops directed towards the enemy and \ interlaced or tied with wire. The abatis is used alone or \ in combination with wire-entanglements and other obstacles. \ \ \b ABATTOIR \b0 (from \i abattre \i0 , to strike down), a French word often \ employed in English as an equivalent of ``slaughter-house'' \ ( \i q.v. \i0 ), the place where animals intended for food are killed. \ \ \b ABAUZIT, FIRMIN \b0 (1679-1767), a learned Frenchman, was born of \ Protestant parents at Uz\s, in Languedoc. His father died when \ he was but two years of age; and when, on the revocation of the \ edict of Nantes in 1685, the authorities took steps to have him \ educated in the Roman Catholic faith, his mother contrived his \ escape. For two years his brother and he lived as fugitives in \ the mountains of the Cevennes, but they at last reached Geneva, \ where their mother afterwards joined them on escaping from \ the imprisonment in which she was held from the time of their \ flight. Abauzit at an early age acquired great proficiency in \ languages, physics and theology. In 1698 he went to Holland, \ and there became acquainted with Pierre Bayle, P. Jurieu and J. \ Basnage. Proceeding to England, he was introduced to Sir Isaac \ Newton, who found in him one of the earliest defenders of his \ discoveries. Sir Isaac corrected in the second edition of \ his \i Principia \i0 an error pointed out by Abauzit, and, when \ sending him the \i Commercium Epistolicum \i0 , said, ``You are \ well worthy to judge between Leibnitz and me.'' The reputation \ of Abauzit induced William III. to request him to settle in \ England, but he did not accept the king's offer, preferring \ to return to Geneva. There from 1715 he rendered valuable \ assistance to a society that had been formed for translating \ the New Testament into French. He declined the offer of \ the chair of philosophy in the university in 1723, but \ accepted, in 1727, the sinecure office of librarian to the \ city of his adoption. Here he died at a good old age, in \ 1767. Abauzit was a man of great learning and of wonderful \ versatility. Whatever chanced to be discussed,it used to be \ said of Abauzit, as of Professor W. Whewell of more modern \ times, that he seemed to have made it a subject of particular \ study. Rousseau, who was jealously sparing of his praises, \ addressed to him, in his \i Nouvelle H]loese \i0 , a fine panegyric; \ and when a stranger flatteringly told Voltaire he had come \ to see a great man, the philosopher asked him if he had seen \ Abauzit. Little remains of the labours of this intellectual \ giant, his heirs having, it is said, destroyed the papers \ that came into their possession, because their own religious \ opinions were different. A few theological, archaeological \ abd astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the \ \i Journal Helv]tique \i0 and elsewhere, and he contributed \ several papers to Rousseau's \i Dictionnaire de musique \i0 \ (1767). He wrote a work throwing doubt on the canonical \ authority of the Apocalypse, which called forth a reply \ from Dr Leonard Twells. He also edited and made valuable \ additions to J. Spon's \i Histoire de la r]publique de Gen\ve. \i0 \ A collection of his writings was published at Geneva in \ 1770 ( \i OEuvres de feu M. Abauzit \i0 ), and another at London \ in 1773 ( \i OEuvres diverses de M. Abauzit). \i0 Some of them \ were translated into English by Dr Edward Harwood (1774). \ \ Information regarding Abauzit will be found in J. \ Senebier's \i HIstoire Litt]raire de Gen\ve \i0 , Harwood's \ \i Miscellanies \i0 , and W. Orme's \i Bibliotheca Biblica \i0 (1824). \ \ \b 'ABAYE \b0 , the name of a Babylonian \i 'amora (q.v.) \i0 , \ born in the middle of the 3rd century. He died in 339. \ \ \b 'ABBA 'ARIKA \b0 , the name of thc Babylonian \i 'amora (q.v. \i0 ) of \ the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study \ of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led \ to the compilation of the Talmud. He is commonly known as Rab. \ \ \b ABBADIDES \b0 , a Mahommedan dynasty which arose in Spain on the \ downfall of the western caliphate. It lasted from about 1023 \ till 1091, but during the short period of its existence was \ singularly active and typical of its time. The founder of \ the house was Abd-ul-Qasim Mahommed, the cadi of Seville in \ 1023. He was the chief of an Arab family settled in the city \ from the first days of the conquest. The Beni-abbad were not \ of ancient descent, though the poets, whom they paid largely, \ made an illustrious pedigree for them when they had become \ powerful. They were, however, very rich. Abd-ul-Qasim gained \ the confidence of the townsmen by organizing a successful \ resistance to the Berber soldiers of fortune who were grasping \ at the fragments of the caliphate. At first he professed to \ rule only with the advice of a council formed of the nobles, \ but when his power became established he dispensed with this \ show of republican government, and then gave himself the \ appearance of a legitimate title by protecting an impostor \ who professed to be the caliph Hisham II. When Abd-ul-Qasim \ died in 1042 he had created a state which, though weak in \ itself, was strong as compared to the little powers about \ it. He had made his family the recognized leaders of the \ Mahommedans of Arab and native Spanish descent against \ the Berber element, whose chief was the king of Granada. \ Abbad, surnamed El Motaddid, his son and successor, is \ one of the most remarkable figures in Spanish Mahommedan \ history. He had a striking resemblance to the Italian princes \ of the later middle ages and the early renaissance, of the \ stamp of Fiiipo Maria Visconti. El Motaddid was a poet and \ a lover of letters, who was also a poisoner, a drinker of \ wine, a sceptic and treacherous to the utmost degree. Though \ he waged war all through his reign he very rarely appeared in \ the field, but directed the generals, whom he never trusted, \ from his ``lair'' in the fortified palace, the Alcazar of \ Seville. He killed with his own hand one of his sons who had \ rebelled against him. On one occasion he trapped a number \ of his enemies, the Berber chiefs of the Ronda, into visiting \ him, and got rid of them by smothering them in the hot room \ of a bath. It was his taste to preserve the skulls of the \ enemies he had killed--those of the meaner men to be used as \ flower-pots, while those of the princes were kept in special \ chests. His reign until his death on the 28th of February \ 1069 was mainly spent in extending his power at the expense \ of his smaller neighbours, and in conflicts with his chief \ rival the king of Granada. These incessant wars weakened the \ Mahommedans, to the great advantage of the rising power of \ the Christian kings of Leon and Castile, but they gave the \ kingdom of Seville a certain superiority over the other little \ states. After 1063 he was assailed by Fernando El Magno of \ Castile and Leon, who marched to the gates of Seville, and \ forced him to pay tribute. His son, Mahommed Abd-ul-Qasim \ Abenebet---who reigned by the title of El Motamid--was the \ third and last of the Abbadides, He was a no less remarkable \ person than his father and much more amiable. Like him he was \ a poet, and a favourer of poets. El Motamid went, however, \ considerably further in patronage of literature than his father, \ for he chose as his favourite and prime minister the poet Ibn \ Ammar. In the end the vanity and featherheadedness of Ibn \ Ammar drove his master to kill him. El Motamid was even \ more influenced by his favourite wife, Romaica, than by his \ vizir. He had met her paddling in the Guadalquivir, purchased \ her from her master, and made her his wife. The caprices \ of Romaica, and the lavish extravagance of Motamid in his \ efforts to please her, form the subject of many stories. \ In politics he carried on the feuds of his family with the \ Berbers, and in his efforts to extend his dominions could be \ as faithless as his father. His wars and his extravagance \ exhausted his treasury, and he oppressed his subjects by \ taxes. In 1080 he brought down upon himself the vengeance of \ Alphonso VI. of Castile by a typical piece of flighty oriental \ barbarity. He had endeavoured to pay part of his tribute to the \ Christian king with false money. The fraud was detected by a \ Jew, who was one of the envoys of Alphonso. El Motamid, in \ a moment of folly and rage, crucified the Jew and imprisoned \ the Christian members of the mission. Alphonso retaliated \ by a destructive raid. When Alphonso took Toledo in 1085, \ El Motamid called in Yusef ibn Tashfin, the Almoravide (see \ S \fs20 PAIN \fs24 , \i History \i0 , and A \fs20 LMORAVIDES). \fs24 During the six years \ which preceded his deposition in 1091, El Motamid behaved \ with valour on the field, but with much meanness and political \ folly. He endeavoured to curry favour with Yusef by betraying \ the other Mahommedan princes to him, and intrigued to secure \ the alliance of Alphonso against the Almoravide. It was \ probably during this period that he surrendered his beautiful \ daughter Zaida to the Christian king, who made her his \ concubine, and is said by some authorities to have married \ her after she bore him a son, Sancho. The vacillations and \ submissions of El Motamid did not save him from the fate \ which overtook his fellow-princes. Their scepticism and \ extortion had tired their subjects, and the mullahs gave Yusef \ a ``fetva'' authorzing him to remove them in the interest of \ religion. In 1091 the Almoravides stormed Seville. El \ Motamid, who had fought bravely, was weak enough to order his \ sons to surrender the fortresses they still held, in order \ to save his own life. He died in prison in Africa in 1095. \ \ A \fs20 UTHORITIES. \fs24 --Dozy, \i Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne \i0 , \ Leiden, 1861; and \i Historia Abbadidarum \i0 (Scriptorum \ Arabum loci de Abbadidio), Leiden, 1846. (D. II.) \ \ \b ABBADIE, ANTOINE THOMSON D' \b0 , (1810-1897), and \b ARNAUD MICHEL \ D' \b0 , (1815-1893), two brothers notable for their travels in \ Abyssinia during the first half of the 19th century. They \ were both born in Dublin, of a French father and an Irish \ mother, Antoine in 1810 and Arnaud in 1815. The parents \ removed to France in 1818, and there the brothers received \ a careful scientific education. In 1835 the French Academy \ sent Antoine on a scientific mission to Brazil, the results \ being published at a later date (1873) under the title of \ \i Observations \i0 \i relatives a! la physique du globe faites au \ Br]sil et en \i0 \i thiopie. \i0 The younger Abbadie spent some \ time in Algeria before, in 1837, the two brothers started for \ Abyssinia, landing at Massawa in February 1838. They visited \ various parts of Abyssinia, including the then little-known \ districts of Ennarea and Kaffa, sometimes together and \ sometimes separately. They met with many difficulties and \ many adventures, and became involved in political intrigues, \ Antoine especially exercising such influence as he possessed \ in favour of France and the Roman Catholic missionaries. After \ collecting much valuable information concerning the geography, \ geology, archaeology and natural history of Abyssinia, the \ brothers returned to France in 1848 and began to prepare their \ materials for publication. The younger brother, Arnaud, paid \ another visit to Abyssinia in 1853. The more distinguished \ brother, Antoine, became involved in various controversies \ relating both to his geographical results and his political \ intrigues. He was especially attacked by C. T. Beke, who \ impugned his veracity, especially with reference to the journey to \ Kana. But time and the investigations of subsequent explorers \ have shown that Abbadie was quite trustworthy as to his facts, \ though wrong in his contention--hotly contested by Beke--that \ the Blue Nile was the main stream. The topographical results \ of his explorations were published in Paris in 1860-1873 in \ \i G]od]sie d'Ethiopie \i0 , full of the most valuable information and \ illustrated by ten maps. Of the \i G]ographie \i0 \i de l' thiopie \i0 \ (Paris, 1890) only one volume has been published. In \i Un \ Catalogue raisonn] de manuscrits \i0 \i ]thiopiens \i0 (Paris, 1859) \ is a description of 234 Ethiopian manuscripts collected by \ Antoine. He also compiled various vocabularies, including \ a \i Dictionnaire de la \i0 \i langue amarinna \i0 (Paris, 1881), and \ prepared an edition of the \i Shepherd of Hermas \i0 , with the \ Latin version, in 1860. He published numerous papers dealing \ with the geography of Abyssinia, Ethiopian coins and ancient \ inscriptions. Under the title of \i Reconnaissances magn]tiques \i0 \ he published in 1890 an account of the magnetic observations \ made by him in the course of several journeys to the Red \ Sea and the Levant. The general account of the travels of \ the two brothers was published by Arnaud in 1868 under the \ title of \i Douze ans dans la Haute thiopie. \i0 Both brothers \ received the grand medal of the Paris Geographical Society in \ 1850. Antoine was a knight of the Legion of Honour and a \ member of the Academy of Sciences. He died in 1897, and \ bequeathed an estate in the Pyrenees, yielding 40,000 francs \ a year, to the Academy of Sciences, on condition of its \ producing within fifty years a catalogue of half-a-million \ stars. His brother Arnaud died in 1893. (J. S. K.) \ \ \b ABBADIE, JAKOB \b0 (1654?-1727), Swiss Protestant divine, \ was born at Nay in Bern. He studied at Sedan, Saumur and \ Puylaurens, with such success that he received the degree of \ doctor in theology at the age of seventeen. After spending \ some years in Berlin as minister of a French Protestant church, \ where he had great success as a preacher, he accompanied \ Marshal Schomberg, in 1688, to England, and next year became \ minister of the French church in the Savoy, London. His \ strong attachment to the cause of King William appears in \ his elaborate defence of the Revolution ( \i D]fense de la \i0 \ \i nation britannique \i0 , 1692) as well as in his history of the \ conspiracy of 1696 ( \i Histoire de la grande \i0 \i conspiration \ d'Angleterre). \i0 The king promoted him to the deanery of Killaloe \ in Ireland. He died in London in 1727. Abbadie was a man \ of great ability and an eloquent preacher, but is best known \ by his religious treatises, several of which were translated \ from the original French into other languages and had a wide \ circulation throughout Europe. The most important of these are \ \i Trait] de la v]rite de la religion chr]tienne \i0 (1684); its \ continuation, \i Trait] de la divinit] de \i0 \i J]sus-Christ \i0 \ (1689); and \i L'Art de se connaitre \i0 \i soi-m]me \i0 (1692). \ \ \b 'ABBAHU \b0 , the name of a Palestinian \i 'amora (q.v. \i0 ) \ who flourished \i c. \i0 279-320. 'Abbahu encouraged the \ study of Greek by Jews. He was famous as a collector of \ traditional lore, and is very often cited in the Talmud. \ \ \b ABBA MARI \b0 (in full, Abba Mari ben Moses benJoseph), French \ rabbi, was born at Lunel, near Montpellier, towards the end of \ the 13th century. He is also known as Yarhi from his birthplace \ (Heb. Yerah, \i i.e. \i0 moon, \i lune \i0 ), and he further took the \ name Astruc, Don Astruc or En Astruc of Lunel. The descendant \ of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself \ to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself \ acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides \ as well as with the Talmud. In Montpellier, where he lived \ from 1303 to 1306, he was much distressed by the prevalence \ of Aristotelian rationalism, which, through the medium of \ the works of Maimonides, threatened the authority of the Old \ Testament, obedience to the law, and the belief in miracles and \ revelation. He, therefore, in a series of letters (afterwards \ collected under the title \i Minhat Kenaot, i.e. \i0 ``Jealousy \ Offering'') called upon the famous rabbi Solomon ben Adret \ of Barcelona to come to the aid of orthodoxy. Ben Adret, \ with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a \ letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the \ study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years \ of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal \ section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in \ 1305. The result was a great schism among the Jews of Spain \ and southern France, and a new impulse was given to the study \ of philosophy by the unauthorized interference of the Spanish \ rabbis. On the expulsion of the Jews from France by Philip \ IV. in 1306, Abba Mari settled at Perpignan, where he \ published the letters connected with the controversy. His \ subsequent history is unknown. Beside the letters, he was \ the author of liturgical poetry and works on civil law. \ \ A \fs20 UTHORITIES. \fs24 --Edition of the \i Minhat Kenaot \i0 by M. L. \ Bislichis (Pressburg, 1838); E. Renan, \i Les rabbins fran[ais \i0 , \ pp. 647 foll.; Perles, \i Salomo ben Abrahann ben Adereth \i0 , \ pp. 15-54; \i Jewish Encyclopaedia, s.v. \i0 ``Abba Mari.'' \ \ \b ABBAS I. \b0 (1813-1854), pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun \ Pasha and grandson of Mehemet Ali, founder of the reigning \ dynasty. As a young man he fought in Syria under Ibrahim Pasha \ ( \i q.v. \i0 ), his real or supposed uncle. The death of Ibrahim \ in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August \ following, on the death of Mehemet Alh--who had been deposed \ in July 1848 on account of mental weakness,--Abbas succeeded \ to the pashalik. He has been generally described as a mere \ voluptuary, but Nubar Pasha spoke of him as a true Turkish \ gentleman of the old school. He was without question a \ reactionary, morose and taciturn, and spent nearly all his \ time shut up in his palace. He undid, as far as lay in his \ power, the works of his grandfather, good and bad. Among \ other things he abolished trade monopolies, closed factories \ and schools, and reduced the strength of the army to 9000 \ men. He was inaccessible to adventurers bent on plundering \ Egypt, but at the instance of the British government \ allowed the construction of a railway from Alexandria to \ Cairo. In July 1854 he was murdered in Benha Palace by two \ of his slaves, and was succeeded by his uncle, Said Pasha. \ \ \b ABBAS II. \b0 (1874-- ), khedive of Egypt. Abbas Hilmi Pasha, \ great-great-grandson of Mehemet Ali, born on the 14th of \ July 1874, succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as khedive \ of Egypt on the 8th of January 1892. When a boy he visited \ England, and he had an English tutor for some time in \ Cairo. He then went to school in Lausanne, and from there \ passed on to the Theresianum in Vienna. In addition to \ Turkish, his mother tongue, he acquired fluency in Arabic, \ and a good conversational knowledge of English, French and \ German. He was still at college in Vienna when the sudden \ death of his father raised him to the Khedivate; and he was \ barely of age according to Turkish law, which fixes majority \ at eighteen in cases of succession to the throne. For \ some time he did not co-operate very cordially with Great \ Britain. He was young and eager to exercise his new \ power. His throne and life had not been saved for him by the \ British, as was the case with his father. He was surrounded \ by intriguers who were playing a game of their own, and for \ some time he appeared almost disposed to be as reactionary \ as his great-uncle Abbas I. But in process of time he learnt \ to understand the importance of British counsels. He paid \ a second visit to England in 1900, during which he frankly \ acknowledged the great good the British had done in Egypt, \ and declared himself ready to follow their advice and to \ co-operate with the British officials administering Egyptian \ affairs. The establishment of a sound system of native \ justice, the great remission of taxation, the reconquest \ of the Sudan, the inauguration of the stupendous irrigation \ works at Assuan, the increase of cheap, sound education, \ each received his approval and all the assistance he could \ give. He displayed more interest in agriculture than in \ statecraft, and his farm of cattle and horses at Koubah, \ near Cairo, would have done credit to any agricultural \ show in England; at Montaza, near Alexandria, he created \ a similar establishment. He married the Princess Ikbal \ Hanem and had several children. Mahommed Abdul Mouneim, \ the heir-apparent, was born on the 20th of February 1899. \ \ \b ABBAS I. \b0 ( \i e. \i0 1557-1628 or 1629), shah of Persia, called \ the Great, was the son of shah Mahommed (d. 1586) . In the \ midst of general anarchy in Persia, he was proclaimed ruler of \ Khorasan, and obtained possession of the Persian throne in \ 1586. Determined to raise the fallen fortunes of his country, \ he first directed his efforts against the predatory Uzbegs, \ who occupied and harassed Khorasan. After a long and severe \ struggle, he regained Meshed, defeated them in a great battle \ near Herat in 1597, and drove them out of his dominions. In \ the wars he carried on with the Turks during nearly the whole \ of his reign, his successes were numerous, and he acquired, \ or regained, a large extent of territory. By the victory he \ gained at Bassora in 1605 he extended his empire beyond the \ Euphrates; sultan Ahmed I. was forced to cede Shirvan and \ Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars \ were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas \ made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing \ the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in \ 1623. In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese, \ by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was \ diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the \ shah. When he died, his dominions reached from the Tigris \ to the Indus. Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his \ successes in arms, and by the magnificence of his court and \ of the buildings which he erected, but also by his reforms in \ the administration of his kingdom. He encouraged commerce, \ and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much \ to facilitate it. To foreigners, especially Christians, he \ showed a spirit of tolerance; two Englishmen, Sir Anthony \ and Sir Robert Shirley, or Sherley, were admitted to his \ confidence. His fame is tarnished, however, by numerous deeds \ of tyranny and cruelty. His own family, especially, suffered \ from his fits of jealousy; his eldest son was slain, and \ the eyes of his other children were put out, by his orders. \ \ See \i The Three Brothers, or Travels of Sir Anthony, Sir \ Robert \i0 \i Sherley, &c. \i0 (London, 1823); Sir C. R. Markham, \ \i General Sketch \i0 \i of the History of Persia \i0 (London, 1874). \ \ \b ABBASIDS \b0 , the name generally given to the caliphs of Bagdad, \ the second of the two great dynasties of the Mahommedan \ empire. The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim \ to the throne on their descent from Abbas ( \fs20 A.D. \fs24 566-652), \ the eldest uncle of Mahomet, in virtue of which descent they \ regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as \ opposed to the Omayyads, the descendants of Omayya. Throughout \ the second period of the Omayyads, representatives of this \ family were among their most dangerous opponents, partly by \ the skill with which they undermined the reputation of the \ reigning princes by accusations against their orthodoxy, \ their moral character and their administration in general, \ and partly by their cunning manipulation of internecine \ jealousies among the Arabic and non-Arabic subjects of the \ empire. In the reign of Merwan II. this opposition culminated \ in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent \ from Abbas, who, supported hy the province of Khorasan, achieved \ considerable successes, but was captured ( \fs20 A.D. \fs24 747) and died \ in prison (as some hold, assassinated). The quarrel was taken \ up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu'l-Abbas \ as-Saffah, who after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab \ (750) finally crushed the Omayyads and was proclaimed caliph. \ \ The history of the new dynasty is marked by perpetual \ strife and the development of luxury and the liberal arts, \ in place of the old-fashioned austerity of thought and \ manners. Mansur, the second of the house, who transferred \ the seat of government to Bagdad, fought successfully against \ the peoples of Asia Minor, and the reigns of Harun al-Rashid \ (786--809) and Mamun (813-833) were periods of extraordinary \ splendour. But the empire as a whole stagnated and then decayed \ rapidly. Independent monarchs established themselves in \ Africa and Khorasan (Spain had remained Omayyad throughout), \ and in the north-west the Greeks successfully encroached. \ The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish \ slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by Moqtasim \ (833-842). Their power steadily grew until Radi (934-941) was \ constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed \ b. Raik. Province after province renounced the authority \ of the caliphs, who were merely lay figures, and finally \ Hulagu, the Mongol chief, burned Bagdad (Feb. 28th, 1258). \ The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, \ confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes, \ but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III., who \ was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I. \ \ See C \fs20 ALIPHATE \fs24 (Sections B, 14 and C), where a \ detailed account of the dynasty will be found. \ \ \b ABBAS MIRZA \b0 ( \i c. \i0 1783-1833), prince of Persia, was a \ younger son of the shah, Feth Ali, but on account of his \ mother's royal birth was destined by his father to succeed \ him. Entrusted with the government of a part of Persia, he \ sought to rule it in European fashion, and employed officers \ to reorganize his army. He was soon at war with Russia, and \ his aid was eagerly solicited by both England and Napoleon, \ anxious to checkmate one another in the East. Preferring \ the friendship of France, Abbas continued the war against \ Russia, but his new ally could give him very little assistance, \ and in 1814 Persia was compelled to make a disadvantageous \ peace. He gained some successes during a war between Turkey \ and Persia which broke out in 1821, but cholera attacked his \ army, and a treaty was signed in 1823. His second war with \ Russia, which began in 1825, was attended with the same want of \ success as the former one, and Persia was forced to cede some \ territory. When peace was made in 1828 Abbas then sought \ to restore order in the province of Khorasan, which was \ nominally under Persian supremacy, and while engaged in the \ task died at Meshed in 1833. In 1834 his eldest son, Mahommed \ Mirza, succeeded Feth Ali as shah. Abbas was an intelligent \ prince, possessed some literary taste, and it noteworthy \ on account of the comparative simplicity of his life. \ \ \b ABBAS-TUMAN \b0 , a spa in Russian Transcaucasia, government of \ Tiflis, 50 m. S.W. of the Borzhom railway station and 65 \ m. E. of Batum, very picturesquely situated in a cauldron-shaped \ valley. It has hot sulphur baths (93SJ-118SJ \ Fahr.) and an astronomical observatory (4240 ft.). \ \ \b ABBAZIA \b0 , a popular summer and winter resort of Austria, in \ Istria, 56 m. S.E. of Trieste by rail. Pop. (1900) 2343. It \ is situated on the Gulf of Quarnero in a sheltered position at \ the foot of the Monte Maggiore (4580 ft.), and is surrounded \ by beautiiul woods of laurel. The average temperature is 50J \ Fahr. in winter, and 77J Fahr. in summer. The old abbey, \ San Giacomo della Priluca, from which the place derives its \ name, has been converted into a villa. Abbazia is frequented \ annually by about 16,000 visitors. The whole sea-coast to \ the north and south of Abbazia is rocky and picturesque, \ and contains several smaller winter-resorts. The largest \ of them is Lovrana (pop. 513), situated 5 m. to the south. \ \ \b ABBESS \b0 (Lat. \i abbatissa \i0 , fem. form of \i abbas \i0 , abbot), \ the female superior of an abbey or convent of nuns. The \ mode of election, position, rights and authority of an abbess \ correspond generally with those of an abbot ( \i q.v.). \i0 The \ office is elective, the choice being by the secret votes of the \ sisters from their own body. The abbess is solemnly admitted \ to her office by episcopal benediction, together with the \ conferring of a staff and pectoral cross, and holds for life, \ though liable to be deprived for misconduct. The council of \ Trent fixed the qualifying age at forty, with eight years of \ profession. Abbesses have a right to demand absolute obedience \ of their nuns, over whom they exercise discipline, extending \ even to the power of expulsion, subject, however, to the \ bishop. As a female an abbess is incapable of performing the \ spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an abbot. \ She cannot ordain, confer the veil, nor excommunicate. In \ England abbesses attended ecclesiastical councils, \i e.g. \i0 that \ of Becanfield in 694, where they signed before the presbyters. \ \ By Celtic usage abbesses presided over joint-houses of monks and \ nuns. This custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions to France \ and Spain, and even to Rome itself. At a later period, \fs20 A.D. \fs24 \ 1115, Robert, the founder of Fontevraud, committed the government \ of the whole order, men as well as women, to a female superior. \ \ In the German Evangelical church the title of \i abbess (Aebtissin \i0 ) \ has in some cases \i --e.g. \i0 Itzehoe--survived to designate the \ heads of abbeys which since the Reformation have continued as \ \i Stifte \i0 , \i i.e. \i0 collegiate foundations, which provide a home \ and an income for unmarried ladies, generally of noble birth, \ called canonesses ( \i Kanonissinen \i0 ) or more usually \i Stiftsdamen. \i0 \ This office of abbess is of considerable social dignity, and \ is sometimes filled by princesses of the reigning houses. \ \ \b ABBEVILLE \b0 , a town of northern France, capital of an \ arrondissement in the department of Somme, on the Somme, 12 \ m. from its mouth in the English Channel, and 28 m. N,W. of \ Amiens on the Northern railway. Pop. (1901) 18,519; (1906) \ 18,971. It lies in a pleasant and fertile valley, and is \ built partly on an island and partly on both sides of the \ river, which is canalized from this point to the estuary. The \ streets are narrow, and the houses are mostly picturesque old \ structures, built of wood, with many quaint gables and dark \ archways. The most remarkable building is the church of St \ Vulfran, erected in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The \ original design was not completed. The nave has only two bays \ and the choir is insignificant. The fa[ade is a magnificent \ specimen of the flamboyant Gothic style, flanked by two Gothic \ towers. Abbeville has several other old churches and an \ hntel-de-ville, with a belfry of the 13th century. Among \ the numerous old houses, that known as the Maison de Fran[ois \ I \fs20 e \fs24 , which is the most remarkable, dates from the 16th century. \ There is a statue of Admiral Courbet (d. 1885) in the chief \ square. The public institutions include tribunals of first instance \ and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, and a communal \ college. Abbeville is an important industrial centre; in addition \ to its old-established manufacture of cloth, hemp-spinning, \ sugar-making, ship-building and locksmiths' work are carried on; \ there is active commerce in grain, but the port has little trade. \ \ Abbeville, the chief town of the district of Ponthieu, first \ appears in history during the 9th century. At that time \ belonging to the abbey of St Riquier, it was afterwards \ governed by the counts of Ponthieu. Together with that county, \ it came into the possession of the Alencon and other French \ families, and afterwards into that of the house of Castillo, \ from whom by marriage it fell in 1272 to Edward I., king of \ England. French and English were its masters by turns till \ 1435 when, by the treaty of Arras, it was ceded to the duke of \ Burgundy. In 1477 it was annexed by Louis XI., king of France, \ and was held by two illegitimate branches of the royal family in \ the 16th and 17th centuries, being in 1696 reunited to the crown. \ \ \b ABBEY, EDWIN AUSTIN \b0 (1852- ), American painter, was born at \ Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of April 1852. He left \ the schools of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts at the \ age of nineteen to enter the art department of the publishing \ house of Harper & Brothers in New York, where, in company \ with such men as Howard Pyle, Charles Stanley Reinhart, Joseph \ Pennell and Alfred Parsons, he became very successful as an \ illustrator. In 1878 he was sent by the Harpers to England \ to gather material for illustrations of the poems of Robert \ Herrick. These, published in 1882, attracted much attention, \ and were followed by illustrations for Goldsmith's \i She \ Stoops to Conquer \i0 (1887), for a volume of \i Old Songs \i0 \ (1889), and for the comedies (and a few of the tragedies) of \ Shakespeare. His water-colours and pastels were no less \ successful than the earlier illustrations in pen and ink. \ Abbey now became closely identified with the art life of \ England, and was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters \ in Water-Colours in 1883. Among his water-colours are ``The \ Evil Eye'' (1877); ``The Rose in October'' (1879); ``An Old \ Song'' (1886); ``The Visitors'' (1890), and ``The Jongleur'' \ (1892). Possibly his best known pastels are ``Beatrice,'' \ ``Phyllis,'' and ``Two Noble Kinsmen.'' In 1890 he made his \ first appearance with an oil painting, ``A May Day Morn,'' at \ the Royal Academy in London. He exhibited ``Richard duke of \ Gloucester and the Lady Anne'' at the Royal Academy in 1896, \ and in that year was elected A.R.A., becoming a full R.A. in \ 1898. Apart from his other paintings, special mention must \ be made of the large frescoes entitled ``The Quest of the Holy \ Grail,'' in the Boston Public Library, on which he was occupied \ for some years; and in 1901 he was commissioned by King Edward \ VII. to paint a picture of the coronation, containing many \ portraits elaborately grouped. The dramatic subjects, and the \ brilliant colouring of his on pictures, gave them pronounced \ individuality among the works of contemporary painters. \ Abbey became a member not only of the Royal Academy, but also \ of the National Academy of Design of New York, and honorary \ member of the Royal Bavarian Society, the Soci]t] Nationale \ des Beaux Arts (Paris), the American Water-Colour Society, \ etc. He received first class gold medals at the International \ Art Exhibition of Vienna in 1898, at Philadelphia in 1898, \ at the Paris Exhibitions of 1889 and 1900, and at Berlin in \ 1903; and was made a chevalier of the French Legion of Honour. \ \ \b ABBEY \b0 (Lat. \i abbatia \i0 ; from Syr. \i abba \i0 , father), a \ monastery, or conventual establishment, under the government \ of an A \fs20 BBOT \fs24 or an A \fs20 BBESS. \fs24 A \i priory \i0 only differed from \ an abbey in that the superior bore the name of \i prior \i0 instead \ of \i abbot. \i0 This was the case in all the English conventual \ cathedrals, \i e.g. \i0 Canterbury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the \ archbishop or bishop occupied the abbot's place, the superior \ of the monastery being termed prior. Other priories were \ originally offshoots from the larger abbeys, to the abbots \ of which they continued subordinate; but in later times the \ actual distinction between abbeys and priories was lost. \ \ The earliest Christian monastic communities (see M \fs20 ONASTICISM \fs24 ) \ with which we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or \ huts collected about a common centre, which was usually the abode \ of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or singular \ asceticism, but without any attempt at orderly arrangement. \ The formation of such communities in the East does not date \ from the introduction of Christianity. The example had been \ already set by the Essenes in Judea and the Therapeutae in Egypt. \ \ In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics \ were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, \ at no great distance from some village, supporting themselves \ by the labour of their own hands, and distributing the \ surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the \ poor. Increasing religious fervour, aided by persecution, \ drove them farther and farther away from the abodes of men \ into mountain solitudes or lonely deserts. The deserts \ of Egypt swarmed with the ``cells'' or huts of these \ anchorites. Anthony, who had retired to the Egyptian Thebaid \ during the persecution of Maximin, \fs20 A.D. \fs24 312, was the most \ celebrated among them for his austerities, his sanctity, and \ his power as an exorcist. His fame collected round him a \ host of followers, emulous of his sanctity. The deeper he \ withdrew into the wilderness, the more numerous his disciples \ became. They refused to be separated from him, and built \ their ceils round that of their spiritual father. Thus arose \ the first monastic community, consisting of anchorites living \ each in his own little dwelling, united together under one \ superior. Anthony, as Neander remarks ( \i Church History \i0 , \ vol. iii. p. 316, Clark's trans.), ``without any conscious \ design of his own, had become the founder of a new mode \ of living in common, Coenobitism.'' By degrees order was \ introduced in the groups of huts. They were arranged in \ lines like the tents in an encampment, or the houses in a \ street. From this arrangement these lines of single cells \ came to be known as \i Laurae \i0 , \f2 Laurai \f0 , "streets" or "lanes." \ \ The real founder of coenobian \f2 koinos \f0 , common, and \f2 bios \f0 , \ life) monasteries in the modern sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian \ of the beginning of the 4th century. The first community \ established by him was at Tabennae, an island of the Nile in Upper \ Egypt. Eight others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 3000 \ monks. Within fifty years from his death his societies could \ reckon 50,000 members. These coenobia resembled vilIages, \ peopled by a hard-working religious community, ail of one \ sex. The buildings were detached, small and of the humblest \ character. Each cell or hut, according to Sozomen ( \i H.R. \i0 iii. \ 14), contained three monks. They took their chief meal in a \ common refectory at 3 \fs20 P.M. \fs24 , up to which hour they usually \ fasted. They ate in silence, with hoods so drawn over their \ faces that they could see nothing but what was on the table \ before them. The monks spent all the time, not devoted to \ religious services or study, in manual labour. Palladius, \ who visited the Egyptian monasteries about the close of the \ 4th century, found among the 300 members of the coenobium of \ Panopolis, under the Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 \ carpenters, 12 cameldrivers and 15 tanners. Each separate \ community had its own \i oeconomus \i0 or steward, who was subject \ to a chief \i oeconomus \i0 stationed at the head establishment. \ All the produce of the monks' labour was committed to him, and \ by him shipped to Alexandria. The money raised by the sale \ was expended in the purchase of stores for the support of the \ communities, and what was over was devoted to charity. Twice \ in the year the superiors of the several \i coenobia \i0 met at \ the chief monastery, under the presidency of an archimandrite \ (``the chief of the fold,'' from \f2 miandra \f0 , a fold), and at \ the last meeting gave in reports of their administration for the \ year. The \i coenobia \i0 of Syria belonged to the Pachomian \ institution. We learn many details concerning those in the \ vicinity of Antioch from Chrysostom's writings. The monks \ lived in separate huts, \f2 kalbbia \f0 , forming a religious hamlet \ on the mountain side. They were subject to an abbot, and \ observed a common rule. (They had no refectory, but ate their \ common meal, of bread and water only, when the day's labour \ was over, reclining on strewn grass, sometimes out of doors,) \ Four times in the day they joined in prayers and psalms. \ \ \b\fs20 Santa Laura, Mount Athos. \b0\fs24 \ \ The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy of \ space and convenience of access from one part of the community \ to another, by degrees dictated a more compact and orderly \ arrangement of the buildings of a monastic coenobium. Large \ piles of building were erected, with strong outside walls, \ capable of resisting the assaults of an enemy, within which \ all the necessary edifices were ranged round one or more \ open courts, usually surrounded with cloisters. The usual \ Eastern arrangement is exemplified in the plan of the convent \ of Santa Laura, Mount Athos ( \i Laura \i0 , the designation of a \ monastery generally, being converted into a female saint). \ \ This monastery, like the oriental monasteries generally, is \ surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, enclosing \ an area of between 3 and 4 acres. The longer side extends to \ a length of about 500 feet. There is only one main entrance, \ on the north side (A), defended by three separate iron \ doors. Near the entrance is a large tower (M), a constant \ feature in the monasteries of the Levant. There is a small \ postern gate at L. The \i enceinte \i0 comprises two large open \ courts, surrounded with buildings connected with cloister \ galleries of wood or stone. The outer court, which is much the \ larger, contains the granaries and storehouses (K), and the \ kitchen (H) and other offices connected with the refectory \ (G). Immediately adjacent to the gateway is a two-storied \ guest-house, opening from a cloister (C). The inner court is \ surrounded by a cloister (EE), from which open the monks' cells \ (II). In the centre of this court stands the catholicon \ or conventual church, a square building with an apse of \ the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a domed \ narthex. In front of the church stands a marble fountain \ (F), covered by a dome supported on columns. Opening from \ the western side of the cloister, but actually standing in \ the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large cruciform \ building, about 100 feet each way, decorated within with \ frescoes of saints. At the upper end is a semicircular \ recess, recalling the triclinium of the Lateran Palace \ \ A. Gateway. \ B. Chapels.\ C. Guest-house.\ D. Church.\ E. Cloister.\ F. Fountain.\ G. Refectory.\ H. Kitchen.\ I. Cells.\ K. Storehouses.\ L. Postern gate.\ M. Tower.\ F \fs20 IG. 1. \fs24 ---Monastery of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Lenoir). \ \ at Rome, in which is placed the seat of the \i hegumenos \i0 or \ abbot. This apartment is chiefly used as a hall of meeting, the \ oriental monks usually taking their meals in their separate cells. \ \ \b\fs20 Vatopede \b0\fs24 \ \ St Laura is exceeded in magnitude by the convent of Vatopede \ also on Mount Athos. This enormous establishment covers at \ least 4 acres of ground, and contains so many separate buildings \ within its massive walls that it resembles a fortified town. It \ lodges above 300 monks, and the establishment of the hegumenos is \ described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign prince. \ The immense refectory, of the same cruciform shape as that of \ St Laura, will accommodate 500 guests at its 24 marble tables. \ \ The annexed plan of a Coptic monastery, from Lenoir, \ shows a church of three aisles, with cellular apses, and \ two ranges of cells on either side of an oblong gallery. \ \ \b\fs20 Benedictine. \b0\fs24 \ \ Monasticism in the West owes its extension and development \ to Benedict of Nursia (born \fs20 A.D. \fs24 480). His rule was \ diffused with miraculous rapidity from the parent foundation \ on Monte Cassino through the whole of western Europe, and \ every country witnessed the erection of monasteries far \ exceeding anything that had yet been seen in spaciousness and \ splendour. Few great towns in Italy were without their \ Benedictine convent, and they quickly rose in all the great \ centres of population in England, France and Spain. The number \ of these monasteries founded between \fs20 A.D. \fs24 520 and 700 is \ amazing. Before the Council of Constance, \fs20 A.D. \fs24 1415, no \ fewer than 15,070 abbeys had been established of this order \ alone. The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly \ arranged ofter one plan, modified where necessary (as at \ Durham and Worcester, where the monasteries stand close to the \ steep bank of a river) to accommodate the arrangement to local \ circumstances. We have no existing examples of the earlier \ monasteries of the Benedictine order. They have all yielded \ to the ravages of time and the violence of man. But we \ have fortunately preserved to us an elaborate plan of the \ great Swiss monastery of St Gall, erected about \fs20 A.D. \fs24 820, \ which puts us in possession of the whole arrangements of a \ monastery of the first class towards the early part of the 9th \ century. This curious and interesting plan has been made \ the subject of a memoir both by Keller (Zvrich, 1844) and by \ Professor Robert Willis ( \i Arch. \i0 \i Journal \i0 , 1848, vol. v. pp. \ 86-117. To the latter we are indebted for the substance of \ the following description, as well as for the plan, reduced \ from his elucidated transcript of the original preserved \ \ F \fs20 IG. 2. \fs24 ---Plan of Coptic Monastery. \ A. Narthex. B. Church.\ C. Corridor, with cells on each side.\ D. Staircase.\ in the archives of the convent. The general apperance \ of the convent is that of a town of isolated houses with \ streets running between them. It is evidently planned in \ compliance with the Benedictine rule, which enjoined that, \ if possible, the monastery should contain within itself \ every necessary of life, as well as the buildings more \ intimately connected with the religious and social life of its \ inmates. It should comprise a mill, a bakehouse, stables \ and cow-houses, together with accommodation for carrying \ on all necessary mechanical arts within the walls, so as to \ obviate the necessity of the monks going outside its limits. \ \ The general distribution of the buildings may be thus \ described:-The church, with its cloister to the south, occupies \ the centre of a quadrangular area, about 43O feet square. The \ buildings, as in all great monasteries, are distributed into \ groups. The church forms the nucleus, as the centre of the \ religious life of the community. In closest connexion with \ the church is the group of buildings appropriated to the \ monastic line and its daily requirements---the refectory for \ eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common room for social \ intercourse, the chapter-house for religious and disciplinary \ conference. These essential elements of monastic life \ are ranged about a cloister court, surrounded by a covered \ arcade, affording communication sheltered ftom the elements \ between the various buildings. The infirmary for sick monks, \ with the physician's house and physic garden, lies to the \ east. In the same group with the infirmary is the school for \ the novices. The outer school, with its headmaster's house \ against the opposite wall of the church, stands outside the \ convent enclosure, in close proximity to the abbot's house, \ that he might have a constant eye over them. The buildings \ devoted to hospitality are divided into three groups,--one \ for the reception of distinguished guests, another for monks \ visiting the monastery, a third for poor travellers and \ pilgrims. The first and third are placed to the right and \ left of the common entrance of the monastery,---the hospitium \ for distinguished guests being placed on the north side of the \ church, not far from the abbot's house; that for the poor \ on the south side next to the farm buildings. The monks are \ lodged in a guest-house built against the north wall of the \ church. The group of buildings connected with the material \ wants of the establishment is placed to the south and west \ of the church, and is distinctly separated from the monastic \ buildings. The kitchen, buttery and offices are reached by a \ passage from the west end of the refectory, and are connected \ with the bakehouse and brewhouse, which are placed still farther \ away. The whole of the southern and western sides is devoted to \ workshops, stables and farm-buildings. The buildings, with some \ exceptions, seem to have been of one story only, and all but \ the church were probably erected of wood. The whole includes \ thirty-three separate blocks. The church (D) is cruciform, \ with a nave of nine bays, and a semicircular apse at either \ extremity. That to the west is surrounded by a semicircular \ colonnade, leaving an open ``paradise'' (E) between it and \ the wall of the church. The whole area is divided by screens \ into various chapels. The high altar (A) stands immediately \ to the east of the transept, or ritual choir; the altar \ of St Paul (B) in the eastern, and that of St Peter (C) in \ the western apse. A cylindrical campanile stands detached \ from the church on either side of the western apse (FF). \ \ The ``cloister court', (G) on the south side of the nave of the \ \ F \fs20 IG. 3. \fs24 --Ground-plan of St \ \f3 \ \ C \fs20 HURCH. \fs24 U. House for blood-letting.\ A. High altar. V. School.\ B. Altar of St Paul. W. Schoolmaster's lodgings.\ C. Altar of St Peter. X \fs20 1 \fs24 X \fs20 1 \fs24 . Guest-house for those\ D. Nave. of superior rank\ E. Paradise. X \fs20 2 \fs24 X \fs20 2 \fs24 . Guest-house for the poor.\ FF. Towers. Y. Guest-chamber for strange monks.\ M \fs20 ONASTIC \fs24 B \fs20 UILDINGS \fs24 \ G. Cloister. M \fs20 ENIAL \fs24 D \fs20 EPARTMENT. \fs24 \ H. Calefactory, with Z. Factory.\ dormitory over. \i a. \i0 Threshing-floor\ I. Necessary. \i b. \i0 Workshops.\ J. Abbot's house. \i c, c. \i0 Mills.\ K. Refectory. \i d. \i0 Kiln.\ L. Kitchen. \i e. \i0 Stables.\ M. Bakehouse and brewhouse. \i f \i0 Cow-sheds.\ N. Cellar. \i g. \i0 Goat-sheds.\ O. Parlour. (over. \i h. \i0 Pig-sties. \i i. \i0 Sheep-folds.\ P \fs20 1 \fs24 . Scriptorium with library \i k, k, k. \i0 Servants' and workmen's\ P \fs20 2 \fs24 . Sacristy and vestry. sleeping-chambers.\ Q. House of Novices--1.chapel; \i l. \i0 Gardener's house\ 2. refectory; 3. calefactory; \i m,m. \i0 Hen and duck house.\ 4. dormitory; 5. master's room \i n. \i0 Poultry-keeper's house.\ 6. chambers. \i o. \i0 Garden.\ R. Infirmary--1--6 as above in \i q. \i0 Bakehouse for sacramental\ the house of novices.\ S. Doctor's house. \i s, s, s. \i0 Kitchens.\ T. Physic garden. \i t, t, t. \i0 Baths.\ \f0 \ \ church has on its east side the ``pisalis'' or ``calefactory', \ (H), the common sitting-room of the brethren, warmed by \ flues beneath the floor. On this side in later monasteries \ we invariably find the chapterhouse, the absence of \ which in this plan is somewhat surprising. It appears, \ however, from the inscriptions on the plan itself, that the \ north walk of the cloisters served for the purposes of a \ chapter-house, and was fitted up with benches on the long \ sides. Above the calefactory is the ``dormitory'' opening \ into the south transept of the church, to enable the monks \ to attend the nocturnal services with readiness. A passage \ at the other end leads to the ``necessarium'' (I), a portion \ of the monastic buildings always planned with extreme \ care. The southern side is occupied by the ``refectory'' \ (K), from the west end of which by a vestibule the kitchen \ (L) is reached. This is separated from the main buildings \ of the monastery, and is connected by a long passage with \ a building containing the bake house and brewhouse (M), and \ the sleeping-rooms of the servants. The upper story of the \ refectory is the ``vestiarium,'' where the ordinary clothes of \ the brethren were kept. On the western side of the cloister \ is another two story building (N). The cellar is below, \ and the larder and store-room above. Between this building \ and the church, opening by one door into the cloisters, and \ by another to the outer part of the monastery area, is the \ ``parlour'' for interviews with visitors from the external \ world (O). On the eastern side of the north transept is the \ ``scriptorium'' or writing-room (P \fs20 1 \fs24 ), with the library above. \ \ To the east of the church stands a group of buildings comprising \ two miniature conventual establishments, each complete in \ itself. Each has a covered cloister surrounded by the usual \ buildings, \i i.e. \i0 refectory, dormitory, &c., and a church or \ chapel on one side, placed back to back. A detached building \ belonging to each contains a bath and a kitchen. One of these \ diminutive convents is appropriated to the ``oblati'' or novices \ (Q), the other to the sick monks as an ``imfirmary'' (R). \ \ The ``residence of the physicians'' (S) stands contiguous to the \ infirmary, and the physic garden (T) at the north-east corner of \ the monastery. Besides other rooms, it contains a drug store, \ and a chamber for those who are dangerously ill. The ``house \ for bloodletting and purging'' adjoins it on the west (U). \ \ The ``outer school,'' to the north of the convent area, contains \ a large schoolroom divided across the middle by a screen or \ partition, and surrounded by fourteen little rooms, termed \ the dwellings of the scholars. The head-master's house (W) \ is opposite, built against the side wall of the church. The \ two ``hospitia'' or `' guest-houses'' for the entertainment \ of strangers of different degrees (X \fs20 1 \fs24 X \fs20 2 \fs24 ) comprise a large \ common chamber or refectory in the centre, surrounded by \ sleeping-apartments. Each is provided with its own brewhouse \ and bakehouse, and that for travellers of a superior order has \ a kitchen and storeroom, with bedrooms for their servants and \ stables for their horses. There is also an ``hospitium'' for \ strange monks, abutting on the north wall of the church (Y). \ \ Beyond the cloister, at the extreme verge of the convent \ area to the south, stands the `factory'' (Z), containing \ workshops for shoemakers, saddlers (or shoemakers, \i sellarii \i0 ), \ cutlers and grinders, trencher-makers, tanners, curriers, \ fullers, smiths and goldsmiths, with their dwellings in the \ rear. On this side we also find the farmbuildings, the large \ granary and threshing-floor ( \i a \i0 ), mills ( \i c \i0 ), malthouse \ ( \i d). \i0 Facing the west are the stables ( \i e \i0 ), ox-sheds \ ( \i f \i0 ), goatstables ( \i gl \i0 , piggeries ( \i h \i0 ), sheep-folds ( \i i \i0 ), \ together with the servants' and labourers' quarters ( \i k). \i0 \ At the south-east corner we find the hen and duck house, and \ poultry-yard ( \i m \i0 ), and the dwelling of the keeper ( \i n). \i0 \ Hard by is the kitchen garden ( \i o \i0 ), the beds bearing the \ names of the vegetables growing in them, onions, garlic, \ celery, lettuces, poppy, carrots, cabbages, &c., eighteen in \ all. In the same way the physic garden presents the names \ of the medicinal herbs, and the cemetery ( \i p \i0 ) those of \ the trees, apple, pear, plum, quince, &c., planted there. \ \ \b\fs20 Canterbury Cathedral. \b0\fs24 \ \ A curious bird's-eye view of Canterbury Cathedral and its \ annexed conventual buildings, taken about 1165, is preserved \ in the Great Psalter in the library of Trinity College, \ Cambridge. As elucidated by Professor Willis, \fs20\up8 1 \fs24\up0 it exhibits \ the plan of a great Benedictine monastery in the 12th century, \ and enables us to compare it with that of the 9th as seen at St \ Gall. We see in both the same general principles of arrangement, \ which indeed belong to all Benedictine monasteries, enabling \ us to determine with precision the disposition of the various \ buildings, when little more than fragments of the walls \ exist. From some local reasons, however, the cloister and \ monastic buildings are placed on the north, instead, as is far \ more commonly the case, on the south of the church. There is \ also a separate chapter-house, which is wanting at St Gall. \ \ The buildings at Canterbury, as at St Gall, form separate \ groups. The church forms the nucleus. In immediate contact \ with this, on the north side, lie the cloister and the \ group of buildings devoted to the monastic life. Outside of \ these, to the west and east, are the ``halls and chambers \ devoted to the exercise of hospitality, with which every \ monastery was provided, for the purpose of receiving as \ guests persons who visited it, whether clergy or laity, \ travellers, pilgrims or paupers.'' To the north a large \ open court divides the monastic from the menial buildings, \ intentionally placed as remote as possible from the conventual \ buildings proper, the stables, granaries, barn, bakehouse, \ brewhouse, laundries, &c., inhabited by the lay servants of the \ establishment. At the greatest possible distance from the \ church, beyond the precinct of the convent, is the eleemosynary \ department. The \i almonry \i0 for the relief of the poor, \ with a great hall annexed, forms the paupers' hospitium. \ \ The most important group of buildings is naturally that devoted \ to monastic life. This includes two Cloisters, the great \ cloister surrounded by the buildings essentially connected with \ the daily life of the monks,---the church to the south, the \ refectory or frater-house here as always on the side opposite \ to the church, and farthest removed from it, that no sound or \ smell of eating might penetrate its sacred precincts, to the \ east the dormitory, raised on a vaulted undercroft, and the \ chapter-house adjacent, and the lodgings of the cellarer to the \ west. To this officer was committed the provision of the \ monks' daily food, as well as that of the guests. He was, \ therefore, appropriately lodged in the immediate vicinity of \ the refectory and kitchen, and close to the guest-hall. A \ passage under the dormitory leads eastwards to the smaller \ or infirmary cloister, appropriated to the sick and infirm \ monks. Eastward of this cloister extend the hall and chapel of \ the infirmary, resembling in form and arrangement the nave and \ chancel of an aisled church. Beneath the dormitory, looking \ out into the green court or herbarium, lies the ``pisalis'' \ or ``calefactory,'' the common room of the monks. At its \ north-east corner access was given from the dormitory to the \ \i necessarium \i0 , a portentous edifice in the form of a Norman \ hall, 145 ft. long by 25 broad, containing fifty-five seats. It \ was, in common with all such offices in ancient monasteries, \ constructed with the most careful regard to cleanliness and \ health, a stream of water running through it from end to \ end. A second smaller dormitory runs from east to west for \ the accommodation of the conventual officers, who were bound \ to sleep in the dormitory. Close to the refectory, but outside \ the cloisters, are the domestic offices connected with it: \ to the north, the kitchen, 47 ft. square, surmounted by a \ lofty pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; to the west, the \ butteries, pantries, &c. The infirmary had a small kitchen of its \ own. Opposite the refectory door in the cloister are two \ lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a monastic dining-hall, \ at which the monks washed before and after taking food. \ \ The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into three \ groups. The prior's group ``entered at the south-east angle \ of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the \ cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or \ nobility who were assigned to him.'' The cellarer's buildings \ were near the west end of the nave, in which ordinary visitors \ of the middle class were hospitably entertained. The inferior \ pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the north hall or almonry, \ just within the gate, as far as possible from the other two. \ \ \b\fs20 Westminster Abbey. \b0\fs24 \ \ Westminster Abbey is another example of a great Benedictine \ abbey, identical in its general arrangements, so far as they \ can be traced, with those described above. The cloister and \ , monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church. \ Parallel to the nave, on the south side of the cloister, \ was the refectory, with its lavatory at the door. On the \ eastern side we find the remains of the dormitory, raised \ on a vaulted substructure and communicating with the south \ transept. The chapter-house opens out of the same alley of the \ cloister. The small cloister lles to the south-east of \ the larger cloister, and still farther to the east we have \ the remains of the infirmary with the \i table hall \i0 , the \ refectory of those who were able to leave their chambers. The \ abbot's house formed a small courtyard at the west entrance, \ close to the inner gateway. Considerable portions of this \ remain, including the abbot's parlour. celebrated as ``the \ Jerusalem Chamber,'' his hall, now used for the Westminster \ King's Scholars, and the kitchen and butteries beyond. \ \ \b\fs20 York. \b0\fs24 \ \ St Mary's Abbey, York, of which the ground-plan is annexed, \ exhibits the usual Benedictine arrangements. The precincts \ are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three sides, \ the river Ouse being sufficient protection on the fourth \ side. The entrance was by a strong gateway (U) to the \ north. Close to the entrance was a chapel, where is now \ the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new-comers paid \ their devotions immediately on their arrival. Near the \ gate to the south was the guest-hall or hospitium (T). \ The buildings are completely ruined, but enough remains to \ enable us to identify the grand cruciform church (A), the \ cloister-court with the chapterhouse (B), the refectory (I), \ the kitchen-court with its offices (K, O, O) and the other \ principal apartments. The infirmary has perished completely. \ \ Some Benedictine houses display exceptional arrangements, \ dependent upon local circumstances, \i e.g. \i0 the dormitory of \ Worcester runs from east to west, from the west walk of the \ cloister, and that of Durham is built over the west, instead of \ \ F \fs20 IG. \ \f3 \ Paragraph ends in

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