The Project Gutenberg ebook of The Koran

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God will, perhaps, establish good will between yourselves and those of them

whom ye take to be your enemies:5 God is Powerful: and God is Gracious,

God doth not forbid you to deal with kindness and fairness toward those who

have not made war upon you on account of your religion, or driven you forth

from your homes: for God loveth those who act with fairness.>Only doth God

forbid you to make friends of those who, on account of your religion, have

warred against you, and have driven you forth from your homes, and have aided

those who drove you forth: and whoever maketh friends of them are wrong-

O Believers!6 when believing women come over to you as refugees (Mohadjers),

then make TRIAL of them. God best knoweth their faith; but if ye have also

ascertained their faith, let them not go back to the infidels; they are not

lawful for them, nor are the unbelievers lawful for these women. But give

them back what they have spent for their dowers. No crime shall it be in you

to marry them, provided ye give them their dowers. Do not retain any right in

the infidel women, but demand back what you have spent for their dowers, and

let the unbelievers demand back what they have spent for their wives.7 This

is the ordinance of God which He ordaineth among you: and God is Knowing,

And if any of your wives escape from you to the Infidels from whom ye

afterwards take any spoil, then give to those whose wives shall have fled

away, the like of what they shall have spent for their dowers; and fear God

in whom ye believe.
O Prophet! when believing women come to thee, and pledge themselves that they

will not associate aught with God, and that they will not steal or commit

adultery, nor kill their children, nor bring scandalous charges,8 nor disobey

thee in what is right, then plight thou thy faith to them, and ask pardon for

them of God: for God is Indulgent, Merciful!
O Believers! enter not into amity with those against whom God is angered;

they despair of the life to come, even as the Infidels despair of the inmates

of the tombs.


1 Revealed probably as far as verse 9 (Ramadhan Hej. 8) shortly before the

taking of Mecca.

2 Haleb (?) Ben Abu Baltaa had informed the Koreisch of an intended surprise

of Mecca on the part of Muhammad, with the view of making terms for his own

family who had been left there. The offence was pardoned, but the revelation

was nevertheless published with the view of preventing similar acts of

treachery in future.
3 Speaking of the representatives of the different religious systems

prevalent in the Roman Empire, as Orpheus, Abraham, Christ, Apollonius of

Tyana, enshrined among the household deities of Alexander Severus, Mr. Milman

remarks (Hist. of Christianity, ii. p. 231) that "It is singular that

Abraham, rather than Moses, was placed at the head of Judaism: it is possible

that the traditionary sanctity which attached to the first parent of the

Jewish people, and of many of the Arab tribes, and which was afterwards

embodied in the Koran, was floating in the East, and would comprehend, as it

were, the opinions, not only of the Jews, but of a much wider circle of the

Syrian natives."

4 Sura [cxiii.] ix. 115.
5 That is, by their conversion hereafter.
6 Said (see Nöld. p. 163) to have been revealed at, or shortly after, the

peace of Hudaibiya. According to the terms then agreed upon, a mutual

restitution of property was to take place.
7 Who are converted to Islam.
8 Lit. with a calumny which they have devised between their hands and their

feet. Said to have been revealed at the taking of Mecca. Tab. Beidh.

MEDINA.�3 Verses
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
WHEN the HELP of God and the victory arrive,
And thou seest men entering the religion of God by troops;
Then utter the praise of thy Lord, implore His pardon; for He loveth to turn

in mercy.

1 This Sura was revealed at the taking of Mecca, and is supposed to have

given Muhammad warning of his death.

MEDINA.�18 Verses
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
O BELIEVERS! enter not upon any affair ere God and His Apostle1 permit you;

and fear ye God: for God Heareth, Knoweth.2

O Believers! raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, neither

speak loud to him as ye speak loud one to another, lest your works come to

nought, and ye unaware of it.
They who lower their voices in the presence of the Apostle of God, are the

persons whose hearts God hath inclined to piety. Forgiveness shall be theirs

and a rich reward.
They who call out to thee while thou art within3 thine APARTMENTS, have most

of them no right perception of what is due to thee.

But if they wait patiently till thou come forth to them, it were far better

for them. But God is Indulgent, Merciful.

O Believers! if any bad man4 come to you with news, clear it up at once, lest

through ignorance ye harm others, and speedily have to repent of what ye have

And know that an Apostle of God is among you! should he give way to you in

many matters ye would certainly become guilty of a crime. But God hath

endeared the faith to you, and hath given it favour in your hearts, and hath

made unbelief, and wickedness, and disobedience hateful to you. Such are they

who pursue a right course.
Through the bounty and grace which is from God: and God is Knowing, Wise.
If two bodies of the faithful are at war, then make ye peace between them:5

and if the one of them wrong the other, fight against that party which doth

the wrong, until they come back to the precepts of God: if they come back,

make peace between them with fairness, and act impartially; God loveth those

who act with impartiality.
Only the faithful are brethren; wherefore make peace between your brethren;

and fear God, that ye may obtain mercy.

O Believers! let not men laugh men to scorn who haply may be better than

themselves; neither let women laugh women to scorn who may haply be better

than themselves!6 Neither defame one another, nor call one another by

nicknames. Bad is it to be called wicked after having professed the faith:7

and whoso repent not of this are doers of wrong.
O Believers! avoid frequent suspicions, for some suspicions are a crime; and

pry not: neither let the one of you traduce another in his absence. Would any

one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Surely ye would loathe

it. And fear ye God: for God is Ready to turn, Merciful.

O men! verily, we have created you of a male and a female; and we have

divided you into peoples and tribes that ye might have knowledge one of

another. Truly, the most worthy of honour in the sight of God is he who

feareth Him most.8 Verily, God is Knowing, Cognisant.

The Arabs of the desert9 say, "We believe." Say thou: Ye believe not; but

rather say, "We profess Islam;" for the faith hath not yet found its way into

your hearts. But if ye obey God and His Apostle, he will not allow you to

lose any of your actions: for God is Indulgent, Merciful.

The true believers are those only who believe in God and His Apostle, and

afterwards doubt not; and who contend with their substance and their persons

on the path of God. These are the sincere.
SAY: Will ye teach God about your religion? when God knoweth whatever is in

the Heavens and on the Earth: yea, God hath knowledge of all things.

They taunt thee with their having embraced Islam.10 SAY: Taunt me not with

your having embraced Islam: God rather taunteth you with His having guided

you to the faith: acknowledge this if ye are sincere.
Verily, God knoweth the secrets of the Heavens and of the Earth: and God

beholdeth what ye do.

1 Or anticipate not, take not the lead of God and His Apostle.
2 All the ancient Interpreters (as His. 933 ff., Ibn Sa'd. 320, Tab. Agâní.

116 f.�comp. also Weil 244 ff., Caussin, iii. 271) refer from 1-5 to the

disrespectful demeanour, in Muhammad's presence, of the envoys of the Banu

Tamim in Hej. 9 or 10.

3 Lit. from without.
4 The commentators mentioned in the last note, as well as others, explain

this verse of Al Walid ben Uqba, who had brought a false report of the

refusal of the Banu'lmustaliq to pay certain alms which Muhammad had sent him

to demand. This Al Walid became governor of Kufa under Othman. He probably

was never really converted to Islam.
5 Upon this passage 91-2, die Muslimen, says Nöldeke, verschiedene

Geschichten erzählen, so dass sich Nichts sicher bestimmen Iässt, p. 164.

This remark applies to the great mass of Muhammadan comment.
6 Said to refer to Safia, one of Muhammad's wives. who had been taunted by

his other wives with being a Jewess.

7 Lit. Bad the name, wickedness, after faith.
8 That is, not the most nobly born, like the Koreisch. This verse is said to

have been revealed in Mecca on the day of its conquest. See Weil, Leben,

p.372, and n.
9 The Banű Asad had come to Medina in a year of famine to seek support for

themselves and families, and made profession of Islamism. Beidh.�Thus, also

Ibn Sad. Tabari. Wah.
10 As if by so doing they had conferred a favour on the Prophet.


MEDINA.�130 Verses
An IMMUNITY from God and His Apostle to those with whom ye are in league,

among the Polytheist Arabs! (those who join gods with God).

Go ye, therefore, at large in the land four months: but know that God ye

shall not weaken;2 and that those who believe not, God will put to shame�

And a proclamation on the part of God and His Apostle to the people on the

day of the greater pilgrimage, that God is free from any engagement with the

votaries of other gods with God as is His Apostle! If, therefore, ye turn to

God it will be better for you; but if ye turn back, then know that ye shall

not weaken God: and to those who believe not, announce thou a grievous


But this concerneth not those Polytheists with whom ye are in league, and who

shall have afterwards in no way failed you, nor aided anyone against you.

Observe, therefore, engagement with them through the whole time of their

treaty: for God loveth those who fear Him.

And when the sacred months3 are passed, kill those who join other gods with

God wherever ye shall find them; and seize them, besiege them, and lay wait

for them with every kind of ambush: but if they shall convert, and observe

prayer, and pay the obligatory alms, then let them go their way, for God is

Gracious, Merciful.
If any one of those who join gods with God ask an asylum of thee, grant him

an asylum, that he may hear the Word of God, and then let him reach his place

of safety. This, for that they are people devoid of knowledge.
How shall they who add gods to God be in league with God and with His

Apostle, save those with whom ye made a league at the sacred temple? So long

as they are true to you, be ye true to them; for God loveth those who fear

How can they? since if they prevail against you, they will not regard in you

either ties of blood or faith. With their mouths will they content you, but

their hearts will be averse. The greater part of them are perverse doers.

They sell the signs of God for a mean price, and turn others aside from his

way: evil is it that they do!

They regard not in a believer either ties of blood or faith; these are the


Yet if they turn to God and observe prayer, and pay the impost, then are they

your brethren in religion. We make clear our signs to those who understand.

But if, after alliance made, they break their oaths and revile your religion,

then do battle with the ring-leaders of infidelity�for no oaths are binding

with them that they may desist.
What! will ye not fight against those Meccans who have broken their oaths and

aimed to expel your Apostle, and attacked you first? Will ye dread them? God

is more worthy of your fear, if ye are believers!
So make war on them: By your hands will God chastise them, and will put them

to shame, and will give you victory over them, and will heal the bosoms of a

people who believe;
And will take away the wrath of their hearts. God will be turned unto whom He

will: and God is Knowing, Wise.

Think ye that ye shall be forsaken as if God did not yet know those among you

who do valiantly, and take none for their friends beside God, and His

Apostle, and the faithful? God is well apprised of your doings.
It is not for the votaries of other gods with God, witnesses against

themselves of infidelity, to visit the temples of God. These! vain their

works: and in the fire shall they abide for ever!
He only should visit the temples of God who believeth in God and the last

day, and observeth prayer, and payeth the legal alms, and dreadeth none but

God. These haply will be among the rightly guided.
Do ye place the giving drink to the pilgrims, and the visitation of the

sacred temple,4 on the same level with him who believeth in God and the last

day, and fighteth on the way of God? They shall not be held equal by God: and

God guideth not the unrighteous.

They who have believed, and fled their homes, and striven with their

substance and with their persons on the path of God, shall be of highest

grade with God: and these are they who shall be happy!
Tidings of mercy from Himself, and of His good pleasure, doth their Lord send

them, and of gardens in which lasting pleasure shall be theirs;

Therein shall they abide for ever; for God! with Him is a great reward.
O Believers! make not friends of your fathers or your brethren if they love

unbelief above faith: and whoso of you shall make them his friends, will be

wrong doers.
SAY: If your fathers, and your sons, and your brethren, and your wives, and

your kindred, and the wealth which ye have gained, and merchandise which ye

fear may be unsold, and dwellings wherein ye delight, be dearer to you than

God and His Apostle and efforts on his Path, then wait until God shall

Himself enter on His work:5 and God guideth not the impious.
Now hath God helped you in many battlefields, and, on the day of Honein,6

when ye prided yourselves on your numbers; but it availed you nothing; and

the earth, with all its breadth, became too straight for you:7 then turned ye

your backs in flight:

Then did God send down His spirit of repose8 upon His Apostle, and upon the

faithful, and He sent down the hosts which ye saw not, and He punished the

Infidels: This, the Infidels' reward!
Yet, after this, will God be turned to whom He pleaseth; for God is Gracious,


O Believers! only they who join gods with God are unclean! Let them not,

therefore, after this their year, come near the sacred Temple. And if ye fear

want,9 God, if He please, will enrich you of His abundance: for God is

Knowing, Wise.

Make war upon such of those to whom the Scriptures have been given as believe

not in God, or in the last day, and who forbid not that which God and His

Apostle have forbidden, and who profess not the profession of the truth,

until they pay tribute out of hand,10 and they be humbled.11

The Jews say, "Ezra (Ozair) is a son of God";12 and the Christians say, "The

Messiah is a son of God." Such the sayings in their mouths! They resemble the

saying of the Infidels of old! God do battle with them! How are they


They take their teachers, and their monks, and the Messiah, son of Mary, for

Lords13 beside God, though bidden to worship one God only. There is no God

but He! Far from His glory be what they associate with Him!
Fain would they put out God's light with their mouths: but God only desireth

to perfect His light, albeit the Infidels abhor it.

He it is who hath sent His Apostle with the Guidance and a religion of the

truth, that He may make it victorious14 over every other religion, albeit

they who assign partners to God be averse from it.
O Believers! of a truth, many of the teachers and monks do devour man's

substance in vanity, and turn them from the Way of God. But to those who

treasure up gold and silver and expend it not in the Way of God, announce

tidings of a grievous torment.

On that day their treasures shall be heated in hell fire, and their

foreheads, and their sides, and their backs, shall be branded with them. . .

. "This is what ye have treasured up for yourselves: taste, therefore, your


Twelve months is the number of months with God,15 according to God's book,

since the day when He created the Heavens and the Earth: of these four are

sacred: this is the right usage: But wrong not yourselves therein; attack

those who join gods with God in all, as they attack you in all: and know that

God is with those who fear Him.
To carry over a sacred month to another, is only a growth of infidelity. The

Infidels are led into error by it. They allow it one year, and forbid it

another, that they may make good the number of months which God hath

hallowed, and they allow that which God hath prohibited. The evil of their

deeds hath been prepared for them by Satan: for God guideth not the people

who do not believe.

O Believers! what possessed you, that when it was said to you, "March forth

on the Way of God," ye sank heavily earthwards? What! prefer ye the life of

this world to the next? But the fruition of this mundane life, in respect of

that which is to come, is but little.16

Unless ye march forth, with a grievous chastisement will He chastise you; and

He will place another people in your stead, and ye shall in no way harm Him:

for over everything is God potent.
If ye assist not your Prophet . . . God assisted him formerly, when the

unbelievers drove him forth, in company with a second only!17 when they two

were in the cave; when the Prophet said to his companion, "Be not distressed;

verily, God is with us." And God sent down His tranquillity upon him, and

strengthened him with hosts ye saw not, and made the word of those who

believed not the abased, and the word of God was the exalted: for God is

Mighty, Wise.
March ye forth the light and heavy armed,18 and contend with your substance

and your persons on the Way of God. This, if ye know it, will be better for

Had there been a near advantage and a short journey, they would certainly

have followed thee; but the way seemed long to them.19 Yet will they swear by

God, "Had we been able, we had surely gone forth with you:" they are self-

destroyers! And God knoweth that they are surely liars!

God forgive thee! Why didst thou give them leave to stay behind, ere they who

make true excuses had become known to thee, and thou hadst known the liars?

They who believe in God and in the last day will not ask leave of thee to be

exempt from contending with their substance and their persons. But God

knoweth those who fear Him!
They only will ask thy leave who believe not in God and the last day, and

whose hearts are full of doubts, and who are tossed up and down in their

Moreover, had they been desirous to take the field, they would have got ready

for that purpose the munitions of war.20 But God was averse to their

marching forth, and made them laggards; and it was said, "Sit ye at home with

those who sit."

Had they taken the field with you, they would only have added a burden to

you, and have hurried about among you, stirring you up to sedition; and some

there are among you who would have listened to them: and God knoweth the evil

Of old aimed they at sedition, and deranged thy affairs, until the truth

arrived, and the behest of God became apparent, averse from it though they

Some of them say to thee, "Allow me to remain at home, and expose me not to

the trial." Have they not fallen into a trial already? But verily, Hell shall

environ the Infidels!

If a success betide thee, it annoyeth them: but if a reverse betide thee,

they say, "We took our own measures before:" and they turn their backs and

are glad.
SAY: Nothing can befall us but what God hath destined21 for us. Our liege-

lord is He; and on God let the faithful trust!

SAY: Await ye for us, other than one of the two best things?22 But we await

for you the infliction of a chastisement by God, from himself, or at our

hands. Wait ye then; we verily will wait with you.
SAY: Make ye your offerings willingly or by constraint; it cannot be accepted

from you, because ye are a wicked people:

And nothing hindreth the acceptance of their offerings, but that they believe

not in God and His Apostle, and discharge not the duty of prayer but with

sluggishness, and make not offerings but with reluctance.
Let not, therefore, their riches or their children amaze thee. God is only

minded to punish them by means of these, in this life present, and that their

souls may depart while they are unbelievers.23
And they swear by God that they are indeed of you, yet they are not of you,

but they are people who are afraid of you:

If they find a place of refuge, or caves, or a hiding place, they assuredly

turn towards it and haste thereto.

Some of them also defame thee in regard to the alms; yet if a part be given

them, they are content, but if no part be given them, behold, they are angry!

Would that they were satisfied with that which God and His Apostle had given

them, and would say "God sufficeth us! God will vouchsafe unto us of His

favour, and so will His Apostle: verily unto God do we make our suit!"
But alms are only to be given to the poor and the needy,24 and those who

collect them, and to those25 whose hearts are won to Islam, and for ransoms,

and for debtors, and for the cause of God, and the wayfarer. This is an

ordinance from God: and God is Knowing, Wise.

There are some of them who injure26 the Prophet and say, "He is all ear."

Say: An ear of good to you! He believeth in God, and believeth the believers:

and is a mercy to such of you as believe:
But they who injure the Apostle of God, shall suffer a dolorous chastisement.
They swear to you by God to please you; but worthier is God, and His Apostle,

that they should please Him, if they are believers.

Know they not, that for him who opposeth God and His Apostle, is surely the

fire of Hell, in which he shall remain for ever? This is the great ignominy!

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