four wives." See also Yad Hachazakah Hilchoth Ishuth. 14, 3.
3 Verses 8 and 12 are said by the commentators to have been revealed in
consequence of the complaints of Omm Kuhha that, in accordance with the ante-
Islamitic custom, she had been excluded from any portion of her deceased
husband's property. The unsatisfactory nature of the Muhammadan traditions
may be inferred from the fact, that no less than six different names are
assigned to him. It is, however, probable that these and similar laws
relative to inheritances were given at a time when many heads of families had
fallen, as at Ohod, in battle. This remark applies to verses 33-45.
4 Women found guilty of adultery and fornication were punished at the first
rise of Islam, by being literally immured. But this was exchanged, in the
case of a maiden, for one year's banishment and 100 stripes; and in the case
of a married woman, for stoning.
5 What took place in the times of ignorance, previous to the revelation of
the Koran. See Freytag's Einl. p. 201, as to the incestuous nature of the
ante-Islamitic Arabian marriages.
6 By marrying without means adequate to the support of a free wife, or by
7 From marrying slaves.
8 Games of chance, usury, etc.
9 By providing for them a home and the protection of a husband. Or, of that
which God would have them care for.
10 An undutiful child is very seldom heard of among the Egyptians, or the
Arabs in general. Sons scarcely ever sit, or sit, or eat, or smoke, in the
presence of the father unless bidden to do so; and they often wait upon him
and upon his guests at meals and on other occasions: they do not cease to act
thus when they have become men. Lane's Mod. Egypt. vol. i. p. 69.
11 The Koranic precepts as to prayer savour of Jewish origin. Thus, "Prayer
should be said standing" is a Rabbinic precept.�Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 240.�
Misch.Berachoth 10�may be shortened in dangerous places, ib. iv. 10�is
forbidden to the drunken, ib. 31, 2. Erubin, 64�and to the polluted;
Berachoth iii. 4�and is to be preceded, in this case, by washings with water
or sand. See Sura xvii. 110, note 2, p. 173. 1 Cor. xi. 21.
12 The Jews and their Rabbis.
13 See Sura [xci.] ii. 98.
14 Lit. the companions of the sabbath. See [xci.] ii. 61.
15 This refers to certain renegade Jews, who out of hatred against Muhammad,
went over to the Koreisch. See Nöldeke. p. 149.
16 Lit. ripened.
18 And therefore a fit subject for plunder.
19 Some of the Meccans after embracing Islam did not thoroughly break with
the infidels and fly their country. These persons were miraculously slain by
angels at Bedr. Others suppose the angels to be Nakir and Monkir, who examine
the dead in the grave.
20 That is, to what religion did ye belong?
21 And therefore could not resist the unbelievers.
22 Thus the Rabbins Tr. Berachoth, iv. 4, "He that goeth in a dangerous place
may pray a short prayer."
23 See Mischna Tr. Berachoth, 10.
24 This verse is said to have been revealed when Muhammad was about to acquit
a Muslim who had committed theft, and laid the guilt at the door of a Jew.
But the particulars are given in a very contradictory manner. See Nöldeke, p.
25 In allusion to an idolatrous and superstitious custom of the old Arabians.
26 By the mutilation of slaves, branding their bodies, filing the teeth, etc.
27 See Sura lxxxiv. 24, p. 47, note.
28 Sura vi.
29 See Sura [xci.] ii.7.
30 Lit. one was made to appear to them like (Jesus). Comp. [xcvii.] iii.48.
Photius, Bibl. Cod. cxiv.says that the Apocr. Book, [Greek text]�This
individual according to the Basilidans was-Simon of Cyrene; according to the
Evang. Barnab�, Judas.�Mani, Ep. Fund. ap. Evodium: "Princeps itaque
tenebrarum cruci est affixus, idemque coronam spineam portavit."
31 By believing too much, like the Christians who regarded Jesus as God; or
too little, like the Jews who would not believe on Muhammad.
32 That is, a Being possessing a Spirit.
SURA LXV.�DIVORCE1 [CI.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
O PROPHET! when ye divorce women, divorce them at their special times. And
reckon those times exactly, and fear God your Lord. Put them not forth from
their houses, nor allow them to depart, unless they have committed a proven
adultery. This is the precept of God; and whoso transgresseth the precept of
God, assuredly imperilleth his own self. Thou knowest not whether, after
this, God may not cause something new to occur which may bring you together
And when they have reached their set time, then either keep them with
kindness, or in kindness part from them. And take upright witnesses from
among you, and bear witness as unto God. This is a caution for him who
believeth in God and in the latter day. And whoso feareth God, to him will He
grant a prosperous issue, and will provide for him whence he reckoned not
And for him who putteth his trust in Him will God be all-sufficient. God
truly will attain his purpose. For everything hath God assigned a period.
As to such of your wives as have no hope of the recurrence of their times, if
ye have doubts in regard to them, then reckon three months, and let the same
be the term of those who have not yet had them. And as to those who are with
child, their period shall be until they are delivered of their burden. God
will make His command easy to him who feareth Him.
This is God's command which He hath sent down to you: Whoso feareth God, his
evil deeds will He cancel and will increase his reward.