69 Of the stricter Mosaic lex talionis, as well of the ante-Islamitic Arabian
custom, by which the killing of a slave was avenged by the death of a free
man, and the killing of a woman by taking the life of a man. See Freyt. Einl.
p. 193. Comp. Ex. xxi. 23.
70 That is, by killing the manslayer.
71 On the word Furquan, see Sura [1xv.] xxi. 49.
72 A mutual comfort to each other.
73 Thus Misch. Berachoth, 1, 2, "Prayer is to be said as soon as one can
distinguish between a blue and white thread."
74 Judging from the minuteness of the precepts laid down in this and the
following verses to 193, it would appear that they were added at a late
period of Muhammad's residence at Medina.
75 Such appears to have been the superstitious custom of the Arabs after
their return from pilgrimages to Mecca.
76 Their driving you out of Mecca; or, the temptation (to idolatry).
77 Lit. the sacred month for the sacred month, and the sacred precincts or
things (for) reprisals. The meaning of this difficult passage is that in wars
for the cause of religion, the sacred month and the temple of Mecca may be
made the time and scene of contests, which then and there are usually
prohibited. For the most accurate information as to the Pilgrimage, see
Freytag, Einl. 418.
78 This shows that Muhammad inculcated the doctrine of entire freedom of the
79 The greater Pilgrimage, which every Muslim is bound to perform once in his
life, is the Hadjat el Farz (the one obligatory Pilgrimage), or the Hadjat el
Islam. The Umrah, or little pilgrimage, may be performed at any time except
the pilgrimage season, and its ceremonies are much fewer. They are described
by Lieut. Burton in his "Pilgrimage," vol. iii. ch. xxviii.
80 Namely, Shawâl, Dhu'lkaada, and Dhu'lhajja.
81 By trading during the Hadj.
82 The pilgrims move on very rapidly when in the immediate neighbourhood of
the Holy Places.
83 From the valley of Mina.
84 Said to have been one Al Akhnas Ibn Shoraik, a dissembler with Muhammad.
85 Sohaib, when he joined the standard of Muhammad, left all his property in
the hands of the infidels.
86 Verses 204-210 are probably addressed to those Muslims who were desirous
to observe certain parts of the Jewish law.
87 The Koran.
88 That is, there was originally but one religion in the world.
89 Comp. Sura [c.] iv. 42, and [cxiv.] v. 99, 100.
90 Limits, fences. The word is Talmudic. Thus Pirke Aboth, i. "The men of the
great synagogue said . . . Make a fence for the law;" and iii. 13, "Tradition
is a fence to the law."
91 Comp. Sura [lxxxii.] xxxi. 13.
92 Within the four months and ten days.
93 Either the asr, midway between noon and nightfall (see verse 104 above) or
the prayer immediately after midday. See note on Sura [c.] iv. 46.
94 This verse is certainly older than the commencement of Sura iv. which