makes Abraham speak in words which he constantly elsewhere uses himself; or,
with Wahl, we must suppose that from v. 17 to v. 22 are misplaced.
4 Comp. Ps. cxxxix. 7.
5 Lit. for love among yourselves, or as an object of love, i.e. devout
6 Thus Sura [lxv.] xxi. 71. The Midr. Rabbah on Gen. Par. 18, says that
Haran, the father of Lot, was brought by Abraham's deliverance from the
furnace to the adoption of his doctrines. Muhammad may have transferred this
idea to Lot.
7 The following passages deserve to be compared, as shewing the loose way in
which Muhammad could speak of the relationship subsisting between Abraham and
the other Patriarchs. See 38 below. Sura [xci.] ii. 127; [lxxxix.] vi. 84;
[lviii.] xix. 50; [lxv.] xxi. 72; [lxxvii.] xii. 6. It is a curious
coincidence that in the Sonna 398, 400, Joseph is said to be the Grandson,
and Jacob the Son, of Abraham.
8 Lit. was straitened in regard to them.
9 See [lxxv.] xi. 83.
10 So as to fly from our vengeance.
11 Lit. in truth.
12 With the Jews. This passage is quoted by modern Muslims in justification
of their indifference with respect to the propagation of their religion. "The
number of the faithful," said one of them to Mr. Lane, "is decreed by God,
and no act of man can increase or diminish it." Mod. Egypt. i. p. 364.
Nöldeke supposes this verse to have been revealed at Medina, and renders,
Contend not except in the best way, i.e. not by words but by force.
14 That is, you may find places of refuge where you may worship the true God
in some other parts of the earth, if driven forth from your native city. This
verse is very indicative of a late Meccan origin. Flight from Mecca must have
been imminent when Muhammad could thus write.
15 Lit. carry not. Comp. Matth. vi. 26; Luke xii. 24.
16 At Mecca.
SURA XXXI.�LOKMAN1 [LXXXII.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
ELIF. LAM. MIM.2 These are the verses (signs) of the wise Book,
A guidance and a mercy to the righteous,
Who observe prayer, and pay the impost,3 and believe firmly in the life to
These rest on guidance from their Lord, and with these it shall be well.
But a man there is4 who buyeth an idle tale, that in his lack of knowledge he
may mislead others from the way of God, and turn it to scorn. For such is
prepared a shameful punishment!
And when our signs are rehearsed to him, he turneth away disdainfully, as