Note: Washington, D.C., is in a separate court. Puerto Rico is in the first circuit; the Virgin Islands are in the third; Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands are in the ninth. The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, located in Washington, D.C., is a Title 3 court that hears appeals regarding patents, trademarks, international trade, government contracts, and from civil servants who claim they were unjustly discharged.
Source: Administrative Office of the United States Courts (January 1983).
The Development of the Federal Courts
President Jackson’s appointment of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney-succeeds Marshall 1836
The Dred Scott case (1857): Said African Americans were not citizens, Missouri Compromise prohibiting slavery is unconstitutional-
Linda Brown was refused admission to a white elementary school in Topeka, Kansas. On her behalf, the NAACP brought a class-action suit that resulted in the 1954 landmark Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, p. 455.
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Getting to Court: Writ of Certiorari- “made more certain”
The “rule of four” requires agreement of four justices to hear the case
Involving significant federal or constitutional question
Involving conflicting decisions by circuit courts
Involving Constitutional interpretation by one of the highest state courts