The High-Tech or the Low-Tech Road? Detection or Prevention? Extent of the Problem



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PURSUING PLAGIARISM

  • (Above and Beyond!)
  • Peg Ehlen Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana

The High-Tech or the Low-Tech Road? Detection or Prevention?

Extent of the Problem

  • According to a Rutgers University article, Internet plagiarism is widespread on the twenty-three university campuses where research was conducted (“New Study Confirms . . .” 1-2).
  • “Thirty-eight percent admitted to cut-and-paste Internet plagiarism” (1).
  • “Forty-four percent . . . considered such behavior trivial or not cheating at all” (1).
  • The highest levels of cheating were found in business, education, and communication at ~60%; the lowest in science at 30% (2).

Reasons for Plagiarizing

  • Lack of understanding and interest
    • Plagiarized vs. paraphrased text
    • In-text Citations (particularly for online sources)
  • Cultural barriers (Asian students)
    • “Ownership” of language?
    • Copying as form of flattery
    • Western concept of ownership and identity
        • ( “Why Students Plagiarize” 1).
  • Focus on grades, not ethics or learning
  • Faculty reluctance to report plagiarism?

Detection: Nailed by a Google Search

  • Student’s Opener:
  • "I do." These two simple words have the power to change lives in an instant. For most people, the phrase conjures up images of a man and a woman being joined in marriage. But for gays and lesbians, having the chance to legally say "I do" is a far-off dream, not a reality.
  • THE SOURCE! http://www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=15435 To view the complete essay NOW:
  • You may view and copy this essay now for only $13.41. This is the total price of the essay - not the price per page.
  • “’I do.’ These two simple words have the power change lives in an instant. . .”

Detection: Nailed by a Google Search

  • Student’s Paper:
  • Smallpox is spread most efficiently in droplets or aerosols from the oropharynx of infected individuals. Smallpox also can be spread by direct contact with infected lesions or with clothing or bed linens contaminated with the virus.
  • THE SOURCE!
  • http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;110/4/841?fulltext=terrorism&searchid=QID_NOT_SET
  • “Smallpox is spread most
  • efficiently in droplets or aerosols. . .”
  • Fighting the Paper Mills
  • http://www.nocheaters.com

Fighting the Paper Mills

  • While http://duenow.com/ in no way condones plagiarism, the good news is that the papers that you will find on DueNow.com are under legal copyright, not available for . . . anti-plagiarism databases.
  • http://www.myfreeessays.com/ leads to http://www.digitaltermpapers.com/c2051.htm and a PREVIEW of the paper, which students may purchase for $14.95 with a one-month subscription!

Fighting the Paper Mills

  • http://www.superior-termpapers.com/
  • Open 24 Hours A Day 365 Days A Year!
  • Term Paper Blues? Order your custom term papers for only 18.95 a page!

CSI Approach http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/B00006JCGO/ref=pm_dp_ln_m_2/002-4054949-6616015?v=glance&s=music&vi=samples ”Who Are You ?“ by The Who

  • Create conditions that prevent plagiarism.
  • Show examples of plagiarism and define terminology.
  • Investigate with detection devices as a last resort!

CREATE CONDITIONS THAT PREVENT PLAGIARISM.

  • Require research portfolios, annotated online/database sources, and multiple drafts.
  • Make in-text citations easy to create.
  • Create assignments that deter plagiarism.

Annotation

Create the Works Cited or References first!

  • Works Cited
  • Darnovsky, Marcy. "Embryo Cloning and Beyond." Tikkun July-Aug. 2002: 1-25. EBSCOhost. ITSC* Library, Evansville, IN. 1 Nov. 2002.
  • “Three Strikes.” 60 Minutes II 30 Oct. 2002: 1-4. 6 Nov. 2002 .
  • How simple!
  • (Darnovsky 5).
  • (“Three Strikes” 3).

In-Text Citation “Game”

  • Student’s Paper
  • The need for organ substitutes stems from organ transplantation being a victim of its own success as waiting lists have increased (Mani et al.1).
  • SHOW ME THE ORIGINAL!
  • Unfortunately, these advancements have resulted in transplantation becoming a victim of its own success as waiting lists have increased along with the waiting time for donor organs. Use “ ” or reword!

Research Exercises

  • Create Research Exercises in which you supply topics and sources: Effects of Cell Phones, Effects of Television on Children
  • Then students can focus on reading sources carefully, learning the format, avoiding plagiarism, and organizing the paper.
  • You can focus on their writing, rather than on detective work!

Research Exercise: Example

  • Use four of these database articles to create a three-to-four page APA research paper. Analyze three or more effects of cell phones. (You may also use two articles in your textbook about cell phones.)
  • Cell Phones (Mostly) Get Clean Bill of Health, pp. 1-3
  • NTSB Says Novice Drivers Should Be Prohibited From Using Cell Phones While at the Wheel, pp. 4-5
  • NYC Votes to Curb Annoying Use of Cell Phones, pp. 6-7
  • Neuropsychology; Study Explains Why Hands-free Phones Are Just as Bad as Hand-held When Driving, pp. 8-11
  • Long-term Cell Phone Use Said to Increase Risk of Benign Tumors, pp. 12-13
  • Eatery Dishes up No-cell Zone, p. 14

Related Strategies

  • Require copies of students’ sources. (Databases, not books)
  • Require papers that include primary sources, such as interviews of faculty and staff.
  • Require recent sources from the last six months. Don’t give an inch once you make the requirements!

SHOW EXAMPLES OF PLAGIARISM.

  • Examples should show that plagiarism (or the lacks thereof) occurs on a continuum:
  • Completely reworded or quoted and cited
  • Plagiarism of words or structure
  • Complete plagiarism with
  • intent to deceive

Defining Plagiarism

  • Not properly acknowledging “borrowed” ideas and language (Hacker 331).
  • Committing an act of fraud that can result in poor grades or dismissal
  • Kidnapping someone’s intellectual property

Plagiarism is like . . .

  • Seeing an unattended Harley with the keys in the ignition, jumping on, later dressing it up with a new paint job and vanity plates, then calling it your own.
  • Buying a beautiful handmade wedding dress and pretending to everyone (including the groom) that you made the dress.

Plagiarism? Original (In Newsweek) Student’s Paper

  • OxyContin was developed to do good: relieve debilitating pain. But since the powerful drug debuted in 1996, it has become increasingly known for a dangerous side effect—the potential for serious addiction.
  • According to Claudia Kalb, OxyContin was developed to do good: relieve debilitating pain. But since the powerful drug debuted in 1996, it has become increasingly known for a dangerous side effect—the potential for serious addiction (38).
  • Plagiarism! Use quotation marks or paraphrase!

Plagiarism? Original (In Newsweek) Student’s Paper

  • OxyContin was developed to do good: relieve debilitating pain. But since the powerful drug debuted in 1996, it has become increasingly known for a dangerous side effect—the potential for serious addiction.
  • When the drug OxyContin appeared in 1996, its purpose was to relieve unnecessary suffering. Today, however, experts know it can pose the threat of addiction (Kalb 38 ).
  • No plagiarism!

Original (In Newsweek) Student’s Paper

  • Last week the spotlight on OxyContin intensified as the Drug Enforcement Administration announced a national strategy to combat the painkiller’s illegitimate use, including plans to step up law enforcement. . . .
  • The Drug Enforcement Administration last week spotlighted OxyContin more intensely and made an announcement of a national strategy, which combats the painkiller’s illegitimate use and steps up law enforcement . . . (Kalb 38).
  • Plagiarism of words!

Original (In Newsweek) Student’s Paper

  • While the DEA says OxyContin is a valuable drug, it is concerned that many doctors who are prescribing the medications don’t know enough about it and are not conveying the dangers to patients.
  • While the DEA says OxyContin is a useful drug, it is worried that many doctors who are prescribing the medications don’t understand enough about it and are not explaining the dangers to patients (Kalb 38).
  • Plagiarism of structure!

Defining Quotations

  • Some students think that only words in quotation marks in their sources need “ ” in their papers.
  • Though it’s true that the first lesions may form in the throat or mouth, where they’re not visible, by that time, the infected person is very sick, Schaffner says. He says, “You’re not in the mood, nor do you have the capacity to dance through a mall or take long trips on the subway,” (qtd. in Manning 4).
  • (Actually, all of these words were “borrowed.”)

Where Are Quotation Marks Needed?

  • ORIGINAL FROM USA TODAY
  • Many experts believe spreading the virus from an airplane or bomb would be technically difficult, but not impossible.
  • STUDENT’S VERSION
  • Many specialists contend that spreading the virus from an airplane or bomb would be technically difficult, but not impossible (Manning 4).
  • Quotation marks needed from “spreading . . to impossible”

INVESTIGATE—A LAST RESORT!

  • As mentioned, use a google.com search as your first tool. Type in a distinctive phrase:
  • It’s a Volkswagen of a movie with Mercedes actors, some good laughs and one Shelby Mustang GT 500 chase scene that leaves tread marks all over the silver screen.
  • Then investigate other options.

Plagiarism Detection Services

  • http://www.mydropbox.com (no longer free)
  • Checks for “blocks of text” against databases of content including the Internet, other databases that they claim are frequently updated, and archives of millions of student essays for later comparison
  • Tries to avoid “violating a student’s own intellectual property”
  • Takes 12-20 hours to check an entire document
  • Costs an individual $89.90 per year for unlimited “Originality Reports”

Plagiarism Detection Services

  • http://www.turnitin.com/research_site/e_home.html
  • Checks the Internet and databases of content, such as ProQuest, electronic books, Periodical Abstract, etc.
  • Has archived millions of student essays for later comparison (a legal problem?)
  • Takes 24 hours and costs an individual $150 a year for up to 150 “Originality Reports”

Plagiarism Detection Services

  • http://www.canexus.com/eve/index.shtml
  • Recommended by the University of Michigan and Bedford/St. Martin
  • Costs only $19.99 for unlimited use for one instructor’s classes only
  • Random-sampling method of Internet sources
  • Student essays not archived

Plagiarism Detection Services

  • www.plagiarism.com Glatt Plagiarism Service
  • Also recommended by Bedford/St. Martin as inexpensive software that does not “violate a student’s own intellectual property”
  • Uses a cloze method of detection (Every fifth word is deleted, and the student must fill in the missing word.)
  • Claims that is has never made a “false accusation”
  • Relies on a “student writer's textual fingerprint”
  • Costs $300 for an institution

Dangers of “Investigation”

  • Relying too much on the plagiarism detection device
  • Abandoning your instincts
  • Not allowing the requirements of the assignment to decide which essays are permissible (required annotated sources, required drafts, etc.)

Works Cited

    • Carbone, Nick. “The Bedford Workshop on Plagiarism.”
    • Bedford St. Martins 2003: 1-10. 21 Dec. 2004.
    • .
  • Dorhauer, Jennifer and Crystal Lee.: “A Practical Approach
  • to Plagiarism.” Innovation Abstracts 26.6 (27 Feb.
  • 2004): 1-2.
    • Hacker, Diana. A Writer’s Reference. 5th ed. Boston:
    • Bedford St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

Works Cited

  • Kalb, Claudia. “Painkiller Crackdown.” Newsweek 14 May
    • 2001: 38-39.
    • “Latest Facts.” Turnitin. 2004: 1-2. 22 Dec. 2004
  • latest_facts.htm >.
  • Lytvyn, Max. “RE: Databases.” E-mail to MyDropBox.
  • 3 Jan. 2005.
  • Manning, Anita. “How Prepared Are We Against
  • Smallpox?” USA Today 6 March 2003: 1-6. 17 Feb.
  • 2005 < http://vaccinationnews.com/DailyNews/2003/
  • March/06/HowPrepared6.htm >.

Works Cited

  • “New Study Confirms Internet Plagiarism Is
  • Prevalent.” Rutgers Media Relations. 26 Aug. 2003:
  • 1-3. 22 Dec. 2004
  • ArticleID=3408>.
  • Plagiarism-Detection Software.” BFC Educational Policies
  • Committee(Indiana University) 13. Nov. 2003: 1-7. 2
  • Dec. 2003
  • B24_bckg.htm> .

Works Cited

  • “Technology Overview.” My Drop Box. 15 Nov. 2004: 1-3.
  • 23 Dec. 2004
  • .
  • “Why Students Plagiarize.” University of Alberta Faculty
  • Guide to Cyber-Plagiarism 29 Jan. 2005. 2004
  • .

Contact Information

  • Peg Ehlen
  • Professor of Skills Advancement/
  • Disability Support Services
  • Ivy Tech State College (Community College of Indiana)
  • 3501 First Ave.
  • Evansville, IN 47710
  • pehlen@ivytech.edu
  • 812 429 1386


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