3. Sharing: All Muslims pay a tax to help the poor
4. Fasting: Not eating or drinking during daylight during the month of Ramadan
5. Pilgrimage (Hajj): All Muslims want to make a pilgrimage to the Holy City of Mecca once in their lifetimes.
Practices of Islam
Muslims pray 5 times a day, facing east (Mecca)
A mosque is the place of worship for Muslims.
The Hajj: The pilgrimage to Mecca
Kabba—a cube looking building, Islam’s most sacred mosque.
Located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
The Black Stone is located at the eastern corner. Tradition states that the stone was given to Adam, the first man, so that he could obtain forgiveness for his sins. Pilgrims attempt to kiss the stone each time they circle the Kaaba.
The Star & Crescent Moon
Star and Crescent Moon on many Islamic nation’s flags.
Foundations of Islam
Primary Source #1: The Pilgrimage to Mecca
Read the excerpt from a personal narrative of a pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, then answer the questions that follow.
Historical Comprehension Why do Muslims perform the hajj?
Historical Analysis and Interpretation How does Burton describe the hajj?
Primary Source #2: The Quran
Read this excerpt from the Quran to answer the questions that follow.
Answer the Following Questions:
Historical Comprehension What is the shari’ah?
Historical Analysis and Interpretation What is the message of the third verse given here?
Write three paragraphs that compare Islam and Christianity. Use your notes and textbook.
Muslim scholars preserved the work of ancient Indian and Greek thinkers and added to this knowledge before passing it on to the Europeans in later centuries.
Lasting Contributions of Islamic Culture
Preservation of ancient knowledge: The works of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Aristotle and Plato, were translated and studied by Muslim scholars. Eventually, this knowledge was passed to western Europe.
Mathematics: Arabs invented algebra, and they adopted numerals from India that spread to Europe.
Astronomy: Muslims set up an observatory to study the stars, and developed the astrolabe as a navigational tool.
Medicine: Medicine was made a field of scientific study by Muslims, who correctly described the contagious nature of certain diseases.