The Enlightenment apero chapter 11



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The Enlightenment

  • APERO – Chapter 11

Final LEQ Essay

  • A.) Analyze the impact of France’s social structure (Three Estates), weakness of King Louis XVI, and the ideas of the Enlightenment on the Revolution.
  • OR
  • B.) To what extent did the Enlightenment express optimistic ideas in eighteenth- century Europe? Illustrate your answer with references to specific individuals and their works.

18th Century – The Age of Enlightenment

  • An intellectual movement
  • That spread throughout Europe’s literate circles

The Enlightenment in Pictures

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CP8k_f3PFq8

Key Ideas of the Enlightenment

  • 1. Reason – Truth through logic
  • Informed thinking about social issues
  • Absence of superstition, intolerance
  • Humans should rely on reason, not miracles, to improve society

Key Ideas of the Enlightenment

  • 2. Nature, Natural Laws, Natural Rights
  • Natural laws can regulate both the universe and human society
  • Natural laws can be discovered by human reason
  • Liberty & Freedom a natural right

Key Ideas of the Enlightenment

  • 3. Happiness
  • Happiness as an inalienable human right
  • Humans should not accept misery in this world to find salvation in the hereafter
  • (social reform is possible)

Key Ideas of the Enlightenment

“Philosophes”

  • Critical of everything!
  • Political Philosophers/Social Critics
  • Applied rules of reason, criticism, and common sense to their writings

The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas

  • 1. The Rise of Print Culture:
  • Books, journals, newspapers, magazines reached wider audiences in the 18th century
  • People exposed to new ideas

The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas

  • 2. Writers as Social Critics
  • Philosophes able to earn a living through writing
  • Exchanged ideas/opinions/perspectives
  • Allowed for the emergence of public opinion

The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas

  • 3. Coffeehouses
  • Allowed for public discussion of social/ Political issues
  • A place for intellectuals to exchange ideas

Voltaire (1694-1778)

  • Most influential of the philosophes
  • AKA: Francois- Marie Arouet
  • Prolific writer
  • Wrote: Candide (1759) – a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and human optimism

The Quotable Voltaire

  • 1. “I do not agree with what you have to say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it”
  • 2. 2“God gave us the gift of life; It is up to us to give ourselves the gift of living well”
  • 3. “Common sense is not so common”
  • 4. “ Judge a man by his questions rather than his answers”
  • 5. “everyman is guilty of all the good he did not do”

The Encyclopedia

  • Printed 1751-1772
  • Denis Diderot chief editor of the Encyclopedia
  • Collective effort- 100 authors
  • importance:
  • 1. Disseminated Enlightenment thinking
  • 2. Freedom of expression
  • 3. Source of knowledge

Quotable Diderot

  • “all things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings” – Denis Diderot

Shift in Political Ideology

  • Old idea:
  • “ a monarch’s rule is justified through divine right”
  • New Idea:
  • a government’s power comes from the consent of the governed”

Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)

  • Wrote: Spirit of Laws (1748)
  • Concluded that the Ideal government would separate power into:
  • Executive, judicial, & legislative branches

Quotable Montesquieu

Adam Smith (1723-1790)

  • Wrote: Wealth of Nations (1776)
  • Governments should not interfere with business
  • Laissez -faire economics (let them be)
  • Emergence of classical economic thought

Jean -Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

  • Committed to defending freedom and changing existing social order
  • 1. Novel Emile – argued for a “natural education”
  • Children are entitled to an education
  • Education should be individualized “every mind has its own form”

Jean -Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

  • 2. Social Contract
  • agreement among free individuals to create a society & government
  • “ man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”

Jean -Jacques Rousseau’s View of Women (1712-1778)

  • Urged traditional & conservative role of women
  • Emphasized motherhood -child bearing and childrearing
  • Portrayed women as weaker, inferior to men
  • Excluded women from political life

Mary Wollstonecraft:

  • Wrote: A Vindication of the Rights of Women
  • Argued :
  • that women, like men, needed education to become “virtuous & useful”
  • That women, like men had the capacity of human reason
  • Criticized Rousseau’s view of women

Quotable Mary Wollstonecraft

  • “Strengthen the female mind by enlarging it, and there will be an end to blind obedience”

Mary Wollstonecraft

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4tYv3w4rZxI

Enlightenment Ideas…

  • 1. Inspired Revolutions and Independence Movements of the 1700’s and 1800’s
  • 2. Redefined the relationship between government and those governed

Enlightened Absolutism

The French Revolution

  • APEURO – Chapter12: From Absolutism to Revolutionary Upheaval:1740-1815 ( pages 291-307)

Causes of The French Revolution

1. Inequality/ Unfair Social Order

  • Society divided into The “Three Estates”
  • 3 Social Classes determined a person’s status, and their rights!

1. Inequality/ Unfair Social Order

  • 1st Estate:
  • Clergy
  • Made up 1% of the population
  • Did Not pay taxes!

1. Inequality/ Unfair Social Order

  • 2nd Estate:
  • Nobility
  • 2% of the population owned 25% of the land
  • High positions in government, military
    • DID NOT PAY TAXES!
  • (a noble privilege)

1. Inequality/ Unfair Social Order

  • 3rd Estate:
  • Everyone Else!
  • “Bourgeoisie” – middle class professionals
  • Free Peasants
  • Serfs (un-free peasants)
  • HAD TO PAY TAXES!

2.France’s Debt

  • From previous wars
  • Send $ to the American colonists
  • Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette’s extravagant spending

2.France’s Debt!

  • Jacques Necker – Minister of Finance Publishes the “Necker Report” 1781
  • “Everything’s Fine!”
  • Report disclosed economic mismanagement
  • By 1786 Banks refused to lend $ to France!

2.France’s Debt!

  • Charles Alexander Calonne’s Economic Reform Plan 1786 :
  • Why not tax landed nobility?
  • He was quickly replaced…

2.France’s Debt!

  • Marie Antoinette’s extravagant spending sprees…
  • 1 dress cost 20X’s what a skilled worker earned in a year!
  • Spent $ on clothes, shoes, accessories, parties, re-decorating Versailles…

2.France’s Debt!

  • Marie Antoinette was nicknamed… “Madame Deficit”

3. Cost of Living Increased

  • Peasant situation worsened:
  • Price of food rose
  • Crop failures 1788-1789 led to
  • bread shortages!
  • Peasant’s anger rose

Causes of the French Revolution

  • 1. Inequality of Social Classes
  • The Three Estates and Taxes
  • 2. France’s debt
  • Extravagant spending of Marie A. & Louis XVI
  • 3. Cost of Living Increased
  • Tensions rose
  • No money for food or basic necessities

Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette

  • **

Palace of Versailles

  • Was Built by Louis 16th’s grandfather
  • “The Sun King” Louis 14th
  • Most extravagant palace in all of Europe

Marie Antoinette

  • Born in 1755
  • Austrian Princess
  • Had 14 Brothers and Sisters
  • Marie the favorite

@ Age 15…

  • A marriage arranged
  • To the Crown Prince of France, Louis 16th
  • “an advantageous match”
  • She was sent to Versailles

The Wedding, 1770

  • Marie and Louis were married
  • They were both 15

The Coronation, 1774

  • Louis’ Father died
  • And
  • Louis and Marie were crowned King and Queen of France
  • AT AGE 19!!!

Louis XVI

  • Described as “homely, awkward & anti-social”
  • He was obsessed with collecting KEYS, and CLOCKS.
  • Ignored Marie for the first 7 years of their marriage

Louis XVI ‘s Hobby

  • **

Royal Children

Marie Antoinette – Last Queen of France- Early years

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3Gr-jGdVdk

What was Marie To Do?

  • She spent Money!
  • Fashion - her passion!
  • Named her designer Rose Bertin as  “Minister of Fashion
  • Threw lavish Banquets
  • The official duty of the Queen was to produce a male heir…

Controversial Marie

  • Decided to “act” in the theatre! (scandalous!)
  • Decided to be a “trendsetter” !
  • Longed for the “simple life” built a peasant village

Marie Pretending to be a Peasant

Did Marie Antoinette Really say “Let them eat cake”?

Marie Antoinette Barbie

Marie Antoinette’s Dress

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnnQLV9eDb0
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3EcBUQ5fMBw

Meanwhile…

  • Fall, 1788. Financial Desperation!
  • Louis XVI agreed to call on the Estates General
  • Estates General – representative assembly of Three Estates
  • Last time assembly was called: 1614!

The French Revolution: 1789-1799 Napoleonic Era: 1799-1815

  • Six Phases:
  • 1. Estates General – 1789
  • 2. National Assembly Phase: June ,1789 - 1791
  • 3. The Legislative Assembly Phase: 1791-1792
  • 4. National Convention Phase: 1792-1795
  • 5. The Directory Phase: 1795-1799
  • 6. Napoleon Phase: 1799-1815

1. Estates General -1789

  • Estates General
  • Problem: 1st & 2nd Estate usually outvoted the 3rd estate
  • Solution: the 3rd estate allowed to send as many delegates as the other 2 estates combined.

1. The Estates General- 1789

  • 1789 Joseph Sieyes wrote pamphlet: “What is the 3rd Estate?”
  • Argued that the clergy & nobility contributed little to the country
  • 3rd estate however, the “heart” of the country!
  •                                                         

1. The Estates General- 1789

  • All invited to submit (by estates):
  • Cahiers de doleances (grievance lists)
  • Petitions showed: desire for constitutional monarchy, re-structured tax system, guaranteed liberties

1. The Estates General -1789

  • Estates General convened May, 1789
  • 3rd estate refused to act until King ordered the 2 other estates to meet with them
  • 6 week standoff, Some Priests joined the 3rd estate

2.National Assembly Phase – June, 1789-1791

  • Transition:
  • The 3rd Estate Declared itself the National Assembly
  • June , 1789 assembly moved to an indoor tennis court…

2.National Assembly Phase 1789-1791

  • And swore to continue to meet until France had a new constitution…
  • Pledge called: The Tennis Court Oath

2.National Assembly Phase 1789-1791

  • July, 1789 – Storming of the Bastille
  • Parisian Mob attacked the Bastille Prison
  • Symbol of injustice, inequality
  • Hoped to seize weapons, free prisoners
  • Soldiers fired at mob

2.National Assembly Phase 1789-1791

  • July, 1789
  • Breakdown of law and order
  • Peasants broke into manors, quit paying taxes
  • Some nobles flee (emigres)
  •                                                                                                                  
  •     
  •                                                                 
  •                                                                                                              

2.National Assembly Phase 1789-1791

  • The King Accepted the National Assembly as new government
  • Tri-color flag adopted
  • Gave peasants hunting rights

2.National Assembly Phase 1789-1791

  • August, 1789
  • Declaration of Rights of Men and of the Citizen
  • Listed basic human rights
  • all men are born free and equal in rights
  • Excluded women

2.National Assembly Phase 1789-1791

  • Response: Olympe de Gouges wrote:
  • Declaration of Rights of Men and of Women”
  • Declared women’s rights to education, property within marriage, right to initiate divorce

2.National Assembly Phase 1789-1791

  • October 5,1789
  • Women’s March to Versailles
  • Mob of over 100,000 women demand bread
  • Demanded King Louis XVI move to Paris

3. The Legislative Assembly, 1791-1792

  • Factions:
  • 1. Conservatives sat on the right (Loyal to King)
  • 2. Moderates sat on the center
  • 3. Radicals sat on the left

3. The Legislative Assembly, 1791-1792

  • Leftist Radicals divided into 2 groups:
  • 1. The Jacobins – Wanted to overthrow monarchy and create a republic.
  • 2. The Girondists- wanted to involve France in a war that would discredit the monarchy and extend revolutionary ideas across Europe.

3. The Legislative Assembly, 1791-1792

  • June 21, 1791
  • Royal family attempted to flee
  • 500 miles away from border…
  • Recognized & Arrested
  •                                                                                                                  
  •     
  •                                                                 
  •                                                                                                              

3. The Legislative Assembly, 1791-1792

  • Marie Antoinette’s brother King Leopold of Austria threatened to send troops to France to restore order…
  • If other European nations joined him…
  • No one joined him
  • Leopold died unexpectedly

4.National Convention Phase 1792-1795

  • New French Constitution went into effect
  • September 1, 1791
  • The “National Assembly” achieved their Tennis Court Oath and changed their name to…
  • “The National Convention

4. National Convention Phase 1792-1795

  • A wave of patriotism spread throughout country
  • September 1792 , France declared a Republic
  • Slogan: “Life, Liberty, and Fraternity”

4. National Convention Phase 1792-1795

  • New Government Created :
  • A new calendar! (began September 1792 as month 1)
  • (months renamed according to season)
  • The Metric System!

4. National Convention Phase 1792-1795

  • People now addressed as “citizens” (everyone equal)
  • Churches converted to “Temples of Reason”
  • Religious celebrations and holidays were secularized

4. National Convention Phase 1792-1795

  • National Convention STILL divided
  • 1. Girondists- “revolution has gone far enough!”
  • 2. Jacobins – radicals “anyone who opposes new govt. is anti-revolutionary!”

4. National Convention Phase- 1792-1795

  • The Working Class
  • “Sans Culottes” – (those who wear the long pants)
  • Pressed for more extreme measures

4. National Convention Phase 1792-1795

  • Reign of Terror 1793-1794
  • Radical Jacobins took over the National Convention under the leadership of
  • Maximillien Robespierre

4. National Convention Phase 1792-1795

  • Robespierre sought to eliminate all enemies of the Jacobins
  • Established the Committee of Public Safety
  • Between 20,000- 40,000 people guillotined (from all three former estates)
  • Most violent period

4. National Convention Phase 1792-1795

  • King Louis XVI executed for treason January, 1793
  • Marie Antoinette executed Late 1793
  • Daughter Maria Therese survived in Austria
  • Son Louis Charles died in prison a year after mother’s death

Marie Antoinette- The Last Queen of France

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ls6HiYVkt0M
  • The Queen’s cell
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGl61UPX-KU

4. The National Convention 1792-1795

  • The Feminine symbol of the revolution
  • “Marianne” 
  • Second Constitution of 1793, is never used

4. National Convention – 1792-1795

  • Members of National Convention turned against Robespierre
  • July 1794 Maximillien Robespierre executed
  • July = Thermidor (heat)
  • The revolt against Robespierre is called The Thermidorian Reaction

5. The Directory Phase 1795-1799

  • France now ruled by a committee of 5 men
  • Legislature made up of 2 houses: the 500, and the elders
  • September ,1797 a coup d'état reduced the directory to 3 members

5. The Directory Was Overthrown

  • By a young , successful general in 1799
  • By the name of…
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

6. The Napoleonic Era 1799-1815

  • The “post” revolution years
  • Chapter 19

About Napoleon…

  • Born in island of Corsica
  • Was not French!
  • Won a scholarship to attend a prestigious French Military Academy

In 1796

  • Napoleon Married Josephine
  • She was 32 (six years older!), a divorcee with grown sons
  • She helped him get a high ranking military position

In November, 1799

  • Napoleon overthrew the Directory
  • Although his new government appeared to be “democratic”, he was really a dictator

Napoleon Restored Order in France

  • 1. Did away with the unfair tax laws
  • 2. Established a National Bank! Balances budget!
  • 3. Established Schools!
  • 4. Replaced elected officials with his trusted friends (rewarded them for their talents)

Napoleon Restored Order in France

  • 5. Censored Newspapers (# of Newspapers went from 73 to 13!)
  • 6. Restored the Church and Religious Holidays
  • 7. Abandoned the revolutionary calendar
  • 8. Kept the Metric System

1804 Napoleon Declared himself Emperor !

  • Coronation : return to extravagance
  • Procession in Royal Coach to Cathedral of Notre Dame
  • Crowned by Pope
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Pf7UqM7Wyg

Imagery of Napoleon

  • Bees- resurrection
  • Eagle- military victory
  • Hand of justice- authority
  • References to Ceasar: laurel crown, roman column
  • Symbols of monarchy: sceptre, robe, throne, chain

Notable Napoleon Quotes:

  • “A picture is worth a thousand words”
  • “If you want something done well, do it yourself”
  • “A man will fight harder for his interests, than his rights”

Napoleonic Code (of laws)

  • 1. Divided into criminal code and civil code
  • 2. Citizens declared equal before law
  • 3. Freedom of religion
  • 4. Chapellier law forbade labor unions & strikes
  • 5. Men controlled property
  • 6. Women had no right to earn/keep their own money

Society During Napoleon Years

  • Moving upward in society required education, money, and service to the state…
  • It was possible to “move up”

Military Genius

  • France was not enough!
  • 1. Attempted to defeat Britain’s navy in 1805
  • Lost the BATTLE OF Trafalgar
  • Revenge-
  • The Continental System 1806: Napoleon Forced French allies to boycott British goods. Hoped to destroy their economy

Military Genius

  • 2. 1805 Defeated Austria
  • 3. 1806 Dissolved The Holy Roman Empire (German Principalities)

Military Genius

  • 4. 1807-1808 Invaded Spain
  • forced Spanish King to abdicate
  • Napoleon placed his brother Joseph on the throne

Strategy

  • 1807 signed non-aggression pact with Czar Alexander of Russia

Meanwhile…

  • Napoleon divorced Josephine
  • No male heir!
  • Married 18 year old Marie Louise (he was 40)
  • She produced male heir… (1811-1832) Napoleon Francois <-Joseph Charles

By 1812

  • Napoleon ruled most of Europe
  • Placed bothers in ruling positions in conquered territories

And Then…

  • Czar Alexander of Russia decided to sign a treaty with England, Betraying pact with Napoleon!
  • Napoleon had married Marie Louise instead of the TSAR’S Sister. Personal revenge?

Napoleon Was Furious!

  • He invaded Russia 1812
  • 700,000 French Troops
  • ½ died due to starvation , frostbite and exposure to cold!
  • DISASTROUS

The End

  • Napoleon forced to abdicate in 1814
  • Failed suicide attempt
  • Exiled to Elba
  • Got to keep title & income

After ALL THAT,

  • Louis XVIII brother of Louis XVI was restored to the throne!
  • “Constitutional Monarch”

But Wait!

  • Napoleon returned in 1815, raised an army and regained power!
  • Only for 100 days

European Governments

  • Teamed up against Napoleon:
  • Austrian, British, Prussian, Russian forces
  • Defeated NAPOLEON in Battle of Waterloo (Belgium)
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aBRR31ocLlg

Congress of Vienna (1815)

  • 1. Pre- Napoleon borders restored
  • 2. Legitimate Bourbon Monarchy restored to France
  • 3. England, Austria, Prussia, Russia, France form alliance “Concert of Europe” (harmony)
  • 4. Agree to squash revolutions & maintain order
  • 5. Balance of power – no 1 nation can become “too strong”

Napoleon

  • Was Sent to the island of St. Helena
  • He died 1821

Napoleon Karaoke Review!

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOki3qAZe4g

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