The Eminence


Peculiarities in Adjectives



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Peculiarities in Adjectives

Sam is a careful driver.

  • Sam always carefully drives his Mercedes car.

We didn’t go out because of the heavy rain.

  • It was raining heavily that prevented us from going out.

The girl speaks perfect English in public places.

  • English is spoken perfectly by her in public places.

Please be quiet.

  • Please speak quietly in the class.

You aren’t serious about me for my life.

  • Why don’t you take me seriously in your life?

The popcorn chicken at KFC restaurant has reasonable rate for the chicken-lovers?

  • The popcorn-chicken is reasonably cheap to afford?

I am so sorry to push you but I didn’t have any intention to do so.

  • I am so terribly sorry to have pushed you. I didn’t intentionally do it.

Maria learns languages in very less time. She is very intelligent.

  • Maria learns languages incredibly quick and intelligently awesome.

The examination for my daughter is an easy cup of tea.

  • The examination for my daughter is surprisingly easy.

The meeting was a total chaos at ‘Davos International Weather Agency’.

  • The meeting was very badly organized.

My grandmother is very famous among the relatives because she is very rich.

  • My grandmother in the family is financially sound and is lovable among everyone.

I was very hesitant to talk to a girl in the college canteen.

  • I nervously had a chance to communicate with the girl of my college.

Darren is a very fast runner at the Olympic stadium.

  • Darren is running very quickly at the Olympic stadium now.

The customer was scolded to leave by the manager of the hotel due to excessive consumption of liquor.

  • The customer violently left the hotel premise due to manager.



`COMPARISON B/W`

The use of `SO` and `SUCH`

  • I didn’t like the book. The story was so stupid.

  • The book was such irritating that I disliked it much.

  • The robot was so quick that it completed the entire work of home in minutes.

  • The robot was such intelligent piece of machine that might complete the work in minutes.

  • I was so tired that I fell asleep in the armchair.

  • It was such a tiring moment for me that I just submerged in the chair.

  • It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it? It’s so warm.

  • It’s such a fantastic weather with a little bit of warmness.

  • The snake moved in the colony garden so quickly it terrified us a lot.

  • The snake was such incredibly quick it made us all fearful.

Note: {We also use ‘so’ and ‘such’ with the meaning `like this`.

Ex: - Somebody told me the house was built 100 years ago. I didn’t realize it was so old.

I didn’t realize it was such an old house.

You know it’s not true. How can you say such a thing?

I expected the weather to be cooler. I’m surprised it is so warm or I’m surprised to have felt it so warm.

You won’t find the word ‘blid’ in the dictionary. There’s no such word.

Comparison of the words

I haven’t seen her for so long I’ve forgotten what she looks like.

I haven’t seen her for such a long time.

I’m so sorry I’m late – there was so much traffic.

I didn’t know it was such a long way.

I’m sorry I’m late – there was such a lot of traffic.

Differences in sentences based on Adjectives + Adverbs

  • Good/Well: - Good is an adjective. The adverb is well.

Your English is good But You speak English well.

Susan is a good pianist. But Susan plays the piano well.

  • We use `well` with past participles such as ‘dressed’/ ‘known’ etc.

Well-dressed well-known well-educated well-paid

  • The lady whom I met in the party last night was well-dressed.

  • The girl learning theme-song over the synthesizer is a well-known song from the movie ‘Spiderman’.

  • The teacher that has just faced the interview in our school is a well-educated educationist.

  • The ground staff officers at the tube station are a well-paid staff of the Scotland Yard (police department).

Rewrite the following sentences using “Let” or “Let us”: -

  • Allow him to sleep

Let him sleep.

  • We will go to a movie

Let’s go and watch a movie. (Together)

  • Don’t allow anybody inside

Let’s allow everybody else to enter. (Inside)

  • Allow me to go

Let me not allow to go! (The Use of “to go” in last sounds more British than use of “Going”)

  • Allow her to leave

Let us just permit the girl to leave the room.

  • The story wants to get started soon.

Let the story begin…

  • We will meet the manager

Let us meet the manager, shall we?

  • We will not talk about that now

Let us not discuss about it. (Then)

  • We will not download it

Let skip the section of downloading it.

  • Allow them to explain the concept

Let us just give them sufficient room to relax.

Determiners: -

The use of the word ‘Hardly’; ‘very little’ or ‘almost not’: -

  • Sarah wasn’t very friendly at the party. She hardly spoke to me.

(= it means she spoke to me very little, almost not at all)

  • There is very little water left for us to drink in this scorching desert.

(= it means there is hardly ant water droplet left or almost no drop of water left to drink)

  • Can we cover the distance of 1 more km with this scooty? We cannot. Almost not!

(=it means to think about travelling with this much petrol left in tank is almost not sufficient for us)

  • We’ve only met once or twice. We hardly know each other.

Hard and Hardly are different word comparisons

He tried hard to find a job, but he had no luck. (=he tried a lot, with a lot of effort)

I am not surprised he didn’t find a job. He hardly tried to find one. (=he tried very little)

We can use ‘Hardly’ + any/anybody/anyone/anything/anywhere: -

Question: How much money have we got?

Answer: Hardly any. (=it means very little, almost none)

Question: The teacher wanted to teach subject of English in a government school?

Answer: Hardly any student sincerely showed interest in it.

Statement: The father of the bride made an expensive marriage arrangement for the attendees?

Reply: Hardly anyone came to the marriage party to attend it unfortunately due to heavy showers.

Question: Has the tenant cleaned the entire room in two days without paying bills of electricity?

Answer: Hardly anything is left over by the tenant, not even a nail on the wall.

Question: Did you search the kidnapped girl in the entire bungalow in night?

Answer: The girl could be found hardly anywhere in the bungalow in night hours.

  • Note: ‘She said hardly anything’ or ‘We’ve got hardly any money’.

  • She hardly said anything’ or ‘We’ve hardly got any money’.

The use of ‘Hardly ever’: - almost never

I’m nearly always at home in the evenings. I hardly ever go out.

I fish a fish near the pond daily at six in the morning. I hardly ever miss a single day with them.

The groom has to sit on a female horse for his bride in ‘Hindu` custom. I should hardly ever sit on it.

Could you climb the branch of a ‘Neem’ tree? I hardly ever tried to do it myself.

  • Complete the sentence with ‘Hardly’ + the following verbs: -

  • You’re speaking very quietly. I can hardly hear you clearly.

  • I’m very tired this morning. I hardly spoke to you last night.

  • We were so shocked when we heard the news; we could hardly view the scene positively.

  • You look the same now as you looked 15 years ago. You’ve hardly changed your personality.

  • I met Dave a few days ago. I hadn’t seen him for a long time and he looks very different now. I hardly recognize him with a beard.



Use of didn’t need to & needn’t gone: -

My tea was already sweetened, so I needn’t put any sugar in, but I did and made it too sweet.



My tea was already sweetened so I didn’t need to put any sugar in; I drank it as it was.

{Note: The use of ‘HAVE’ with needn’t next to the word isn’t necessary to be considered as attaching word rather it can be considered as supporting verb to ‘NEEDN’T’}

I needn’t given answers for the questions, but I am glad I did it efficiently.



I didn’t need to give answers for questions knowing they were difficult to solve.

I needn’t to buy a new one, so I brought the old one back.



I didn’t need buying a new one understanding old one was worth-bringing one.

You didn’t need to spend all that money; now we’ve got nothing left.



You needn’t spend entire money as today are pockets have burnt out completely.

I didn’t need to go by sea, but flying would have cost more.



I needn’t gone by sea but opting a trip by an airbus will be a costly affair.

Miscellaneous sentences: - (IMP sentences)

You must write yours now and she will have to write hers when she comes in.



Do you to write yourself and to let her to write herself when she comes in?

Have you to write all by yourself and to make her write hers when she arrives in.

Need you to only write yourself and will to make her write hers when she comes back.

Must you to write yours and to make her write hers when she comes in.

You must put all the eggs in one basket.



Do you to put all the eggs in one basket?

Have you to keep entire eggs inside one basket.

Need you to assimilate eggs in one basket.

Must you to acquire plenty of eggs to put it in a basket.

You must give it back to me before you go.



Do you to give it back to me before you go?

Have you to return it to me before leaving.

Need you to return it to me before you leave.

Must you to give it back to me before you go?

They had to light a fire to cook their supper.



Do they to light a fire to cook their supper, previously?

{Note: if ‘Them’ is taken in place of ‘They’ than use of ‘Let’ have to be taken}

Do let them to have lit up the fire to cook their supper.

You must listen to this talk on potato planting.



Do you to listen to this talk on potato planting.

Have you to listen to the talk on potato planting.

Need you to give ear to the conversation on potato planting.

You must ring him up before tomorrow



Do you to ring him up before the next day?

Have you to ring him up tomorrow.

Need you to ring him up quickly before tomorrow.

We had to cook them first



Did we have to cook them initially?

Had we to cook them firstly.

Needed we to cook a dish first and later eat it?

You must cut it in three equal pieces



Do you to necessarily cut it in three equal pieces?

Have you to cut it equally in three pieces.

Need you to cut it efficiently in three equal pieces.

Use of ‘Needn’t’ in differently patterned situations: -

He needn’t do that, need he?



Yes, I am afraid he must.

Must I go?



No, you mustn’t.

My doctor says I mustn’t eat meat, but I needn’t take his advice if I do not want to.

I do not have to tell my husband:-

I needn’t tell my husband such things; He is a born gentleman.

My mother says I mustn’t be out (I am not to be out) after 8 o’ clock, but I needn’t disgrace her for my own benefit (even if I want to).



Use of ‘Just as well’ & ‘Just as soon’ : - (might, would)

‘Come at six’. ‘I want to come at five’.



I might just as well come at five (= He is immaterial to me) (As far as I am concerned); Why not at five?

I would just as soon come at five (= I would like five equally well, if it makes no difference to you) (Weak preference)

I’d rather come at five (=This is what I would prefer) (Stronger preference)

Let’s go to the pictures. (Stay at home)

We might just as well (let grandma to relish movie with us) than just stay at home, simply.

(A strong urge to go)

We would just as soon reach theatre before it is off in two days time.

The use of `Enough` and `Too`: - Note: - [The word ‘enough’ normally goes before nouns.]

  • I can’t run very far. I’m not fit enough.

  • I am too lazy to run far.

  • Let’s go. We’ve waited long enough. (we cannot say: - we’ve waited enough long)

  • It is too long for us to wait anymore. (we cannot say: - It is long too for us.)

Compare ‘too’ … with ‘not enough’…

  • You never stop working. You work too hard. (=more than is necessary)

  • You’re a lazy bloke. You don’t work hard enough.(=less than is necessary)

The use of ‘enough’ alone (without a noun)

  • We don’t need any more money. We’ve got enough.

Comparison of the words ‘too much’/’many’ and ‘enough’: -

  • There’s too much furniture in this room. There’s not enough space.

  • There are too many snakes in the snake pit. There isn’t enough room to house one more among them.

  • The basket consists of too many red apples in it. There ain’t room to adjust a banana with them.

  • There were too many people and not enough chairs.

We say or use the expression ‘enough’/’too’ to do something (not for doing).

Ex: - We haven’t got enough money to go on a holiday. (not for going)

Is Joey experienced enough to do the job?

They’re too young to get married. / They’re not old enough to get married.

Let’s get a taxi. It’s too far to walk home from here. / The home is far enough to cover the distance.

The bridge is just wide enough for two cars to pass each other. / The bridge is too broad to let two cars easily pass by.

The use of three different sentences under three different categories: -

  • The food was very hot. We couldn’t eat it.

  • The food was so hot that we couldn’t eat it.

  • The food was too hot to eat. (=Do not attach ‘it’ with the sentence)

Complete the answers to the questions using ‘too’ or ‘enough’ + the word.

Question: - Are they going to get married? (Old)

Answer: - No, they are not old enough to get married. / No, they are too immature to easily get married.

Question: - I need to talk to you about something. (Busy)

Answer: - Well, I am afraid I’m busy enough to listen to you now. / Well, I am too busy at this juncture.

Question: - Let’s go to the cinema. (Late)

Answer: - No, it’s late enough without informing the parents to visit cinema. / No, it’s too late to visit cinema at this time of the night.

Question: - Why don’t we sit outside? (Warm)

Answer: - It isn’t pleasant (cold) enough to enjoy the weather outside. / It is too warm to go outside stupidly to enjoy the weather like this outside.

Question: - Would you like to be a politician? (Shy)

Answer: - No, I’m shy enough to be a politician in such a young age. / I am too shy to become a politician in life. (=for I never have understood the peculiarities of it)

Question: - Did you hear what he was saying? (Far away)

Answer: - No, the distance was far enough to our reach. / No, it was truly too far for us to give ears to his words.

Question tags: - A statement followed by a little question is called a ‘question tag’. It is taken generally when we want the listener to confirm what we have said.

Frequently heard statements: -

  • Joshua works hard, doesn’t he?

  • She came home late to have dinner, didn’t she?

  • He doesn’t like reading, does he?

  • She can’t see very well through glasses, can she?

Note: - {Notice that the first two statements were followed by negativity ‘doesn’t & didn’t whereas in third and fourth statements followed by positivity ‘does he’ & can she’.}

Note: - {When the statement is positive the tag is negative & when the statement is negative the tag becomes positive automatically)

Examples: - You are coming tomorrow for the wedding party, aren’t you?

You don’t know her well, do you?

You have met her before in the college, haven’t you?

She won’t visit us tomorrow, will she?

He can’t understand English, can he?

He has finished his work, hasn’t he?

Add an appropriate ‘question tag’ in statements mentioned below: -

  • A farmer is an important person.

Isn’t he?

  • All the students have not done well.

Have they?

  • Judges wear wigs.

Don’t they?

  • The missionary schools are not imparting good education in children now-a-days.

Are they?

  • The she-goat is climbing a tree with great difficulty.

Isn’t she?

  • She will not visit us after such a disaster tomorrow.

Will she?

  • We ought to go to bed now.

Ought not we?

Active and Passive voice: -

The Voice

Definition: - A voice is the medium to convey a message from one person to another and by expressing feelings or emotions through different variations in the amount of pitch used thus making person happy or sad respectively. There are two methods of conveying our voice: -

  1. Direct voice: - It is an unbalanced voice with words used directly without inspection such as anger; frustration; deceit; complications; order, command; disrespect etc. as indecent or vulgar words are used to convey the message from one but they are always very harmful for one’s character or personality.

  2. Indirect voice: - It is a balanced voice with words first being carefully taken into brain before they might reach to the tip of the tongue such as decency; politeness; love; protection; care; respect; obey; courtesy etc. , have a sober and supple effect over the person whom we are caring much.

`Think before you speak`

Categories of voices

  • Active Voice: - The voice that consists of a subject before its beginning is called active or in which the subject acts as one with all the action to be done by him.

  • Passive Voice: - The voice that is changed immediately to object by placing an object in place of subject and subject shifted somewhere else in a statement is called a passive sentence.

Note: - {There are four important things to remember always in active & passive voice}

  1. The use of the word “By”.

  2. The use of singulars and plurals.

  3. The use of subjects and objects.

  4. The use of the same tense when changed from active to passive. We can’t change the tense under any condition.

Rules of use to take an active and passive voice sentence: -

Rule no. 1 `Variations in the use of a sentence`

Ex: - Children are flying kites/ in the sky/ with friends.

Kites are being flown by children/in the sky/ with friends.

Note: - {Usually when there are two subjects or objects it is easy to change active to passive but things become difficult when there are two or more subjects and objects just like in the example above.}

formula: -[ s,s – o,o – s,o – o,s – s,s,o – o,o,s – s,s,s,s,o – o,o,o,o,s – s,o,s,o,s,o,s – o,s,o,s,o,s,s,s]

Rule no.2 : - [This strange formula is a technique or trick to understand the sequence of the number of subjects and objects taken in a sentence at one time that means more than two subjects or objects]

Don’t be confused!

Ex: - Children are flying kites in the sky with friends and family members since 15 minutes. (s,o,o,s,s)

  • Solved example: - Kites are flown by children in the sky with friends & family members since 15 minutes.

Note: - {Always take the ‘I’ & ‘II’ position and forget the rest of the positions of subjects & objects) or in other words do not disturb the position of words after the use of preposition or bring last words in the front. This will be totally wrong.}

From Active into Passive voice

Present Tense:-

  • Cats catch mice in a dark room. (Active voice)

Mice are caught by cats in a dark room. (Passive voice)

  • They have cut all internet line cables from the head-office. (Active voice)

Internet line cables have been cut by them from the head-office. (Passive voice)

  • Someone has stolen my watch. (Active voice)

My watch has been stolen. (Passive voice)

  • The watch is stolen. (Active voice)

Someone has stolen the watch. (Passive voice)

The sentences of voices based on ‘questions’: -

  • Do cats catch mice?

Are mice caught by cats?

  • Does the grocer sell tea? (=The question in voice must be changed into question only not into answer)

Is tea sold by the grocer?

  • Has somebody broken the window?

Has the window been broken by somebody?

Past Tense

  • The girl was writing a letter to her father.

A letter was being written by the girl to her father.

  • They were making a noise.

A noise was being made by them.

  • They had not done their work.

Their work had not been done by them.

  • Were the farmers ploughing the fields?

Were the fields being ploughed by the farmers?

  • Had the boys eaten all the cakes?

Had all the cakes been eaten by the boys?

Future Tense

  • We shall pardon her.

She will be pardoned by us.

  • They will help us with money.

We shall be helped by them with money.

  • You will have heard this news already.

This news will have been heard by you already.

  • Shall she love the puppy of the road?

Shall the puppy of the road be loved by her?

  • Won’t the milkman deliver the milk to us tonight?

Won’t the milk be delivered to us by the milkman tonight?

Two way constructions of sentences based on active and passive voice: -

  • Deepika lent me ten rupees.

I was lent ten rupees by Deepika.

Ten rupees were lent to me by Deepika.

  • I taught him English at home.

He was taught English by me at home.

English was taught to him by me at home.

  • They told me the truth.

I was told the truth by them.

The truth as told to me by them.

The sentences under which prepositional objects might also become the subject: -

Active voice: - They laughed at her.

Passive voice: - She was laughed at.

Active voice: - They must do it at once.

Passive voice: - It must be done at once.

Active voice: - The flight is going to be cancelled.

Passive voice: - It is evident to get the flight cancelled. (Use of extra piece of word)

Active voice: - The dead body was buried secretly.

Passive voice: - It was required to bury the dead-body secretly.

When the subject is unknown, it remains unexpressed in the Passive voice: -

Active voice: - They made him general in front of all other officers.

Passive voice: - He was made general in front of all other officers.

Active voice: - You must answer all the questions.

Passive voice: - All the questions must be answered.

Active voice: - Who killed the tiger in the jungle?

Passive voice: - Whom was the tiger killed in the jungle by?

Turn the following sentences in to passive voice without changing it with “by”: -

Active voice: - Someone has stolen my pen.

Passive voice: - My pen is stolen.

Active voice: - They are serving tea to the guests.

Passive voice: - The guests are served tea.

Active voice: - They drank a whole barrel of beer in the party.

Passive voice: - All the people drank whole barrel of beer in the party.

Active voice: - No one has opened that chest for the last hundred years.

Passive voice: - Someone has never opened that chest for last 100 years.

Active voice: - One uses milk for making butter and cheese.

Passive voice: - butter and cheese are made up of milk.

Active voice: - Now we know that the earth goes round the sun.

Passive voice: - We are known now that the earth goes round the sun.

Direct and Indirect Speech

Definition: - A speech is the medium through which a human conveys its message in a specific manner to control the amount of words used and the process of making the next person understand what needs to be shared in a given time period. Some words are simply direct and others are handled with care carefully.

Types of speeches: -

  1. Direct Speech

  2. Indirect Speech



  1. Direct speech: - The speech under which the words aren’t taken as balanced words or in other words unbalanced words that are taken as words to hurt somebody’s feeling or emotions is called a ‘Direct speech’. For ex: - Get out of my sight!

  2. Indirect speech: - The speech under which the words are taken as balanced words is called as ‘Indirect speech’. The words are balanced in the mind first before they reach to the tip of the tongue.

For ex: - You are requested to leave!

Table chart: -

Shall

Will

May

Can

Now

This

These

Here

Thus

Come

Come

Should

Would

Might

Could

Then

That

Those

There

So

Came

Go


































Is coming

Has come

Has been coming

Today

Tomorrow

Yesterday

Last night

Ago










Was coming

Had come

Had been coming

That day

The next day

The previous day

The previous night

Before











































(Singular)

I

You

My

Your



He

She

His

Her





































(Plural)

We

You

Our

Your




They

their










Examples: -

Direct speech: - Ashok said, “I am working hard for the examination.”

Indirect speech: - Ashok said that he was working hard for the examination.

Type 1 Formula:- Present + Present = Present

Past + Past = Past

Future + Future = Future

Type 2 Formula: - Present + Past = Present / Past + Present = Past / Future + Present = Future.

Note: - (In type 1 formula list sentences with regular sequence is considered as simple and easy whereas in type 2 the formula is completely depended on the amount of tense taken outside the inverted commas).

Use of direct and indirect speech: -

Type 1

Direct: - The teacher says, “The student can come to school”.

Indirect: - The teacher says that the students come to school. (Simple construction)

Direct: - The mother tells the boy, “Go and fetch me water”.

Indirect: - The mother tells the boy that he must go and fetch water for her. (Simple construction)

Note: [Sometimes the use of “TO” is also considered to provide the same amount of meaning to the sentence]

(The mother tells the boy to fetch the water for her.)

Direct: - The carpenter told the customer, “I had finished the work of sofa”.

Indirect: - The carpenter told the customer that he had finished the work of sofa.

Direct: - The servant said, “I washed the clothes in washing machine”.

Indirect: - The servant said that he was washing the clothes in washing machine. (Simple construction)

Direct: - The builder will say, “I will build the building soon”.

Indirect: - The builder will say that he will build the building soon. (Simple construction)

Direct: - The village woman will say, “I will not live in a “kaccha house”.

Indirect: - The village woman will say that she would not live in a “kaccha house”. (Simple construction)

Type 2

Direct: - Joshua said, “I drink water after the meal”.

Indirect: - Joshua said that he drank water the meal.

Direct: - My friend told, “It will rain soon tomorrow”.

Indirect: - He said, “My pen is lost”.

Indirect: - He said that his pen was lost.

Direct: - John said to the girl, “I know you and your aunt”.

Indirect: - John said to the girl that he knew her and her aunt.

Direct: - I said to the boys, “You should do your duty”.

Indirect: - I told the boys that they should do their duty.

Direct: - The shopkeeper will say, “The mobile was fantastic to buy”.

Indirect: - The shopkeeper will say that the mobile will be fantastic to buy.

Direct: - The driver shall say to another driver, “it is difficult for me to learn car at this time”.

Indirect: - The driver shall say to another driver that it shall be difficult for him to learn car at that time.

Direct: - The teacher told the student, “I am busy now”.

Indirect: - The teacher said to the student that she was busy then.

Direct: - One girl said another girl, “last night I met a fool.”

Indirect: - One girl said another girl that she had met a fool the previous night.

Interrogative conditions: - “?”

Direct: - He said to me, “Do you know the way?”

Indirect: - He inquired of me if I knew the way.

Note: - {in interrogative sentences a “feeling” / “emotions” is considered and the word is immediately replaced with the word of emotion in the sentence so that exact meaning is displayed}

Direct: - Bali said to me, “when will you return?”

Indirect: - Bali asked me when I would return.

Direct: - He said to me, “Why did you write to me such an insulting letter?

Indirect: - He demanded of me why I had written such an insulting letter to him.

Change the Indirect sentence into direct sentence: -

Indirect: - He inquired of us whether we were going away that day.

Direct: - He said to us, “Are you going today?”

Indirect: - He demanded of me why I had insulted his brother.

Direct: - He said to me, “Why I had insulted his brother?”

Commands and Requests based on Direct and Indirect speech: -

Direct: - He said to me, “Give me your pencil.”

Indirect: - He asked me to give him my pencil.

Direct: - He said to the students, “Do not make a noise”.

Indirect: - He forbade the students to make a noise.

Direct: - I said to the teacher, “Please explain this question to me.”

Indirect: - I requested the teacher to explain that question to me.

Direct: - He said to the servant, “Leave my house at once.”

Indirect: - He ordered his servant to leave his house at once.

Direct: - The teacher said to the students. “Work hard and be regular in your studies.”

Indirect: - The teacher advised the students to work hard and be regular in their studies.

Direct: - The beggar said to the gentleman, “Help me to get some suitable employment.”

Indirect: - The beggar entreated the gentleman to help him to get some suitable employment.

Direct: - The rebel said to the king, “Pardon my fault, Sir.”

Indirect: - The rebel begged the king to pardon his fault.

Direct: - “Shoot the prisoner, “said the tyrant.

Indirect: - The tyrant commanded them to shoot the prisoner.

Direct: - “What a terrible storm it is! He said.

Indirect: - He exclaimed that it was a terrible storm.

Direct: - She said, “Alas! How foolish I have been!”

Indirect: - She confessed with regret that she had been very foolish.

Direct: - He said, “Good-bye, friends.”

Indirect: - He bade good-bye to his friends.

Direct: - She said, “O, for a glass of cold water!”

Indirect: - She cried out for a glass of cold water.

Direct: - He said, “God save the king!”

Indirect: - He prayed that God might save the king.

Punctuation and Capitals

Comparison in sentences based on punctuations: -

  1. Richard says Smith is a fool.

Richard’, says Smith ‘is a fool.’

Note: {From these sentences it is clear to us that stops may alter the sense of a sentence. Punctuation means the right use of such stops.}

The principal stops are: -

  1. Full Stop (.) 5. Note of Interrogation (?)

  2. Comma (,) 6. Note of Exclamation (!)

  3. Semicolon (;) 7. Inverted Commas (‘’)

  4. Colon (:)

Examples of Punctuations: -

  • Honesty is the best policy.

  • Shut the door.

  • M.A. \ M.L.A. \ Co. \ Mr. C.L. Gupta

  • Alexander, the conqueror of the world, began to weep when he saw the conditions of poor.

  • O king, I am the humble servant.

  • Health, wealth, and peace go together. \ He lived wisely, prudently, and honestly.

Note: {Now-a-days a Comma is generally omitted before “And”}

  • The sun having set, they returned home. \ Having done his work, he went to bed.

  • Rich and Poor, high and low, young and old, all must die.

  • Shanta is a Sindhi; Tarabai, a Bengali. \ John received a watch, Hari, a book.

  • Reading makes a full man; speaking a ready man; writing an exact man.

  • Shakespeare says: - “Sweet are the uses of adversity.”

  • What is wrong with you?

  • Why don’t you sod off? \ Alas! Bravo! Ah! Ouch! What luck! How it rains! Well done!

Lengthy punctuated sentences: -

  • The sun has set the moon has risen the stars have come out and night has arrived declared the Hermit

  • The sun has set, the moon has risen, the stars have come out, and night has arrived,” declared the Hermit.



  • He said why do you come and disturb me what a nuisance you are why cant you play somewhere else can you not see that I want to work go away at once and do not come near here again

  • He said, “Why do you come here and disturb me? What a nuisance you are! Why can’t you play somewhere else? Can you not see that I want to work? Go away at once and do not come near here again.



  • He said to me please take your seat here oh how glad I am to see you why do you look so sad is there anything i can do for you can certainly count upon me i need not assure you

  • He said to me, “Please take your seat here. Oh! How glad I am to see you! Why do you look so sad? Is there anything I can do for you? You can certainly count upon me, I need not assure you.”

Giving views/ ideas/ starting conversation/ Results

  • It seems/ appears/ I think that it… / In my opinion/ notion/ views

  • I disagree with you /Up to what extent/ some/ larger/ great

  • As you have said that… /At this juncture/ In this context

  • Question arises/ in my view /I would prefer that…

  • The way I see it/ as to me it is… /I leave no stone unturned

  • I am not the master of myself /I blush/ I apologize

  • Without any doubt… /So far as I think…

  • People assonate that … /I suspect that…

  • Last but not the least…I would like to say… /an idea has just stuck my mind…

  • Meanwhile/moreover /At the eleventh hour/ In the nick of time

  • Very often/ Seldom/ hardly…when/ scarcely..when/ no sooner…than

  • Rarely/ frequently/ Generally/ predominantly (mostly)

  • By chance/ By the way/ till/ twice/ thrice

  • In the broad daylight/ In the teeth of (means to face someone)

  • Ever since/ since then/ As long as/ As far as

  • In couple of days/ In the twinkling of an eye (very quickly/ Urgently)

  • Against whom/ whoever/ whomsoever/ whatsoever

  • In what mood/ under what circumstance

  • For whose sake/ what on earth are you…? / What sort of/kind of…

  • Where else/ when else.



Sentences of purpose/result: -

He was so kind that…/ come a little nearer so that…/ I’ll give you some money in case…/ They live such a long away that../ We mustn’t make a noise for fear…/ He hurried back in order that../ You’d better buy one now in case…/ He hid behind the door in order that…/ I didn’t come any earlier…/.

Some describing words that tell us about the quality of a person: -

Affectionate Uncle Arrogant fellow Adamant child Kind passenger sincere worker

Friendly neighbour brave soldier clever boy sensitive girl honest person opportunistic employee

Promising personality Studious student needful employee glorious dancer responsible person

Drunken policeman blaming seniors refusing officer striking player absurd stranger antic clown

Opportunistic teacher watchful guard elegant girl absent-minded dissatisfied customer

Encouraging teacher religious priest disobeying child greedy politician.

Some describing words that tell us about things in a general way, giving a variety of information: -

Dark knight sultry weather rash driving comfortable journey narrow road Congested locality

Exquisite Park Pricey dish cinematic performance kind treatment slippery floor spacious hall

Remote village crowded city prosperous town Broad road well-furnished house coastal town

Spanking new vegetables filthy clothes tender coconut rotten eggs pricey equipment razor-sharp knife

Deafening sound explosive comeback playful kittens’ atrocious sight watchful aim windy surroundings

Departing climate missing thoughts window-dressing confined boundary terrifying earthquake

Isolated area favourable winds faded colors attending staff.

Some describing words that tell us about the moods and feelings of people/things: -

Angry look astute child gloomy face blissful person lovable girl restless person

Charming girl interesting story cunning fox tiresome journey winning team encouraging words

Learned person contented customer talented artiste dilapidated house enchanting temple

Explaining mother furious father trickster sister daring bungee-jumper faulty attitude cruel grandma

Tender touch quarreling lady sympathetic aunt hearty feelings vehement love mysterious valley

Complaining police offensive culprit repetitive parrot

Guided Compositions

Expansion of stories from guided outlines: -

Example no. 1

Clear pool in a forest --- a stag drinking water --- admired his horns --- despised his thin legs --- dogs arrived --- the deer ran for his life --- horns caught in bushes --- caught --- stag pulled down by dogs --- his dying thoughts.

Solved example no. 1

One day a stag was drinking at a pool of clear still water. As he drank he saw himself clearly reflected in the pool, as in a looking- glass. He could not help admiring his fine pair of branching horns. But he despised his thin, weak-looking legs. “My horns are my beauty”, he said to himself, “but my thin legs look ugly.” Just then he startled by the sound of dogs barking, and the crashing of horses through the forest. At once the stag run for his life, the hunters following him in full cry. The stag however was swift and left then hunters far behind him. But just as he was escaping, his horns caught in the bushes. The dogs were at once pounced upon him and pulled him down. As the stag lay dying, he thought, “My legs, which I despised would have saved me; it was my horns which I admired that caused my sudden death.”

Example no. 2

A bee --- falls into a tank --- a dove flies past --- drops a large leaf into the water --- the bee climbs on the leaf --- flies away --- a boy taken aim at the dove --- the bee stings --- the dove is saved.

Example no. 3

A fox caught in a trap --- escaped with loss of tail --- hated to be laughed at --- called a meeting of all the foxes –

Said they would be better without tails --- they would not be caught in traps --- an old fox --- wanted him to show his tail.

Example no. 4

Wolf eating his prey --- bone sticks in his throat --- howls for aid --- a crane inserts his long beak --- bone taken out --- reward claimed --- wolf laughs --- crane’s head might have been bitten off --- thank God that your life has been saved.

Example no. 5

A rich merchant robbed by three dacoits in a forest --- one of the robbers sent to a nearby village to buy sweets and wine --- the other two decided to kill him on his return --- they wanted the lion’s share of the loot and deprive him of his share --- he too thought of killing his companions and keeping the entire share to himself --- made his purchases --- mixed some poison in the wine --- was killed by his companions --- they took the poisoned wine and died.

Example no. 6

A slave runs away from his master --- sees a lion crying in pain --- slave takes out the torn from the lion’s paw --- a few months later slave is caught --- ordered to be thrown in front of the same hungry lion --- lion rushes at him --- licks his face --- remembers kindness of slave --- lion and slave both set free.

Example no. 7

A father has only one son --- pained to see him in evil company --- tries to wean him from his evil ways --- purchase a dozen mangoes --- most tempting --- “shall be yours tomorrow” --- puts a rotten mango in their midst --- the next day --- boy complains --- all mangoes rotten --- father’s reply --- moral.

LETTERS

The superior art of writing a letter

Definition: - An art of letter writing is an ornamental accomplishment that is utilized and acquired for many practical reasons in day-to-day lives: Any letter hand-written shouldn’t be either illegible or consists of a sign of ignorance and carelessness.

Kinds of Letters: - `INFORMAL/ FORMAL`

Categories of Letters: -

  • Private or friendly Letters (Informal)

  • Business letters (Formal)

  • Greetings

  • Letter of Thanks

  • Letter of Courtesy/ politeness

  • Letter of apology

  • Letter of Condolence/ Regret

  • Letter of sympathy

  • Letters of enquiry (regarding accommodation)

  • Letter from a landlord to a tenant

  • Letter of pity/ forgiveness

  • Letter of appreciation/ acknowledgement

  • Letter of Confirmation

  • Letter of civility

  • Letter of confession

  • Letter of admission

  • Letter of guilt/ shame

  • Letter of blame

  • Letter of innocence

  • Letter of fault

  • Letter of liability/ burden

  • Letter of error

  • Letters to banks/ Insurance

  • Letters and applications on educational matters

  • Dead letter

  • Love Letter

  • Curriculum Vitae

  • Letter of disappointment/ frustration

  • Letter of mercy/Clemency (enemy. Etc.)

  • Letter of understanding

  • Letter of participation

  • Membership Letters.

Rules for letters: -


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