The church and the highlands

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1 Since writing these lines, the author was pleased to read in the Tablet that the patriotic Bishop of Eaphoe intends to build a Seminary on Celtic ground upon a Celtic plan. This is as it should be; but how long will it be before Scotland follows suit?

setter of precious stones ; the manner in which he bound and embellished his sacred and profane books delighted his contemporaries, just as much as it charms and amazes posterity; his striking individuality in respect of decoration, and the use of symbols for that purpose, amounted to genius. Indeed, in respect of all those useful and elegant accomplishments—for such they really are—which stamp a nation as refined, resourceful and artistic, he was in his own way, and in his own day, if not facile princeps, at all events justly celebrated and widely known.

Now, however, what do we find ? What is the present position of this people in this respect—a people whose artistic achievements are not the creation of mere report or tradition, but whose bewildering fertility of invention, genius and re­fined industry must be patent to every one who will take the trouble to inspect these precious relics in the various national and private reposi­tories where they now lie, lovingly preserved and jealously guarded % These useful and elegant arts and crafts have, so far as the Gael is concerned, totally disappeared. There is not so much as one left to remind him of his former pre-eminence as .an artist and as a craftsman. A valuable national possession, nay more, a most precious gift of God, has thus been suffered to go to apparently ir­remediable decay. Truly, the iron of a hateful, destructive and iniquitous political and social system has penetrated deep into the soul of this nation and people, turning all it touches to waste and rottenness, and stultifying and degrading every one who comes in contact with it.

Space does not allow me to enumerate all the useful and elegant arts and crafts for which, in the plenitude of their power in these islands, the children of the Gael were justly celebrated. But information on this head is nowadays so readily accessible, that I feel sure the reader will excuse me from descend­ing to further particulars. Every Gael worth his salt already knows what were the achievements of his ancestors in this respect. If, unhappily, there be any who do not answer to this description, my impartial advice to them is to make good the omission as soon as possible. Such a state of ignorance is neither creditable to themselves, nor edifying to others.

My remedy is, therefore, to re-introduce these forgotten arts and crafts among our people. What once the Gael was capable of, surely he can rise to again? The taste for arts and crafts—for the refinements and amenities of civilised life—is con­fidently said to have been never so general and insistent as it is at present; and though this may well be a somewhat overdrawn picture, yet, un­doubtedly, the demand for luxuries is steady and strong enough to be highly profitable to such as are engaged in the business of supplying them. The Celtic people have an inborn taste for art — a power and capacity of appreciating beautiful things —which once it were suffered to see light would certainly rapidly develop. It is the curse of an egregious and hideous political system, which strips the people of their nation and manhood, I verily believe, which alone prevents them from recognis­ing a good thing when they see it, and from calling down shame upon the trash and the rubbish which —to our disgrace be it said—usurp the place once occupied by the rare productions of their ancestors. Our people must be taught to exercise their own talents. They must be educated to support one another, to insist on the creation of a native school of arts and crafts. In this noble and useful work every one can and must partake; for it is not by means of governmental "departments" or popularity-hunting millionaires that nations are re-habilitated, and trades revived; but by means of the active and persevering endeavours of the people them­selves, who, if they are to achieve any good, and to undo, and make amends for the past, must rely on themselves, and, so relying, work for one another and the common welfare. I have no doubt that my scheme, or rather these suggestions, will be dubbed chimerical by many a trifling scribe. But I fail altogether to see in what respect or in what particular my views are visionary. Is national sentiment so dead amongst us that the mere sug­gestion is to be vetoed as chimerical, even before the ink is dry on the pen which gives publicity to it ? I refuse to believe that my countrymen are so abject, low in the scale of national sentiment though I am apt to think the majority of them has un­doubtedly fallen. It needs but a little patience and address, I am convinced, in order to rouse them to a sense of their responsibilities, and to induce them to exert themselves in their own behalf. Certainly, nothing is to be gained by the continuance of the present state of affairs. Perhaps in this fact, after all, lies the best, if not the only, chance of success which those who wish to promote an industrial revival can lay to their charge.

I appeal to the various Celtic societies, whose name is legion in Scotland, to inaugurate the work of revival. Most of these societies have been formed with some such object in view; but my experience is that they do little, if anything, to justify their existence in this respect. The aim of most of them seems to be merely the accumula­tion of funds, joined to the gratification of certain social instincts on the part of their conductors and members. Comparatively few of them take the slightest interest in the Gaelic movement, the seriousness and significance of which seem totally to have escaped them. Even An Comunn Gàidh­ealach—the best of these bodies—is not altogether blameless in this respect, though I observe that its second object is stated to be the advancement of the welfare of the Highlands and Isles by in­dustrial means and methods. Surely this is not a creditable state of affairs ? If the cian societies are honest in their professions, it is incumbent on them to seek out means whereby they may publish their sincerity to the world. Nobody can pretend that this object can be achieved whilst the most important item in their charters or programmes of activities remains a dead letter. The industrial revival is not less important than the language movement, which, with a few honourable exceptions, they equally neglect. These useless cian societies should be told to set their houses in order, under a threat of publishing their misdemeanours, and publicly branding them as useless and frivolous, if, after fair warning, they fail to answer to the public requirements. Depend upon it, a little wholesome public opinion would speedily work wonders in this respect; and now that An Comunn Gàidhealach has passed the preliminary stage of its existence, and seems in a fair way to become a power in the land, it should at once take the lead of the Celtic societies in Scotland, and after mending its own conduct where imperfect, or wanting in breadth and vigour, purge the camp of idlers and useless encumbrances. A slaughter of the worthless, such as has been advocated ere now, under the milder notion of " union," would be an admirable thing, and could easily be effected at present, when public opinion is ripe for strong measures. A "black" list of societies which refuse to co-operate with An Comunn Gàidhealach in its language campaign might well be a first step towards reducing these useless and troublesome cian societies to something like order, and towards rousing them from the state of inglorious torpor in which most of them, apparently, delight; to be followed by equally drastic measures against all such as refuse to put their hands in their pockets in order to assist the industrial movement. But, as I have said, An Comunn Gàidhealach must first heal itself, before aspiring to the dignity of acting as physician to others. A card of admission to the late Mòd which was shown to me by a member was really an abominable thing. It carried a legend, if I may express it so, of embossed thistles, done in a singu­larly vulgar and barbarous fashion. Is the sense of art, then, on which our ancestors so justly prided themselves, and on account of which they received the well-deserved encomiums of the civilised world, so utterly decayed amongst us that it is mere vanity to expect anything better than this ? Surely the official pronouncements of the Comunn should bear some artistic indication of the source from which they spring, and of its officials' determination to promote good taste, and a knowledge of the beauties of Celtic art. There are not wanting Celtic artists in Ireland, if not in Scotland, who, for a few shillings doubtless, would have been happy to design something suitable to the occasion —something to remind us of the departed glories of the art of our forefathers and to encourage us to hope for the revival of that art in our midst. If a society, professedly Gaelic, gives no encouragement to the things which appertain to us, how can you reasonably expect the stragglers and groundlings to play their part in the struggle before us?

Consideration of some figures which I have prepared, persuades me that but very little capital would be required, at least to make a start, in the work of re-establishing our native arts and crafts. I do not over-estimate the financial power at the back of our various Celtic societies; but at least there are enough of them to justify a corporate and tentative effort in the direction of re-establishing one of our lost callings. Perhaps the trade of smith—of a worker in bronze, iron and other metals of that kind—would be the easiest to revive, as, I am sure, it would be the most pro­fitable. There is always a demand for inexpen­sive, as for more costly, articles of this nature; and products of the Highlands, stamped with the hall mark of the peculiar artistic genius of our race, would certainly command a large sale. Doubtless, many of my readers have been in the self-same predicament in which the writer has frequently been, namely, that of wishing to pur­chase something artistic and pleasing to the eye peculiar to the Highlands; and, after long search, has come away completely baffled and disappointed. The shops of Oban and other large centres where strangers and tourists congregate are veritable deserts in this respect. Their wildest anticipations of what is likely to be demanded of them by the educated traveller and stranger within their gates do not seem capable of rising above a tartan tie, or a picture post-card made in Germany. These, with an occasional porridge spoon, or some other trifle, equally unornamental and uncouth, comprise the artistic stock-in-trade of the average Highland "establishment". How often must my readers have experienced those same sensations of disgust and shame which filled the writer's breast, when, engaged in a similar quest, they asked for bread, and received but a stone?

My idea is, that the Celtic societies would find it profitable to open a small booth or shop in some town in the Highlands—Oban, preferably—for the sale of Celtic metal work. The craftsmen would require to be skilful, and their wages should be commensurate with their ability. I believe that some of the "cottage industries" emporiums in London, and other large cities, do a very brisk trade, though the wares that they sell are, gener­ally speaking, of somewhat inferior quality, and commonplace to a degree. What might be done with highly trained craftsmen, and articles of vertu, it is impossible, of course, definitely to say; but I am inclined to think that the experiment would rapidly and abundantly justify the patriotism and enterprise of the promoters. Beautiful objects, however costly, always command their appropriate price, if not at home, at all events abroad, where it would be highly advantageous to carry the trade, so as to secure as wide and profitable a market as possible. I by no means under-estimate the diffi­culties attending the initial endeavour. It is a vulgar saying, but a true one nevertheless, that in order to enjoy roast hare you must first catch your quadruped. Similarly, before you can start "turning out" Celtic metal-work, you must first find your craftsmen. Now, Celtic craftsmen, as every one knows, do not grow on every gooseberry bush. Indeed, I know not, for my part, where that scarce commodity is to be got. Such Celtic metal-work as is done is poor in quality and little in quantity. It is probably but very ill paid. It is certainly totally destitute of originality, the passable designs which one sometimes sees en­graved on dirk handles, sgian dubh and the like, being transparent imitations of some more or less well-known design. So that it practically comes to this, your Celtic artist, not being yet born, will have to be made. The finest specimens of Celtic Antiquity will have to be set before him, and when he has sufficiently saturated himself, as it were, with the lore and genius of the past, then, hut not till then, may he be invited to exhibit his skill and ingenuity for the delight and edification of the present. To take an ordinary mechanic, and to bid him, without careful instruction and preparation, to reproduce the masterpieces of Celtic art, would be, of course, a ridiculous proceeding, and the cause of instant and well-merited disaster. The Celt who is to excel in this way must be most carefully and systematically trained; but after the nucleus has been formed and a begin­ning made, the rest should be comparatively plain sailing. As I have said, beautiful and costly articles are never a drug in the market; and as the taste for such things becomes popular, in the same proportion precisely will the demand keep pace with the supply. Moreover, I am sanguine that the revival of this industry would not only be the cause of its own propagation in a multitude of fields and directions, but would also be the parent of a host of others. Small beginnings are a frequent and fruitful source of great enterprises. However modest and unpretentious the start, the •example is what we require, and once that were

350 Srath Aragaig

worthily conceived and well executed, I feel sure that the industrial revival of the Highlands and Isles for which I here plead would not be long delayed. The picture drawn by history tells us a flattering tale. Our arts and our industries were known throughout the civilised world. What once we have accomplished, are we so degenerate that we have no spirit to endeavour again ?


[By way of sequel to these papers we propose to publish in the next number of this Review an article—to be followed by others on kindred topics— on the subject here so ably and interestingly treated of by our contributor, namely, Celtic metal-work. We should have preferred that the topic should be dealt with by the same accomplished pen; but, unfortunately, being ordered abroad on Govern­ment service, our contributor will be unable to afford our readers that pleasure. The topic will be dealt with, however, by one who has given considerable attention to the subject.—Ed.]


Hei, hò rò, gur h-èibhinn leam, Carson a bhitheadh m'inntinn trom ? Le mòr aigne's le sunnt Gu'n tog mi fonn gu h-aighearachd,

Srath Aragaig

Togaidh mi gu cridheil fonn Cha 'n ann air tè dhubh no dhonn, Ach do 'n 'chommunn thaineadh leam, A nochd a'bhràigh Shrath Aragaig.
A bràighe Lochabair nam beann àrd,

A Gleann a' Garraidh s'Bràighe na h-Airde,

Dhe machairichean anns gach àite

Tha iad am bràighe Shrath Aragaig.
Chithear ann muinntir shuairce Shiubhail an saoghal m'un cuairt, 'S a gleidheadh nead bhlàth o'n fhuachd, Gu'n d'fhuar iad i an Shrath Aragaig.
Chithear ann a deas's a tuath Urramaich am measg an t-shluaigh, 'S lionar iad tha frasadh luaidhe Suas am bràighe Shrath Aragaig.
Mar dàna dhomhsa bhith ga luaidh Ailleagan 'us rìgh an t-sluaigh, Chiad oidhche dhà air ruaig Bha shuain am bràighe Shrath Aragaig.
Tha am facal o sheann ag ràdh Mu'n dream uallach bha'n Gaig Gu'm b'fhearr dhiubh na deich's a dhà, H-aon a bràighe Shrath Aragaig.
'S dùthaich thorach anns gach ni N' glinn's an glaicean an fheòir mhìn, 'S an sruthanan le'n torman binn Eadar Cillfhinn'us Farralinn.


Air slat no guna ma tha do dhèidh, Ma's aill leat bhi measg spreidh, Na sireadh or' an cridhe beinn Tha roinn dheth am bràighe Shrath Aragaig.
Ach fada is fheàrr na fear na'n crdc, 'S fheàrr na iomadh buaile bhò 'S fheàrr eadhon na an t-òr, Muinntir chòir Shrath Aragaig.


THE NEW "DOUGLAS"This undertaking, the editor informs us in his Preface, is the result of an " ardent aspiration " on the part of the present Lord Lyon King of Arms. "A good many years ago a meeting of persons interested was called by him," when the project of publishing a Peerage of Scotland "was carefully considered. But the difficulties in the way were apparently unsurmountable," and the design, we presume, was in consequence suffered to remain in .abeyance, at least for a time. " Since then, however, the munificence of Sir William Fraser . . . rendered possible a way out of the difficulty. Sir William Fraser left a certain sum of money to his trustees, with directions that it should be spent in printing works which would tend to elucidate the history and antiquities of Scotland. In carrying out his intention, the trustees resolved to devote part of

1 The Scots Peerage: A History of the Noble Families of Scotland. Vol. i. Edited by Sir James Balfour Paul, Lord Lyon King of Arms. Edinburgh : David Douglas.

this sum to making possible a new edition of Douglas's Peerage, though it would far from cover the whole outlay entailed in such an undertaking.""

The late Sir William Fraser could hardly have left his fortune to a better object than the propagation of historical knowledge; and we heartily congratulate the Lord Lyon on the un­deniable good fortune he has encountered in making good his claim to benefit under that charitable dispensation. It is much to be hoped that individuals who have brains, and money to leave, will follow the excellent example set by the late Sir William Fraser, himself, as the editor justly observes, "a well-known writer on genea­logical subjects, and one whose series of family histories are monuments of patient research". Historical learning is too little cultivated nowa­days; and the rewards awaiting those (we speak from painful experience) who devote themselves to this branch of polite knowledge are all too halting and meagre.

The design of this Peerage is, briefly, the repro­duction of Douglas's, with, of course, considerable improvements and additions. The latter Peeraget though admirable in its way (and in its day), has long been, to use a current colloquialism, "out of date". "Especially of late years," observes Sir James Balfour Paul, " owing to the official publica­tion of several important series of records, such as. the Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, the Exchequer Rolls, the Register of the Great Seal, the Register of the Privy Council, and the Lord Treasurer's Accounts, it was evident that these in themselves afforded a deep mine from which in­formation might be drawn. Again, many private collections have within the last century seen light.

The publications of the Bannatyne, Maitland, and Spalding Clubs have revealed what a rich store of ancient documents remained in Scotland, and the Historical MSS. Commissioners have made acces­sible many most valuable collections, which had lain more or less neglected in the charter-rooms of many a noble house."

So much for the design of the new Peerage, and the circumstances under which it was projected. With regard to the literary conduct of what we have ventured to term (we trust without offence) the new Douglas, the editor has the following observations to make in his Preface: " Modern methods demand a much more thorough treat­ment of genealogical questions than was desired or even possible a century ago. The day of the one man dictionary or cyclopaedia is over, and it would take the devotion of a lifetime for any individual to write the history of the Scots Peer­age as it ought to be written. It was determined, therefore, that the work should be undertaken by a staff of writers under the supervision of an editor, and in many cases this has resulted in a title being treated by an author who had made the history of the family his special study, and had access to sources of information which could not have been readily got by any other. There are no doubt certain drawbacks to this method: a writer is apt to extend the particulars of a family in which he takes an interest to a degree far beyond the limits of a work such as this. The editor's duty is to combat against this tendency, but occasionally circumstances are too much for him, and he is unwilling to reject information which is really valuable and interesting even though it may seem unduly to increase the length of the article. In commencing the preparations for this edition, instructions were given to contri­butors that, while free latitude in this respect was given them, they might, if they pleased, use the actual words of Douglas or Wood when no correc­tion was necessary as to the facts. While to a certain extent this has been done, it has been found better in many cases to re-write the articles entirely without reference to what the previous editors had done. So many errors had to be corrected, so many facts re-stated in the light of modern research, and so many abbreviations made, that it was found to be the only satisfactory mode of treatment. It has also, it is hoped, conduced to greater clearness in diction, as the somewhat verbose comments of Douglas and Wood, though quite in the style of their own day, hardly com­mend themselves to the more practical requirements of our times."

The volume before us begins with " Abercorn " and ends with " Balmerino"; but out of the seventeen dignities treated of four only are Celtic, namely, Airlie, Angus, Argyll, and Atholl. It is true, that Argyll and Airlie are not, strictly speak­ing, Celtic dignities, inasmuch as they were created in feudal times, and after the abolition, or rather disappearance, of the Celtic system of government. But the founder of the feudal house of Airlie was undoubtedly a Celt, being Gilbert, the son of Gillebride, first Earl of Angus; whilst the claims of the house of Campbell (whose principal title likewise dates from feudal times) to be considered as a Celtic family are of course irresistible. Thus the first volume of the new Douglas does not offer a very wide field for criticism to a Celtic reviewer; for with purely feudal titles and families it is not our intention here to be concerned. A casual glance, however, at that part of the present undertaking convinces us that the new Douglas is a vast improvement upon the old; and that Sir James Balfour Paul and his staff of writers are to be commended no less for their skill than for their enterprise. The determination of the editor, however, not to "go outside the bounds of charter evidence in this work," still further limits our labours, and restricts our field. Whether that intention be well founded or not, it is not for us to say. Obviously, the Lord Lyon and his assistants are free to choose their own ground ^ and if they prefer to "stick to the charter," far be it from us to object to that decision. In registering their determination we can but affirm that it seriously restricts the field of our intended operations so far as the new Douglas is concerned; and that, whilst noting it, our state of mind more than ever resembles that in which the disciples of St. John the Baptist approached our Blessed Lord, Who, however, answered the expectations-of those that were sent.

Charter evidence does not begin with us until the reign of Alexander I.; indeed, the reign of his-successor, David I., would be a better period to assign to their introduction; for before the latter ascended the throne, charters in Scotland were few and far between. Comparatively easy, therefore,, is the task of such as would record the successive holders of a great peerage after the introduction of the charter. The difficulty is to make such records before they were introduced. The peerage before us begins, in every case, with a peerage-holder who is also a charter granter or witnesser —as we have said, the Lord Lyon and his assistants­will have nothing to do with any one who did not either grant or witness a charter, though, to be sure, oddly enough, their list of the kings and queens of Scotland is headed by a sad rogue in this respect, King Malcolm Caennmòr, to wit, who, history says, never either witnessed or granted one of these "blessed" documents—consequently, we find ourselves in the pleasant predicament of being able to agree with nearly everything that the compilers of this peerage have to say touching our ancient Celtic dignities, after the introduction , of charter evidence.

The article of Atholl—"the Celtic Earls of Atholl"—extends to nearly nineteen pages, and is a highly conscientious and painstaking piece of work. The lists of these Earls begins with Madach (here styled "Earl," but who was more properly Mormhaor of Atholl), who, of course, witnessed a charter—in the reign of David I., circa 1116. We are glad to observe, in passing, that Sir Noel Paton's mistake1 of the imposition of a certain "Constantine, Earl of Athole," has been corrected by the writer of this article. We always thought that the entry in the Liber Vitae was a very doubtful quantity ; and were rather surprised that it should have figured as authentic in "G. E. C.'s" Complete Peerage. The notes to this article are highly interesting and suggestive. They reveal great powers of original research on the part of the author; and his nice conduct of a very difficult and complex theme reveals the editor's discretion and judgment in a most favourable light.

The article of "Campbell Duke of Argyll" ignores the early history of that ancient family ;

1 Genealogy of the Celtic Earls of Athole.


and begins with the apparently inevitable charter granter, who, in fohis case, is Sir Archibald Camp­bell or Cambel, who witnessed in 1266 a charter by Alexander III. Here, however, we are treated to a little exordium on the origin of the Campbells, which, we think, the editor would have done better to suppress. " According to the old accounts of the cian now generally known as Cian Campbell," says the writer, "their original appellation was Cian Duibhne or O'Duin, from a certain Diarmid (Diar-maid?) O'Duin, who was the ancestor of a long line of descendants. The last of these, Paul (Pòl f) an Sporran, or Paul of the Purse, so called because he was the royal treasurer, had an only child, his daughter and heiress, Eva, who gave her hand to a gentleman of Norman lineage named Campbell, and dowered him with her lands. Cian traditions are no doubt worthy of respect; but in this work it is not proposed to go outside the bounds of charter evidence." Surely, we might have been spared this introduction, which, even as "cian tradition," is not respectable ? The nonsense about "Eva" and the "gentleman of Norman lineage of name of Campbell" should not deceive even the most unsophisticated member of a cian society. Eva and her Norman knight are plainly pure inventions, which we owe, with many other similar absurdities, to the famous, or shall we say infamous, Act of 1597. We protest against this transparent attempt to bring Celtic learning into ridicule. Its occurrence in so respectable a quarter shows the lengths to which ignorant or designing persons are prepared to go in the direction indicated above; but in this case, fortunately, the manoeuvre is so clumsily conceived and badly executed that it must inevitably recoil upon its projectors. It would have been easy to epitomise what Celtic scholars have to say on the head of the origin of the Campbell family without wantonly insulting our intelligence, and exciting our resentment by rhodomontade such as this; which, we repeat, can impose on no one— not even the most ignorant admirer of "cian tradition ".

Another protest which we take occasion to utter at this conjuncture is directed against the cruel maiming of Gaelic personal names by English writers. This barbarous treatment is frequently observable throughout the work. If English writers find any difficulty in spelling Gaelic names, why do they not give them in their English equiva­lents ? " Gillespie, Gillespick" (Archibald), etc., are neither Gaelic nor English, nor even good Double-Dutch. On page 328 (article, Campbell) "Colin Campbell of Lochow, called Ionganlach," contains a misprint. The sentence should read "Colin Campbell of Lochow, called Iongantach ".

We cannot conscientiously congratulate the writer of the article " Lord Balfour of Burleigh " (page 530) on his attempt at a derivation of the place-name " Balfour". He says: " Among the surnames existing in Scotland in early times that of Balfour is not the least common; the most popular derivation of the word, and that which was unhesitatingly accepted by the older writers, is Bal-Or, the place on the river Or, where the lands of Balfour are situated. The more likely derivation, however, is the Gaelic Baile fuai%, the cold place, with the accent on the last or qualify­ing syllable, a mode of pronouncing the name which, until recent years, was universal." Balfour, of course, could not possibly be derived from " the Gaelic Baile fuar". In such a conjunction, the word Baile would cause the aspiration of the suc­ceeding one—thus, Baile /%uar—and the resulting pronunciation would be, as nearly as we can render it in English, Baile, or rather, Bal' oor. Dr. MacBain, who has a taste for things " Pictish," is inclined to think that the second syllable of the word Balfour represents yet another of our " Pictish remains ". It is more probable, however, that the unknown word is merely dead Gaelic. The Irish classics contain numerous words which have baffled the most determined and scholarly attempts on the part of modern Gaelic scholars to wrest their secret from them; and we see no reason why this, and many other words which modern " Picts " are apt to lay violent hands on, and dogmatically claim as their own, should not also belong to that category.

Under the head of "Earl of Angus" we find the following: "In the time of Alexander I. the Mormaors were superseded in their various pro­vinces by persons bearing the title of Earl, which was coming into use". We should like to have chapter and verse for this somewhat reckless statement, which, by the way, is here unsupported by a particle of evidence. The author writes as though he were in complete possession of proof touching a momentous social and political revolu­tion which has been withheld from the rest of mankind. We heartily wish this gifted and fortunate individual would allow us the privilege of inspecting his muniments. We write under correction, of course, and with a due sense of the imperfection of our knowledge in this respect; but we always imagined that the revolution he here speaks of was but very gradually accomplished, and very cautiously introduced. The mormhaoir were certainly mormhaoir as late as the reign of

William the Lion, if not later; and as to having been "superseded in their various provinces," we venture to affirm that Scottish history carries no appearance of so extraordinary a proceeding. The success of the feudal system in Scotland hung by a thread, as it were, for many a long year; and David and his successors were far too politic to provoke a contest (in which they would assuredly have been discomfited) with the existing regime by expelling the mormhaoir, in order to make room for Norman and Saxon barons. The essence of the change consisted in the almost imperceptible degrees by which it was accomplished, and in the caution, forbearance and good-humour, if we may be allowed the expression, which characterised its progress. The timidity of the editor and his associates (provoked, we suspect, by fears of the redoubtable Mr. Horace Round and his disciples), when they come to treat of the connexion between the ancient mormhaoir and their modern suc­cessors,1 is here entirely out of place, and a trifle ludicrous. Surely their own charters, by which they set so great store, contain evidence enough on this head ì The many references which they contain to the predecessws of individuals who therein officially figure as Comites or Earls, proves conclusively that in the majority of cases, if not iu all, the later Earls were simply the older mor­mhaoir under a modern and inferior appellation. The tendency of Celtic dignities in the direction of hereditary descent is well known, and requires no proof in these pages. And as Dr. Stuart has well observed in his Preface to the Book of Deer, it would doubtless be the policy of the kings to

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