We concluded our first paper on this topic with an extract from Keating's History of Ireland in which the interesting and important statement is made that it was ordained by law (a.d. 382) " that every nobleman and great officer should, by the learnedheralds, have a particular coat of arms assigned him, according to his merit and his quality ".
Now this statement is highly interesting, in view of the fact that it is commonly believed that heraldry, as we now understand it, did not come into existence until at least a century after the First Crusade. "We are still without any definite evidence," says Mr. Fox Davis,1 " that such a thing as a coat of arms, in the sense in which we now understand the term, had any existence whatsoever at the time of the First Crusade." It is worthy of note, too, that Planchè placed the beginning of armorial bearings a century at least after the conquest of England by William of Normandy; and Mr. Woodward, another eminent genealogist and herald, has recorded his "entire adherence " to Planchè's conclusions. Mr. Horace Round, whose writings we had occasion to allude to in our last issue, and whose painstaking methods are familiar to all, is likewise of this opinion; and he very properly ridicules Mr. Fox Davis for including in his armorial families a coat of arms whose original we are invited to discover in some very early British king. "Within the last few