All that cold, cold, wet day.
I sat there with Sally,
We sat there, we two.
And I said, “How I wish
We had something to do!”
Too wet to go out So all we could do was to
And too cold to play ball. Sit! Sit! Sit! Sit!
So we sat in the house. And we did not like it,
We did nothing at all. Not one little bit.
Brief history of Latin, the, so called “dead” language. Latin was the language of the Roman Empire which conquered and adopted the many cultural principles of the Greeks: philosophy, pantheism, history, medicine, drama and literature, mathematics, civic responsibility and representative democracy, military strategy, art, law, science and much more. Romans did not adopt the Greek language. However, they spread, via conquest of Europe, parts of Africa and most of Asia Minor, the culture of Ancient Greece as well as their own language.
Once the Christian church began to flourish, it took Latin as its official language. This was done primarily because Latin was spoken and used throughout the Empire. The Roman Catholic Church maintains its use of Latin in its services to this day (although no longer required as of 1960). Latin remained the language of academics at least through the 1700’s…..Sir Issac Newton and man other mathematicians and scientists communicated their ideas in Latin and relied on the writings of the ancient Greek and Roman thinkers which were prevalently written in Latin.
While the Romans had conquered the British Isles during the days of the Empire, it was primarily the indirect influence of the introduction of the sister language French via the Norman conquest of England by William in 1066 that created a melding of Latin and Anglo Saxon languages to make English about 60% Latin. Catholic monks in England also contributed Latin directly to the language through the liturgy of the church……most scholarly writings were maintained by monastics writing in Latin, (because it was the language of the church and was universally understood in Europe and elsewhere, especially by academicians).
French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese are sister languages of Latin, the “Romance” languages and are spoken throughout the world today by as many as one out of six people. The “sister” languages are considered to be Modern Latin since they are each derived from and obviously similar to Old Latin. It was French, in particular, which influenced English, however.
It is often overlooked, but much of our grammatical structures of English have their origin in Latin….conjugation of verbs, declension of nouns and pronouns, and basic syntactical structures such as not using double negatives or ending sentences with a preposition.
Today, Latin is directly used in science (taxonomy of plant and animal kingdoms, geologic time periods, constellations, periodic table of elements……), in law (habeas corpus (L. “you are to have the body”)….provides that an authority must prove before a court that it has good reason to detain a person); ex post facto (L “from after the action”) refers to laws that change prior situations and could allow authority to criminalize what was not previously criminal….the US Constitution prohibits ex post facto laws; amicus curiae (L. friend of the court); juris prudence caveat emptor (L. “let the buyer beware”) provides protection for a seller against buyers making claims of fraud after a legitimate sale; corpus delicti (L. “body of crime”) requires that it must be proven that a law was broken/ a crime committed before someone can be accused of the crime; alibi (L. “ in another place” ; Quid pro quo , (L. “something for something the idea that equal values are exchanged in any situation; verdict (L.”to say the truth”); pro bono (L. “for good).
In medicine we need go no further than anatomy: all the bones and muscles are named using Latin terminology: humerus, ulna, radius, femur, patella, carpals, sternum, cranium, etc quadriceps, biceps, trapezius, tricep, latissimus dorsi…
The laws of our nation and our nation itself are built off of concepts derived directly or indirectly from Ancient Rome and Greece. Today our coins still have “e. pluibus unum” minted into each one (from many one); one dollar bills have “annuit coeptis” generally accepted to mean “smile on endeavors” and below that is “novus ordo seclorum” meaning a “new order of the ages” interestingly, at the base of the pyramid on the back of the one dollar bill are the Roman numerals MDCCLXXVI (1776)!
Write these words…don’t worry about spelling, just come as close as you can…: then actually check for spelling and discuss word parts that are familiar. Can we guess the meanings? Pandemonium all divine power