The Age of Reformation Chapter 11 – ap european History Long Essay Question (leq)

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The Age of Reformation

  • Chapter 11 – AP European History

Long Essay Question (LEQ) :

  • Choose 1:
  • Discuss the causes of Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation of the 16th century. (causation LEQ)
  • Discuss the social consequences that the Protestant Reformation had from 1517-1600. (periodization LEQ) 2001 Released AP European History Free Response Questions
  • Compare the motives of Martin Luther in the German States and King Henry VIII of England in bringing about religious change during the Protestant Reformation. (comparison LEQ)

The Printing Press “Revolution”

  • Johannes Gutenberg developed printing press mid 1400’s
  • Outcome: books affordable & available, literacy increased, jobs
  • Increased Communication

Essential Question

  • 1. What problems in the church contributed to the Protestant Reformation?

Humanist Critics of The Church

  • Rabelais Condemned :
  • forms of church corruption
  • Condemned simony (the buying or selling of ecclesiastical pardons)
  • Erasmus Believed :
  • Scriptures were a guide to life
  • true religion was a matter of inward sincerity and pious devotion
  • Church needed moral reforms

Factors Contributing to Criticism of The Church 16th Century:

  • 1. Urban lay people gained knowledge of the world through:
  • Travel : trade, pilgrimages
  • Postal System
  • Literacy/ Books

Factors Contributing to Criticism of The Church 16th Century:

  • 2. Distrust in Authority Figures & Institutions
  • Peasants sought social reform
  • Prosperous guilds supported Protestant Reform ( synonymous with Political reform)

Factors Contributing to Criticism of The Church 16th Century:

  • 3. Dissatisfaction with wealth of the church
  • 30% of land in Europe was under Church Control/ Ownership

Factors Contributing to Criticism of The Church 16th Century:

  • 4. Questionable Church Practices:
  • Benefice System – ecclesiastical posts (Bishops, Abbots) sold to highest bidders
  • Simony buying or selling of ecclesiastical pardons
  • Indulgences – “Tickets to Heaven”

Factors Contributing to Criticism of The Church:

  • 5. Struggle for Power between Church vs. State (Pope and Kings)
  • Who had authority/ Power?

New Spirituality & Brothers of The Common Life

  • Modern Devotion
  • 1. Lay members not expected to take clerical vows
  • 2. Led Religious life of prayer
  • 3. Preached in the Vernacular (not Latin)
  • 4. Conducted schools, religious publications

Life Before the Protestant Reformation, Khan Academy


Martin Luther’s Life changing experience:

  • During a lightning storm, prayed to St. Anne
  • Promised to enter monastery if he survived ordeal
  • Born: 1483
  • Died : 1546

Martin Luther

  • Education:
  • Master of Arts Degree, 1505
  • Ordained as a Monk (Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine) 1507
  • Doctorate in Theology, 1512

Indulgences – “Tickets to Heaven”

  • 1517 -Pope Leo X revived the selling of indulgences
  • Forgiveness of un-repented sins
  • Proceeds were used to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome

In Germany, John Tetzel

  • preached the indulgences as necessary for salvation
  • Don’t you hear the voices of your dead relatives ?… we suffer great punishment and pain…”

95 Theses October 31st, 1517

  • Luther posted 95 theses on a church door in Wittenberg, Germany
  • List of arguments against the selling of indulgences
  • Copies printed & circulated

Martin Luther’s Beliefs:

  • 1. Justification by Faith Alone “sola fide”
  • Salvation by faith alone
  • 2. The need for only Two sacraments: Baptism and the Eucharist

Martin Luther’s Beliefs:

  • 3. The Bible as the only source of truth
  • 4. No need for confession
  • 5. “All Christians as Spiritually Equal” -No difference between clergy & laity
  • 6. Refused authority of the Pope

Martin Luther’s Beliefs:

  • 7. Clergy should be allowed to marry
  • 8. Mass in the vernacular (local languages)
  • 9. Good works expected- Each person should serve God in his/or her own individual calling

Martin Luther & Printing Press

  • 3 Pamphlets printed and distributed:
  • 1. Address To The Christian Nobility of The German Nation- urged reform
  • 2. Babylonian Captivity of The Church sacraments
  • 3. Freedom of a Christian salvation by faith alone

June 15,1520

  • Pope Leo X Condemned Luther of heresy
  • Was ordered to recant
  • Luther refused
  • friends hid him for 1 year
  • Translated New Testament into German
  • Excommunicated Jan. 1521


  • Martin Luther, Khan Academy

Reformation is Embraced in Germany

  • 1520’s-1530’s
  • 1. Reformation Ideas spread – Printing Press
  • 2. German Princes confiscated church lands
  • 3. Luther appealed to nationalistic feelings in German states
  • 4. Lutheran Faith - 1st Protestant Church
  • 5. German states lacked political unity

Karaoke Review- “ Martin Luther”


Catholic Portrayal of Martin Luther Tempting Christ (1547)

German Peasants Revolt 1525-1527

  • Causes:
  • Peasants interpreted “Christian Freedom” as “freedom from serfdom”
  • Rebelled against landlords
  • Peasants believed Luther would support their cause

German Peasants Revolt 1525-1527

  • Luther’s Response:
  • Luther did not support revolt – “Un-Christian”
  • Consequences:
  • The authority of German nobility strengthened
  • Lutheranism allied to and controlled by German nobility
  • 70,000-100,000 died

Protestant Reformation : Why Germany?

  • 1. Germany lacked political unity
  • 2. 1521- Diet of Worms German nobility favored a break from Catholic church
  • Presented emperor with list 102 “oppressive church burdens & abuses”

The Spread of Lutheranism

  • Became dominant religion in northern and eastern Germany.
  • Most of southern Germany remained Catholic
  • Lutheranism spread to northern European countries (Denmark, Scandinavia)

Reformation in Switzerland

  • Lose confederacy of 13 cantons, or states
  • Reasons for Reformation:
  • 1. Growth of sense of nationalism
  • 2. Desire for church reform

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  • Leader of Swiss Reformation
  • Zurich became center of Swiss reform
  • Swiss Civil Wars: Protestants vs. Catholics
  • Zwingli executed

John Calvin (1509-1564)

  • Leader of French Reform
  • Pessimistic about man
  • Wrote: The Institutes of the Christian Religion
  • Predestination- only God could determine salvation
  • Literal interpretation of Bible
  • idle time led to sin
  • No “fun” allowed! 

Calvinists are Called…

  • Puritans in England
  • Huguenots in France
  • Presbyterians in Scotland
  • Only “Sacraments” recognized are: Baptism & Eucharist

John Calvin Established City of Geneva (Switzerland)- “City of Saints”

  • 1555 Geneva became home to exiled Protestants
  • Model Christian Community – outlawed dancing, playing cards, attending the theatre
  • Theocracy
  • Women’s rights: laws against spousal abuse
  • Church attendance mandatory

“Radical” Protestant Groups

  • 1. Anabaptists (re-baptize):
  • rejected infant baptism, insisted on adult baptism
  • Precursors of modern day Mennonites, Amish
  • Advocated complete separation of church & state

“Radical” Protestant Groups

  • 2. Spiritualists:
  • Isolated
  • Had disdain for institutionalized religion
  • Only religious authority was the Spirit of God
  • 3. Antitrinitarians:
  • opposed Calvinist belief of predestination
  • Rejected the Doctrine of the Trinity

Key Point !

  • Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin, as well as religious radicals such as the Anabaptists, criticized Catholic abuses and established new interpretations of Christian doctrine and practice.
  • Varieties of Protestantism, Khan Academy

The Reformation Did Not Work in Italy Because:

  • 1. The Pope was in Rome
  • 2. Church was source of wealth for Italy
  • 3. Italian Renaissance made Italy Prosperous
  • 4. Germany had more liberal universities

The Peace of Augsburg ( Germany, 1555)

  • Ruler of a land will determine the land’s religion
  • "Cuius regio eius religio".
  • established after the Protestant princes of the Schmalkaldic League went to war against the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
  • Made the division of Christendom permanent

The Religious “Situation”, 1560

Essential Question:

  • Why Did Henry VIII of England break away from the Catholic Church?
  • Was the New church he established really Protestant?
  • How did Church of England change under his successors?

Protestant Reformation In Tudor England

  • Henry VIII (Tudor Dynasty)
  • separated from Catholic Church…
  • But not for religious reasons

Six Wives of Henry VIII

  • 1. Catherine of Aragon (Divorced)
  • 1st Husband Arthur (Henry’s brother)
  • Arthur died within 6 months of marriage
  • 2nd Husband: Henry VIII (1509)
  • Married for 20 years
  • 1 child: Mary I

Six Wives of Henry VIII

  • Henry wanted a divorce! No sons!
  • Pope’s Response: NO!
  • The Act of Supremacy (1534)
  • Henry declared himself head of church & state

The Trial of Queen Catherine of Aragon, 1909 by F. Salisbury

Henry VIII

  • Established Anglican Church, or Church of England
  • Confiscated church lands, destroyed monasteries
  • had to be Anglican to hold government job in England until the 19th century!

Six Wives of Henry VIII

  • 2. Anne Boleyn (be-headed) Catherine’s Lady in Waiting
  • Marriage lasted: 3 years (1533-1536)
  • 1 child: Elizabeth I
  • Accused of treason
  • Be-headed 1536

#2 Anne Boleyn

If Taylor Swift Songs were About Henry VIII…

Six Wives of Henry VIII

  • 3. Jane Seymour (died)
  • Married Henry days after Anne’s execution!
  • Henry’s “One true love”
  • Marriage lasted: 1 year (1536-1537)
  • Child: Edward VI
  • Died in childbirth

Six Wives of Henry VIII

  • 4. Anne of Cleaves (divorced)
  • German Princess
  • Married her sight unseen
  • I like her not!”
  • Marriage lasted: 3 months
  • Marriage annulled

If Taylor Swift Songs were About Henry VIII…

Six Wives of Henry VIII

  • 5. Catherine Howard (be-headed)
  • Cousin of Anne Boleyn!
  • She was 16, Henry was 49
  • Marriage lasted: 17 months (1541-1542)
  • Accused of adultery, treason
  • Be-headed 1542

If Taylor Swift Songs were About Henry VIII…

Six Wives of Henry VIII

  • 6. Katherine Parr (Survived)
  • Married twice before, was older (30’s)
  • Married Henry 1543, Henry Died 1547
  • Marriage lasted: 4 years
  • Wrote books about Protestant faith
  • Patron of English Protestant Reformers

Karaoke Review – Six Wives of Henry VIII


Martin Luther vs. King Henry VIII

  • Embraced Protestantism for different reasons
  • However, both rejected Papal authority
  • Both believed in strenghthening the authority of nobles

Henry VIII’S Children

  • 1. Edward VI
  • Became King @ age 10
  • John Dudley took over legal guardianship (trouble began)
  • Died of tuberculosis at age 16

Henry VIII’S Children

  • Edward VI Laws:
  • 1. Act of Uniformity (1549) : Book of Common Prayer, images and altars removed from churches
  • 2. Second Act of Uniformity (1552): Revised Book of Common Prayer : Justification by faith, holy scripture, recognizes 2 sacraments (Baptism , Eucharist)
  • 3. Declared his sisters illegitimate & ineligible for the throne !

Henry VIII’S Children

  • Edward declared his cousin
  • Lady Jane Grey heir to the throne (16)
  • She was forced to marry John Dudley’s son…
  • Ruled as Queen of England for 9 days!
  • The “Nine Days Queen”

Henry VIII’S Children

  • 2. Mary I 1st female ruler of England
  • Arrested Jane, and had her be-headed
  • Ruled for 5 years
  • Married King Phillip II OF Spain
  • Restored Catholicism
  • Nickname: “Bloody Mary” – murdered Protestants
  • Died of natural causes

Henry VIII’S Children

  • 3. Elizabeth I
  • Ruled for 45 years! (R.1558-1603)
  • Tolerant Protestant
  • Built Navy/Army
  • Good Foreign diplomacy
  • Encouraged England’s Cultural revival

Queen Elizabeth I’s Coronation Gown

Henry VIII’S Children (Elizabeth)

  • Conflict with King Phillip II Of Spain
  • 1588 England DEFEATED the Spanish Armada
  • Most powerful navy in Europe
  • Turning point: England emerged as naval & commercial power

Henry VIII’S Children (Elizabeth)

  • “Elizabethan Eraa great cultural period
  • She encouraged the arts, Shakespeare & Globe theatre

Queen Elizabeth I vs. Queen Isabella of Spain

  • Queen Elizabeth I England
  • Queen Isabella of Spain
  • Catholic
  • Not tolerant
  • One King, One Law, One Faith”
  • Revived the inquisition, persecuted Muslim Moors, Jews, and other “heretics”

Elizabeth I Never Married

  • She was “Mother” English People were her “Children”
  • Died 1603
  • James I Inherited the throne
  • Established Jamestown 1607
  • Son of Mary Queen of Scotts (liz’s cousin)
  • Who was beheaded for planning a plot to kill Elizabeth…

National Portrait Gallery, London “The Real Tudors”


Catholic Reformation

  • AKA: “Counter Reformation” in response to Protestant Reformation

Council of Trent (1545-1563)

  • Series of meetings spread over 18 years
  • Location: Trent, Italy
  • 1545-1547
  • 1551-1552
  • 1562-1563

Important Reforms:

  • 1. Selling of church offices/indulgences prohibited
  • 2. Authority of Local Bishops Strengthened
  • 3. Seminary Requirement

Important Reforms:

  • 4. 7 Sacraments re-affirmed
  • 5. Clerical Celibacy re-affirmed
  • 6. Veneration of Saints, relics, images re-affirmed

Counter Reformation, Khan Academy


Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)

  • Spanish Soldier
  • Cannon strikes his leg in battle 1521
  • Received last sacraments…
  • But survived

Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)

  • Spanish Soldier hurt in battle - painful 9 month recovery
  • Read about lives of Saints
  • Decided to join monastery and become “ Soldier of Christ”

Ignatius of Loyola Wrote:

  • Spiritual Exercises- a month long program of prayers, meditations, contemplative practiceS
  • As in all the following Spiritual Exercises, we use acts of the intellect in reasoning, and acts of the will in movements of the feelings: let us remark that, in the acts of the will, when we are speaking vocally or mentally with God our Lord, or with His Saints, greater reverence is required on our part than when we are using the intellect in understanding. “

Ignatius of Loyola

  • Established Jesuit order, or Society of Jesus in the 1530’s
  • Known for Missionary work all over world
  • Stressed Moral Self- Discipline & Education

St. Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)

  • At 17 knew she wanted to enter the convent
  • Father refused
  • Ran away & entered Carmelite Monastery in 1535

Teresa of Avila

  • Established the Order of the Discalced Carmelites
  • Wrote: Way of Perfection
  • Growth in prayer allows for a deeper relationship with God

Concept of “Interior Castle”

  • Teresa envisioned the soul as
  • “…a castle made of a single diamond . . . in which there are many rooms, just as in Heaven there are many mansions."

Baroque Art (1500’s-1700’s)

  • Originally established by Catholic Church
  • Meant to be :
  • 1. Doctrinally Correct
  • 2. Visually & Emotionally Appealing
  • 3. Dramatic

Baroque Art

  • Baroque art & architecture promoted Catholic Church Doctrine
  • Developed in Rome

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

  • Credited with inventing Baroque style
  • Originally sculptor
  • “Theatrical” works of art for churches, palaces, architectural projects
  • altarpiece

Bernini’s -The Ecstasy of St. Theresa (1645-1652)

Bernini – Baldachino (Inside St. Peter’s Basilica)

Michelangelo de Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew (1599-1600)

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

  • Famous for altarpieces
  • And…
  • “history paintings”- mostly biblical
  • The Crucifiction

Catholic Counter Reformation:

  • 1. Greater Clarity in Regards to Doctrine
  • 2. New Orders established – good works, Missionary work
  • 3. Spread of ideas & philosophy in writing
  • 4. Greater importance placed on communion
  • 5. The Emergence of Baroque art
  • 6. Revived the church

Review of Protestant Reformation; Videos

  • Life Before the Protestant Reformation, Khan Academy
  • Martin Luther, Khan Academy
  • Varieties of Protestantism, Khan Academy

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