Text types disampaikan dalam Pelatihan Menulis Teks Bahasa Inggris untuk Guru-Guru sma



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TEXT TYPES Disampaikan dalam Pelatihan Menulis Teks Bahasa Inggris untuk Guru-Guru SMA

  • Oleh: Emi Emilia, PhD Bandung, 2 Juni 2007

  • Text & Context
  • Text Types

  • Text: weaving; referring to words and sentences woven together to create a single whole (Christie and Misson, 1998, p. 8).
  • Text= discourse in critical discourse analysis (CDA) = “language use in speech and writing” (Fairclough & Wodak, 1997).
  • “A text is a semantic unit, … the language people produce and react to, what they say and write, and read and listen to, in daily life. … The term covers both speech and writing … it may be … conversation, telephone talk, debate, … public notices, ... intimate monologue or anything else” (Halliday, 1975, p. 123).
  • Whether a stretch of language is a text or not has nothing to do with its size or form. … The single word stop on a road sign and Tolsoy’s novel War and Peace are both texts because they are unified wholes. One page of War and Peace, though longer than a stop sign, is not a text because it cannot stand alone as a unified whole (Feez and Joyce, 1998, p. 4; juga bisa dilihat dalam tulisan Lemke, 1991; Eggins, 1994; Christie and Misson, 1998).

Context: “being woven together”, with the prefix Con carrying the sense of being together; elements that accompany a text (Christie and Misson, 1998, p. 8).

  • Context: “being woven together”, with the prefix Con carrying the sense of being together; elements that accompany a text (Christie and Misson, 1998, p. 8).
  • Context of Situation:
  • immediate situation of language: Field, Tenor, Mode (Register)
  • Context of culture:
  • Factors which determine collectively the way the text is interpreted in its context of situation.
  • The Relationship Between Language, Register dan Genre
  • (cited from Eggins, 1994, p.34)

The relationship between Text and Context :

  • Dialectical: Text creates the context as much as the context creates the text.
  • Any text is said to be comprehensible in terms of the context which gives rise to it. Context is known only because of the text which gives it life. Conversely, text is only known because of the context which makes it relevant (Christie and Misson, 1998, p. 8).

Texture:

  • Texture:
  • “what holds the clauses of a text together to give them unity” (Eggins, 1994, p. 85).
  • Intertextuality:
  • The way text refers to other texts.

Two important Dimensions of Texture: Coherence dan Cohesion.

  • Two important Dimensions of Texture: Coherence dan Cohesion.
  • Coherence refers to the way a group of clauses or sentences relate to the context.
  • Two types of coherence: situational or registerial coherence and generic coherence.
  • A text has situational coherence when we can think of one situation in which all the clauses of the text could occur.i.e. when can specify a field, mode, and tenor for the entire collection of clauses.
  • A text has generic coherence when we can recognize the text as an example of a particular genre, i.e. when we can identify a Schematic Structure, with each part of the text expressing one element of the unfolding, staged organization of the language event.

Look at The following examples

  • Look at The following examples
  • 1. Up road runs they. 2. To sign please form those page on. 3. Three children Shirley have: boy two, girl (Source: Eggins, 1994)
  • 1. I’ve been learning English for two years. 2. He’s been playing the guitar for six months. 3. They’ve been living in Sydney for one month. 4. We’ve been working here for 3 years. 5. She’s been studying French for two weeks (Source: Eggins, 1994).
  • 1. Once upon a time there was a little white mouse called “Tiptoe”. 2. It’s very rarely hot in Paris. 3. When does the race start? 4. It does so. 5. No, I don’t know how to make chocolate crackers (Source: Eggins, 1994)

The little white mouse sniffed the cheese carefully. Camembert is a soft, French cheese. The French consume a lot of dairy products. Isn’t milk an important source of calcium? You know of course that vitamin deficiencies can lead to feelings of fatigue and listlessness (Source: Eggins, 1994).

  • The little white mouse sniffed the cheese carefully. Camembert is a soft, French cheese. The French consume a lot of dairy products. Isn’t milk an important source of calcium? You know of course that vitamin deficiencies can lead to feelings of fatigue and listlessness (Source: Eggins, 1994).
  • I had always wanted to see Paris. 2. However, you can imagine how excited I was one there. 3. We had wanted to do some sightseeing. 4. And unfortunately it was cold and wet. 5. Meanwhile we were exhausted by 6 o’clock (Source: Eggins, 1994).

Mark offered Lisa the box of chocolate. 2. She took two of the chocolates out of the box of chocolates. 3. She put one of the chocolates down on the saucer of her cup. 4. She started eating the other one of the chocolates she had taken out of the box of chocolates. 5. Then she started eating the other chocolate she had taken out of the box of chocolates. 6. These chocolates out of the box of chocolates are delicious, she said. 7. Is that chocolate out of the box of chocolates delicious, he replied. 8. “Why don’t you take another chocolate out of the box of chocolates” he suggested. 9. I will take another chocolate out of the box of chocolates” she replied. 10. And so she took another chocolate out of the box of chocolates (Source: Eggins, 1994).

  • Mark offered Lisa the box of chocolate. 2. She took two of the chocolates out of the box of chocolates. 3. She put one of the chocolates down on the saucer of her cup. 4. She started eating the other one of the chocolates she had taken out of the box of chocolates. 5. Then she started eating the other chocolate she had taken out of the box of chocolates. 6. These chocolates out of the box of chocolates are delicious, she said. 7. Is that chocolate out of the box of chocolates delicious, he replied. 8. “Why don’t you take another chocolate out of the box of chocolates” he suggested. 9. I will take another chocolate out of the box of chocolates” she replied. 10. And so she took another chocolate out of the box of chocolates (Source: Eggins, 1994).


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