Use one space after periods and colons. Hyphenate complex modifiers: “zero-field-cooled magnetization.” Avoid dangling participles, such as, “Using (1), the potential was calculated.” [It is not clear who or what used (1).] Write instead, “The potential was calculated by using (1),” or “Using (1), we calculated the potential.”
Use a zero before decimal points: “0.25,” not “.25.” Use “cm3,” not “cc.” Indicate sample dimensions as “0.1 cm 0.2 cm,” not “0.1 0.2 cm2.” The abbreviation for “seconds” is “s,” not “sec.” Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: use “Wb/m2” or “webers per square meter,” not “webers/m2.” When expressing a range of values, write “7 to 9” or “7-9,” not “7~9.”
A parenthetical statement at the end of a sentence is punctuated outside of the closing parenthesis (like this). (A parenthetical sentence is punctuated within the parentheses.) In American English, periods and commas are within quotation marks, like “this period.” Other punctuation is “outside”! Avoid contractions; for example, write “do not” instead of “don’t.” The serial comma is preferred: “A, B, and C” instead of “A, B and C.”
If you wish, you may write in the first person singular or plural and use the active voice (“I observed that ...” or “We observed that ...” instead of “It was observed that ...”). Remember to check spelling. If your native language is not English, please get a native English-speaking colleague to proofread your paper.
Some Common Mistakes
The word “data” is plural, not singular. The subscript for the permeability of vacuum µ0 is zero, not a lowercase letter “o.” The term for residual magnetization is “remanence”; the adjective is “remanent”; do not write “remnance” or “remnant.” Use the word “micrometer” instead of “micron.” A graph within a graph is an “inset,” not an “insert.” The word “alternatively” is preferred to the word “alternately” (unless you really mean something that alternates). Use the word “whereas” instead of “while” (unless you are referring to simultaneous events). Do not use the word “essentially” to mean “approximately” or “effectively.” Do not use the word “issue” as a euphemism for “problem.” When compositions are not specified, separate chemical symbols by en-dashes; for example, “NiMn” indicates the intermetallic compound Ni0.5Mn0.5 whereas “Ni–Mn” indicates an alloy of some composition NixMn1-x.
Be aware of the different meanings of the homophones “affect” (usually a verb) and “effect” (usually a noun), “complement” and “compliment,” “discreet” and “discrete,” “principal” (e.g., “principal investigator”) and “principle” (e.g., “principle of measurement”). Do not confuse “imply” and “infer.”
Prefixes such as “non,” “sub,” “micro,” “multi,” and “"ultra” are not independent words; they should be joined to the words they modify, usually without a hyphen. There is no period after the “et” in the Latin abbreviation “et al.” (it is also italicized). The abbreviation “i.e.,” means “that is,” and the abbreviation “e.g.,” means “for example” (these abbreviations are not italicized).
An excellent style manual and source of information for science writers is . A general IEEE style guide, Information for Authors, is available at http://www.ieee.org/organizations/pubs/transactions/information.htm
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The Transactions and Journals Department does not publish conference records or proceedings. The TRANSACTIONS does publish papers related to conferences that have been recommended for publication on the basis of peer review. As a matter of convenience and service to the technical community, these topical papers are collected and published in one issue of theTRANSACTIONS.
At least two reviews are required for every paper submitted. For conference-related papers, the decision to accept or reject a paper is made by the conference editors and publications committee; the recommendations of the referees are advisory only. Undecipherable English is a valid reason for rejection. Authors of rejected papers may revise and resubmit them to the TRANSACTIONS as regular papers, whereupon they will be reviewed by two new referees.
The contents of IEEE TRANSACTIONS and JOURNALS are peer-reviewed and archival. The TRANSACTIONS publishes scholarly articles of archival value as well as tutorial expositions and critical reviews of classical subjects and topics of current interest.
Authors should consider the following points:
Technical papers submitted for publication must advance the state of knowledge and must cite relevant prior work.
The length of a submitted paper should be commensurate with the importance, or appropriate to the complexity, of the work. For example, an obvious extension of previously published work might not be appropriate for publication or might be adequately treated in just a few pages.
Authors must convince both peer reviewers and the editors of the scientific and technical merit of a paper; the standards of proof are higher when extraordinary or unexpected results are reported.
Because replication is required for scientific progress, papers submitted for publication must provide sufficient information to allow readers to perform similar experiments or calculations and use the reported results. Although not everything need be disclosed, a paper must contain new, useable, and fully described information. For example, a specimen's chemical composition need not be reported if the main purpose of a paper is to introduce a new measurement technique. Authors should expect to be challenged by reviewers if the results are not supported by adequate data and critical details.
Papers that describe ongoing work or announce the latest technical achievement, which are suitable for presentation at a professional conference, may not be appropriate for publication in a TRANSACTIONS or JOURNAL.
A conclusion section is not required. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the paper, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion. A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions.
Appendixes, if needed, appear before the acknowledg-ment.
The preferred spelling of the word “acknowledgment” in American English is without an “e” after the “g.” Use the singular heading even if you have many acknowledgments. Avoid expressions such as “One of us (S.B.A.) would like to thank ... .” Instead, write “F. A. Author thanks ... .” Sponsor and financial support acknowledgments are placed in the unnumbered footnote on the first page.
G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics (Book style with paper title and editor),” in Plastics, 2nd ed. vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64.
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B. Smith, “An approach to graphs of linear forms (Unpublished work style),” unpublished.
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J. G. Kreifeldt, “An analysis of surface-detected EMG as an amplitude-modulated noise,” presented at the 1989 Int. Conf. Medicine and Biological Engineering, Chicago, IL.
J. Williams, “Narrow-band analyzer (Thesis or Dissertation style),” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993.
N. Kawasaki, “Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozzle flow,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan, 1993.
J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices (Patent style),” U.S. Patent 3 624 12, July 16, 1990.
IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems (Standards style), IEEE Standard 308, 1969.
Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5-1968.
R. E. Haskell and C. T. Case, “Transient signal propagation in lossless isotropic plasmas (Report style),” USAF Cambridge Res. Lab., Cambridge, MA Rep. ARCRL-66-234 (II), 1994, vol. 2.
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(Handbook style) Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, 1985, pp. 44–60. Motorola Semiconductor Data Manual, Motorola Semiconductor Products Inc., Phoenix, AZ, 1989.
(Basic Book/Monograph Online Sources) J. K. Author. (year, month, day). Title (edition) [Type of medium]. Volume(issue). Available: http://www.(URL)
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(Journal Online Sources style) K. Author. (year, month). Title. Journal [Type of medium]. Volume(issue), paging if given. Available: http://www.(URL)
R. J. Vidmar. (1992, August). On the use of atmospheric plasmas as electromagnetic reflectors. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. [Online]. 21(3). pp. 876—880. Available: http://www.halcyon.com/pub/journals/ 21ps03-vidmar
This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Commerce under Grant BS123456 (sponsor and financial support acknowledgment goes here). Paper titles should be written in uppercase and lowercase letters, not all uppercase. Avoid writing long formulas with subscripts in the title; short formulas that identify the elements are fine (e.g., "Nd–Fe–B"). Do not write "(Invited)" in the title. Full names of authors are preferred in the author field, but are not required. Put a space between authors' initials.
F. Anderson is with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 USA (corresponding author to provide phone: 303-555-5555; fax: 303-555-5555; e-mail: author@ boulder.nist.gov).
S. B. Niles, Jr., was with Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 USA. He is now with the Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA (e-mail: author@lamar. colostate.edu).
T. C. Donald is with the Electrical Engineering Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA, on leave from the National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba, Japan (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
1It is recommended that footnotes be avoided (except for the unnumbered footnote with the receipt date on the first page). Instead, try to integrate the footnote information into the text.