Сучасний зміст іншомовної освіти в Україні є складовою процесу оновлення освітньої системи. Ці зміни пов’язані зі створенням нових освітніх стандартів, оновленням навчальних програм, змісту навчально-дидактичних матеріалів, підручників, організації навчального процесу. Основне призначення навчання іноземних мов полягає у формуванні комунікативної компетенції, здатності і готовності здійснювати іншомовне міжособистісне та міжкультурне спілкування з носієм мови.
Сучасна програма навчання іноземним мовам в середніх навчальних загальноосвітніх закладах ставить перед учителями нові завдання. Це завдання не тільки говорити іноземною мовою, а й висловлювати свої думки.
Як визначається в Державному освітньому стандарті з іноземних мов, володіння письмом передбачає досягнення елементарної комунікативної компетенції, яка забезпечує учневі вміння в найбільш типових ситуаціях повсякденного спілкування за допомогою письма:
написати короткий твір із теми і стисло передати в письмовій формі звіт почутого чи прочитаного;
самостійно висловлюватися на основі вербальних чи зорових опор;
скласти нотатки для себе або інших людей, написати коротке повідомлення;
скласти і записати план тексту, зробити короткі записи стосовно прочитаного чи прослуханого;
написати реферат, повідомлення.
Формування творчих здібностей є складною й дуже важливою задачею для шкільної освіти й вимагає від вчителів нового підходу в роботі над розвитком творчих здібностей учнів. Головна ідея цього підходу полягає в тому, що учні, щоби стати ефективними користувачами мови, повинні не тільки здобувати знання у сфері граматики і лексики, а й розвивати навички та вміння використання мовних норм для реальних комунікативних цілей.
Працюючи у загальноосвітній школі, у навчанні велику увагу приділяю розвитку навичок творчого письма, тому що воно є одним із методів дистанційної комунікації. Я впевнена, що формування навичок творчого письма є запорукою успішного навчання впродовж життя.
Творче письмо відкриває перед учнями та вчителями можливість поєднати основні види мовленнєвої діяльності.
Творче письмо – засіб висловлювання думок і почуттів людини. Творити здатен будь-який учень, тільки треба створити для цього відповідні умови, зацікавити своїм предметом. Методика розвитку творчого письма дозволяє:
підвищити інтерес до вивчення англійської мови;
розвивати творчі здібності та уяву;
викликати емоційні переживання, націлювати учнів на самостійний вибір шляхів прийомів та засобів розв’язання проблеми залежно від їх здібностей;
активізувати та розширити лексико-граматичний мінімум, підвищуючи ступінь його тренування та засвоєння;
мотивувати розумову діяльність учнів, пов’язану з висуненням гіпотез, пошуком та прийняттям рішення, аналізом та узагальненням.
Розвиток навичок творчого письма має широкий спектр діяльності: це й написання листівок і листів (офіційних, неофіційних), есе, творів, відгуків, скарг тощо ( Додаток 1).
Серед чотирьох видів комунікативної діяльності, саме письмо є тим умінням, метою якого є «надіслати дистанційне повідомлення» іншій людині. Саме письмовий вид діяльності є найскладніший, адже до нього залучаються всі мовленнєві аналізатори. Чому іноземне письмо створює стільки проблем для учнів на відміну від їхньої рідної мови. Нажаль, неможливо написати вірш, есе, повідомлення чи оповідання «не відриваючи перо від паперу». Письмо – це не те, що вчиться легко чи автоматично, навіть в рідній мові. Це довготривалий процес. Щоб стати гарним письменником, потрібно усвідомлювати декілька положень:
Письмо – це процес. Це дійсно дуже складний процес, який включає мотивацію, формулювання теми, планування, організацію письма, написання пробного варіанту, перевірка його, переписування з подальшим покращенням та передача матеріалу читачеві.
Письмо – це вміння. Ми можемо всі навчитися писати добре. Звісно, це забере час, але розвине вміння і навички.
До того як прикласти ручку до паперу, учень звісно повинен усвідомити три елементи:
читач – кому я писатиму;
мета – якою буде функція мого письма;
оформлення – залежить від перших двох елементів.
Деякі учні запитують, чому вони повинні знати ці теоретичні підрозділи, адже вони виконують просте шкільне завдання. Тема була надана вчителем чи екзаменатором і лише вчитель буде моїм єдиним читачем. Яка мета моєї творчої роботи? Відповідь очевидна – здати екзамен. Тобто, зовнішнє незалежне оцінювання ставить мету перед учнями – оволодіти всіма видами і навичками творчого письма.
Розглянемо види письмових робіт:
І. Personal and Social writing (особисте письмове спілкування)
- e-mails (електронна пошта)
- diaries (ведення щоденника)
- letters (листи)
-shopping lists (список покупок)
- notes (записки)
- messages (повідомлення)
ІІ. Study writing (навчальне писемне мовлення)
making notes while studying (занотовування)
summaries (скорочення текстів)
ІІІ. Professional writing (професійний стиль письма)
formal letters of request (офіційні листи прохання)
Процес писемного мовлення, як відомо, починається з мовлення внутрішнього. Саме у внутрішньому мовленні готується програма висловлювання, проводиться відбір лексичних одиниць, граматичне оформлення речень, їх логічне поєднання в абзаци. Увесь процес складається з внутрішнього приговорювання та фіксації підготовленого матеріалу на папері, що вимагає автоматизованого оперування звуко-графічними асоціаціями. За кількістю операцій писемне повідомлення є складнішим від усного. Однак в усному спонтанному висловлюванні народження мовлення і його звукового оформлення є синхронним і тому вимагає повного автоматизму в оперуванні лексичним і граматичним матеріалом.
Творче письмо робить слово та ідеї незабутніми. Творчо використовуючи іноземну мову, учні перетворюють її на власну, а творчі завдання допомагають відчути впевненість у своїх вміннях.
Незалежно від запропонованого різновиду творчого письма, існує конкретний алгоритм написання творчої роботи, а саме:
Створення необхідної мотивації.(discussing a topic)
Акумулювання ідей.(denerating ideas)
Занотовування.(organizing the ideas)
Складання чорнового матеріалу.(writing the first draft)
Коректування чорнового матеріалу.(rewriting)
Написання кінцевого матеріалу.(writing the final draft)
Етапи творчого письма:
Підготовчий етап (generating іdeas) включає все, що допомагає автору сконцентрувати свою увагу на проблемі, акумулювати ідеї і знайти найкращі шляхи, щоб їх висловити читачеві. Такий підготовчий етап стимулює уяву автора та створює базу для подальшого письма.
Підготовчий етап творчої роботи передбачає, насамперед, пошук мети, адресата і форми письмової роботи. Цей етап забезпечує учнів основоположними ідеями. Підготовчий етап спрямований на генерування ідей. Він може здійснюватись різноманітними шляхами: через інтерв’ю, усний твір, застосування малюнків, дебатів, екскурсій, тощо.
Згідно Рекомендацій Ради Європи для розвитку уміння творчого викладу думок пропонуються наступні завдання:
«brainstorming» - мозкова атака (викладач формулює ряд тематично направлених питань, які можуть бути записані на дошці; кожен студент дає на них відповіді, а вчитель записує їх на дошці для подальшого вживання учнями);
«clustering» або «mapping» (звуження понять до ключових слів із даної теми та розширення понять від ключового слова;
кубування (складний процес, суть якого полягає в розгляді якогось предмета із шести точок зору: опишіть його, порівняйте його, зіставте його, проаналізуйте його, застосуйте його, обговоріть);
інтерв’ю можна вважати одним із найпростіших способів акумуляції ідеї, тому, що учні середнього етапу навчання можуть брати інтерв’ю один у одного. Це створює невимушену атмосферу в аудиторії. Час проведення обмежується п’ятьма хвилинами, і час написання основних напрямків, як правило, п’ятнадцятьма хвилинами. Потім написане учнями читається вголос, обговорюється, правиться вчителем та доопрацьовується автором. Цей прийом знімає появу помилок та допомагає учням краще пізнати один одного;
дебати можуть посісти чільне місце серед підготовчих вправ. Усе обговорення завжди повинне передувати творчому завданню. Воно синтезує необхідність планувати зміст і структуру написання. Усне обговорення дає вчителеві змогу виявити, чи володіють учні в достатній мірі словниковим запасом та необхідними мовними структурами, необхідними для вираження своїх думок на письмі. Групове обговорення особливо корисне для слабких учнів, оскільки забезпечує їх ідеями та матеріалами запропонованої теми.
Незважаючи на вибір підготовлених вправ, їх завданням є стимулювати та мотивувати учнів у процесі акумулювання матеріалів для подальшого написання.
Наступний етап – планування (planning). Щойно учень обрав тему – основу висловлювання, акумулював ідею – центральну думку висловлювання в писемних текстах, він переходить до етапу планування, що являється ключем для успішного письма. При цьому доцільно використовувати такі методи:
topic outline (визначення головної ідеї кожного абзацу, який містить ключове речення (topic sentence) і заключає в собі головну думку, якщо це речення знаходиться на початку абзацу, то в наступних (supporting sentences) реченнях воно розвивається, ілюструється;
tree diagram (створення діаграми навколо головної ідеї).
Наступний етап – складання та коректування чорнового матеріалу (writing and rewriting drafts). Після того як зібрані та організовані матеріали, учень готовий до самого написання. На цьому етапі учень пише і вдосконалює свої чернетки поки не дійде до кінцевого матеріалу. Написання чорнового варіанту (drafting)- це ще не кінцевий варіант письма. Під час написання першого варіанту (first draft) потрібно сфокусуватися на головній ідеї кожного абзацу, не зважаючи на граматичні недоліки. Після його завершення починається справжнє письмо. Письменники прочитують свій перший варіант уважно в разі його можливої корекції чи зміни. Перший перегляд (revising) написаного переважно концентрується на правильному викладі теми та організації абзаців. Редагування (editing) – наступний крок корекції написаного (second draft) учень перевіряє структуру речення, граматику, правопис, пунктуацію, написання великої літери наявність типових слів і фрази, що використовуються у письмових творчих роботах( додаток 2).
Останній етап – написання кінцевого матеріалу (writing a final copy). Власне учень перевіривши всі виправлення та перечитавши останній чорновий варіант, готовий до написання кінцевого матеріалу, який буде представлений вчителю чи екзаменатору. Не потрібно забувати, що творче письмо – це процес, який продовжується доти, доки учень не буде задоволений своїм останнім доробком. Час, затрачений на цю діяльність покривається кращим рівнем творчих надбань авторів – учнів.
Nothing should be spoken before it has been heard
Nothing should be read before it has been spoken
Nothing should be written before it has been read
Підсумовуючи все вище згадане, необхідно зазначити, що тема «Оволодіння навичками і уміннями дистанційної комунікації за допомогою особистого письмового спілкування та написання творчих робіт» є дуже актуальна у наш час. Навчання є дуже складним процесом, що має дати учням знання у максимальному обсязі. Світ змінюється як малюнки калейдоскопа, і встигати за цими змінами стає з кожним днем все важче. Виграє той, хто швидше отримує інформацію, швидше засвоює і використовує її.
My name’s Renate Weiner and I’m from Frankfurt, Germany. I’m 19 years old and I’m a student. I speak German, French and English. My favourite singer’s Dido. I think she’s great! I love films, too. My favourite actor’s Ewan McGregor.
I’d like to make friends with people from all around the world. Please write to me at RenateW@friendsforlife.com.
Bye for now.
When we write a letter, e-mail, etc. To a friend we use short forms.
Use and for joining sentences.
Portfolio: Make friends with people from all parts of the globe! Write to
friendforlife.com and tell all about you:
What’s your name?
Where are you from?
How old are you?
What do you do?
Which language do you speak?
Who is your favourite actor/singer, etc?
How’s everything? I hope you are fine. Here’s what I do in my free time.
I spend my week working hard at college, but my weekends are pretty busy too. On Saturday morning, I work part-time as a sales assistant at the local supermarket, then I meet my friends for a burger and a Coke. In the afternoon, I usually play football, but I sometimes go swimming at the sports centre. On Saturday nights. I’m usually tired, so I stay at home. I often rent a video or play on my computer. On Sundays, I do my college work and send emails or white letters. I usually get an early night.
Well, that’s all, I guess. Write soon and tell me you like to do in your free time.
A letter to a pen friend
(Para 1) Opening remarks, reason for writing.
(Para 2) Weekend activities.
(Para 3) Closing remarks/ask friends to write back.
Hi! How are you?
Thanks so much for your letter.
It’s been ages, hasn’t it?
How are things?
Great to hear from you.
Write again/back soon
I can’t wait to hear all your news.
I’d better go now
Well, that’s all for now
See you soon
Have to go now.
Do drop me a line
I look forward to hearing from you.
Portfolio: White a letter to a pen friend telling him/her what you do at the
weekend. You can use the letter as a model.
(Para 1) Opening remarks.
Here I am in the Swiss Alps! I’m having a fantastic time.
(Para 2) Where she is and what she’s doing.
I’m waiting to have my first skiing lesson and it’s snowing quite heavily today. Alan is still eating breakfast – he loves the food here!
(Para 3) More information about people, activities, etc.
(Para 4) Closing remarks.
There are a lot of people on the slopes today. There’s a little girl outside putting on her skis. She looks about three years old! The ski instructor is waving at me – I think it’s time for my lesson now. Wish me luck!
But for now. See you soon!
Robert Mellors_ _
48, Lower Baggot St
Dublin 2______ _
How are you? We’re having a great time here in Switzerland!
I’m writing from the Swiss Alps! Wish you were here - it’s great!
Well, that’s all for now. Time to go!
We’ll see you when we get back. Take care!
Portfolio: White a postcard to a friend from holiday. Use the model postcard and
the paragraph plan to help you.
A letter of invitation
I’m writing to find out about your plans for next weekend. Do you fancy coming to stay? It will be a good opportunity to catch up on all the news and do some fun things together.
On Friday night, Tiger’s Eye is performing at the Roulette, a new venue in town, so I’ll get some tickets if you want. Then, on Saturday, Tom and Lisa are going to go rafting, so we could join them. What do you think? On Sunday morning, my football team is playing at Fuller’s Stadium and after that we’re all coming round to my place for a barbecue.
I think it will be a good weekend so I hope you can make it. Write and let me know – it will be great to see you again.
(Para 1) Reason for writing, when the invitation is for.
(Para) Details about activities.
(Para 3) Closing remarks.
How are you? Are you busy next weekend?
I hope all is well with you. What are you doing next Saturday?
I’d love to see you again. It will be great to catch up on all the news! See you soon.
We’ll have a great time, I’m sure! I hope you’ll be able to join in all the fun!
Write and let me know.
Portfolio: Write a letter to a friend inviting him/her for the weekend. Tell him/her
what activities you can do together. Use the paragraph plan and the
model letter to help you.
An email describing a festival you attended
The Toowoomba Carnival of Flowers is the most important floral event in Queensland, Australia. It takes place every year in late September, and it lasts 10 days. Lots of people attend it so last year I decided to go and see what it was all about.
The carnival began with a competition for the best garden in town. After that, there was a spectacular street parade of convertible cars covered in flowers! Then followed a procession of pipers, dressed in traditional Scottish tartan kilts and groups of dancers, wearing bright costumes. Finally, there was the Flower Queen Contest, in which people voted for the most beautiful girl of the day!
I enjoyed every second of this cheerful floral feast. I relaxed walking through the beautiful parks and gardens. I was stunned by the street parade and I had a lot of fun voting for the queen in the contest. On the whole, it was an amazing event.
As I was leaving Toowoomba I left really sad that the event was over. I couldn’t help thinking how much fin I’d had. So, if you ever plan a trip to Toowoomba, try not miss the events and the cheerful atmosphere of this exiting festival
(Para 1) Name, place, time.
(Para 2) Festival activities, costumes, decorations.
(Para 3) Events.
(Para 4 ) Feelings, recommendation.
Useful language: Recommending:
Try not to miss it.
Make sure you don’t miss it.
It’s definitely worth a visit.
Don’t bother with festival.
Give it a miss.
It’s more trouble than it’s worth.
It’s not worth the ticket price.
Portfolio: You recently attended a local festival. Answer the questions below and write an article for the school magazine about it. Use the model text to help you as well as appropriate tenses and variety of adjectives:
What is the name of the festival you have been to? What was it about?
When and where does/did it take place
What were the most important events of the festival?
Did people wear any special costumes?
Did they eat any special food?
How did you feel?
Would you recommend this festival?
A letter giving an advice
I’ve just got your e-mail, and I was sorry to hear you’re worried about your weight. I bet the problem isn’t as bad as it seems, though! In any case, there are lots of things you can do to lose weight.
What you should do is eat a healthy diet, with lots of fish, fruit and fresh vegetables instead of junk food and sweets. If you do this, you’ll soon lose weight, and you’ll look and feel much healthier, too. You could also exercise more and walk whenever possible rather than going by car or bus. That way you’ll burn calories and get your body back in shape at the same time.
I know it’s hard to do at first, but believe me, it will work! Good luck, and don’t forget to let me know you’re getting on.
(Para 2) Main body (give your advice, explain the results).
(Para 3) Сlosing remarks (end the letter).
1. It would be a good idea to…
2. The best thing to do is…
3. What you should do is… 4. Why don’t you…?
5. You could also…
1. This/That way…
2. This would mean that…
3. Then, (you…)…
4. If you do this, …
5. By doing this, …
Portfolio: Write your letter to one of your friends and give advice:
1)” I feel very lonely in my new neighbourhood. I have no friends and I’m really depressed . Any advice? “
2)” I’ve just moved to a new school and everything’s different . I haven’t got any friends here and I feel like I don’t fit in.”
An e-mail describing a shopping centre
It was great to hear from you. I´m fine but a bit busy with schoolwork!
(Para 1) Opening remarks.
Anyway, you asked me about that new shopping centre that has just opened. Well, actually I went there with Bill yesterday! It has some excellent shops and a big food court with restaurant and cosy cafes. The outside is nice too, with two beautiful fountains surrounded by trees. There are also two car parks, so it's really easy to park.
(Para 2) Description of shops and outside.
In the shops, most of the prices seemed reasonable. I found a shop with trainers on sale so I bought two pairs. Then, I went to a huge bookshop while Bill shopped for some new trousers.
(Para 3 ) Purchases and prices.
The only thing I didn´t like was the fact that it was crowded. Also, some of the sales assistants were quite slow.
(Para 4) Opinion, service.
I think I'll go back in a couple of weeks when it´s not so
crowded. Hey, why don’t you come along?
Talk to you soon,
(Para 5) Closing remarks.
Porfolio: Write an email to your friend and tell him/her about a new department
store in your city and what's it's like (types of goods, facilities, prices,
service). Organise your ideas into paragraphs.
An email recommending a performance
(Para 1)Opening remarks, name, type of performance, when you saw it.
How are you? I just thought i'd write to tell you about the last musical I saw, Starling Express. Lucy and I went to see it last night and we both loved it!
I usually don’t like musicals, but this one was absolutely
brilliant! The plot was quite straightforward, about a
racing competition between three types of trains, but the
costumes were really colourful and the music was
fabulous. The best thing of all, thought, was the
choreography. All the performance were on roller skates.
They were amazing. They moved very fast and yet not ever
one of them fell over! The whole thing was really exciting!
You should go and see it. I
(Para 3) Closing remarks.
t's a great show.
Anyway, I have to go now. My brother is coming for dinner tonight, so I'd better hurry. See you soon
Lots of love,
Portfolio: Write an email to your friend reporting you visit to a theatre. Follow the paragraph plan.
A letter reviewing a film
1 How are you? I’m writing to you to tell you about the great film I saw last Saturday at the cinema. I went to see Spiderman 2 with some friends.
2 Spiderman 2 is a science fiction film set in the USA. It stars Tobey Maguire, my favorite actor. Spiderman, who is also Peter Parker, has special spider-like powers. He can jump from building and make huge spider webs to save people. In this film his adventures continue when he meets the evil Doc Ock, who has powers just like Spiderman. At the same time Peter Parker is in love with Mary Jane, played by Kirsten Dunst, but he can’t tell her because he has to keep Spiderman a secret. I won’t tell you what happens in case you want to watch it!
3 Spiderman 2 has loads of fantastic action scenes and the stunts are amazing. The film also has romance – there’s something for everyone. I think it is worth watching.
4 What about you? What type of films do you like? Have you been to the cinema lately? What did you see? Write back and tell me.
Useful language: Comments:
Don’t miss this film. It’s a must – see !
You certainly won’t be bored!
I highly recommend it. It’s a film not to be missed.
Don’t go and see this film.
It isn’t very good.
It’s a waste of time and money.
Don’t see this film. It’s a waste of time.
I wouldn’t recommend it.
Portfolio: Think of your favourite film. Write a letter to your friend about.
Title of film
Type of film
Summary of the plot
Organize your writing into four paragraphs.
Thank you for your letter. I'm sorry answer earlier, but I was very busy with my end of term exams.
In your last letter you asked me about my best friend. Her name’s Tomiko and she is quite good-looking. She is 12 years old, with brown eyes and shoulder-length dark hair. The first thing you notice about her is her height! She loves wearing casual clothes such as jeans and trainers.
Tomiko is sociable and outgoing. She loves chatting on the phone with her friends and taking part in team activities, especially sailing and volleyball. Her strongest point is her sense of humour. She manages to make us laugh even in the most difficult situations.
Tomiko is a very special person who means a lot to me! We may be as different as chalk and cheese, but we are inseparable and nothing is more fun then being together!
Well, that’s all for now. What about your best friend? Write back and tell me all about him!
An informal letter
Use short form in a such type of the latter: “ I’m sorry I didn’t answer earlier”.
Join the sentences using: and? Who? With? Both… and, but, as well.
Start the letter with “Dear you friends first name”
End the letter with “Love”, “Best wishes”, “All the best”, “Yours”, “lots of love”, “See you soon”+ your first name.
Use different opening and closing remarks :
Hi! How’s everything going?
Sorry that I haven’t written for ages, but I’ve been busy studying
Hi! How are you?
Thanks very much for your letter.
Drop me a line as soon as possible.
That’s all my news! I’d better go and do some work now!
Please write soon and tell me all your news.
Drop me a line and tell me all your news.
Portfolio: Write your letter using the paragraph plan and tell about your neighbour.
An e-mail describing the place you live in
Hi How’s everything going? I enjoyed your email and I’m glad you like Cambridge.
My city, Barcelona, is a cosmopolitan place situated in the north-east of Spain. There are beautiful blocks of flats, elegant shops and fantastic shopping centers. The people are very friendly. I just love walking along the busy streets and mixing with the city people. Getting around Barcelona is quite easy because there is a metro and lots of buses. Of course, Barcelona, like most big cities, has its problems, too. It can be noisy, with heavy traffic and crowed streets. I don’t mind, though. You see, I’m a city girl and love it
Barcelona is never boring. There are lots of cinemas, theatres, cafes and restaurants. What I enjoy the most, though, is the sea, and the musicians performing in the streets during summer.
I guess I could talk about Barcelona for days. Why don’t you come and spend your summer holidays with my family and me? Write back and let me know.
(Para 1) Opening remarks.
(Para 2 ) Description of a place: location, attraction, shops, transport.
(Para 3) Entertainment, nightlife.
(Para 4) Closing remarks.
The topic sentence:
The topic sentence is the sentence in the paragraph. It introduced or summaries the main topic of the paragraph and gives the reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to be about. The rest of the paragraph (supporting sentences) develops) the main idea of the topic sentence.
When we describe a place we can use a variety of adjectives to make our description more interesting.
Location: is situated/is located…in (the) north/south/east/west/ on the north/south/east/west coast of…/in the centre/heart/middle of… Attraction: fantastic funfair; ancient temples; busy market; sandy beach; medieval castle; etc. Shops:modern shopping centre; lovely antique shops; etc. Transport: convenient public transport, modern metro Nightlife: dance clubs; fashionable/popular restaurants; trendy cafes/theatres; etc
Portfolio: Now write an email to your friend, telling, him/her what the city you live in is like and if you enjoy living there or not. A model email, adjectives and useful language can help you.
A letter giving news
(Para 1) opening remarks, reason for writing.
i Mike, Introduction
1. How are you? I've heard you joined Greenpeace! That's great! Actually, I've also done something to help the environment.
(Para 2) giving news (when where and why the event took place).
2. Last week there was a clean-up campaign in my town. The Scout group, my school and the sports club organised a campaign. We wanted to clean our town's streets and parks because they were full of litter after the annual Flower Festival.
(Para 3) giving news (what people and you did).
(Para 4) closing remarks.
3. We worked in small groups. Each group had its own
team leader. The first group picked up litter off the streets
and put it into plastic bags. Then, the second group took
the bags to the recycling centre. I was responsible for
sorting the rubbish into different bags for the recycling
process. It was pretty hard work, but very rewarding! Conclusion
4.You should come and visit our town now that it's nice and clean! I hope to see you soon.
Opening remarks for a letter giving news:
•I thought you might be interested to hear about/know that.
•This is just to let you know that…
Supporting sentences expand on topic sentences and give more information
Topic sentence: The clean-up campaign was a great success.
Supporting sentence: We managed to pick up all the litter in the town centre and paint over the graffiti.
Portfolio: Write a letter to your English pen friend telling him/her all your news. In your letter you should:
•give news about the recent event;
•say when, where and why it took place;
•invite your friend to visit you.
Notes are messages we write in various situation ( to remind, inform, thank, etc.) They must be short and provide all the information needed without being chatty. We usually omit words such as personal pronouns (I, you, etc), articles (a/an, the, etc), auxiliaries (am, have, etc) and greetings like Dear, Yours, etc. We can use the imperative, informal linkers (e.g. so instead of therefore), participles, and abbreviations.
Tasks: 1. Match abbreviation to their meaning:
Please turn over (the page) ….
And so on ……
For example ……
I’ve just remembered something …..
As soon as possible
2. Read the notes:
Good morning Fred.
Gad to call the vet-panda’s sick again. Clean out monkeys’ cages and bath the elephants. Done everything else. See you at 6.
PS. Vet said he would be here at 10 am.
Letter from Greenpeace arrived this morning. Put it on your desk. Should reply ASAP.
Portfolio: Answer the questions in the plan. Then write your note (35-45 words).
Plan: Who is the note to? How will you start?
What points/information do you have to include?
Is there anything else to say?
How will you end the note?
A thank – you email
I’m just writing to thank you for inviting me to the picnic last Saturday. I had a fantastic time.
It was wonderful to spend time with you and get to know some of our neighbours. They are all great. What I really enjoyed the most was the delicious food. I loved the roast beef as well as the crispy duck. The spicy chicken wings were really tasty. As for the chocolate cake you made, I couldn’t get enough of it.
Why don’t we get together again for a garden party at my house next Saturday, at four o’clock? I hope you can make it.
Thanks again and see you soon.
(Para 1) Opening remarks, thanking.
(Para 2) Expressing your thanks for what you enjoyed the most.
(Para 3) Inviting your friend to yourself .
(Para 4) Closing remarks.
I had a great time/ It was so lovely of you... I enjoyed your hospitality… It gave me great pleasure… I was impressed with….
Thanks a million for… A big thank-you for… Special thanks for… Last but not least, thanks to… Once again, thanks for…
Portfolio: Write a short email to thank your friend for the wonderful dinner party you
attended at his/her place last weekend. In your letter you should:
thank him/her for the lovely evening;
say what you liked the most (dishes, atmosphere);
invite him/her to a barbecue at your house next weekend.
An email of apology
I am terribly sorry for not showing up for the film on Saturday evening. I can imagine how upset you must have been while waiting for me and I thought I’d write to you to tell you why I didn’t come.
On Saturday morning, I got a call from my boss, asking me to go to the office as soon as possible because something urgent had come up. I stayed at work till 5 in the afternoon, so as soon as I got back home I fell asleep on the couch. The next thing I knew was when I woke up and realized how late it was, and I felt terrible because I had unintentionally stood you up.
I hope you believe me when tell you how really sorry I am. I’d like to make it up to you by inviting you to a rock concert next Saturday .Tickets on me! What do you think?
(Para 1) opening remarks,
(Para 2) justifying
(Para 3) suggesting
a way to make
it up to him/her.
I am writing to apologiese for…
I′m sorry for…
Please accept my sincere apologies for…
I can′t tell you how sorry i am…
I owe you an apology for…
The reason I…
I do apologise for…
I feel so guilty..
Please forgive me for…
Use because to show reason
Use so to show result.
I hope you will accept my apologies for…
There′s no excuse for…and I hope you′ll forgive me for…
I beg you to forgive me for…
Making it up
Please jet me…to make it up to you.
I promise I′II…
I′d like to make it up to you by…
You missed your best friend's birthday party.
Write an email to him/her to say you are sorry. In your email, you should:
apologise for having missed the event;
suggest a way to make it up to him/her.
A friendly letter from a holiday destination
Task: Read the letter, and put the topic sentences in the right paragraph. One doesn’t
There are a couple of things we haven’t done yet.
We’ve been here for three days now and we’ve done something different each day.
Bangkok has many tourist attractions that are worth visiting.
Hi! How are you? We’re having a great time here in Bangkok. It is such a wonderful city! The Thai people are so friendly – no wonder people call «Thailand, The land of smiles»!
(Para1) Where you are.
…………………….We have visited the Grand Palace. We went there on Monday. It was big. On Tuesday we went to the shops in Chinatown. You can find everything there, from CDs to car engines, but it was very noisy and crowded. Yesterday we went to a traditional Thai theatre. It was magical! The costumes were fantastic.
(Para2) What you have done
……………………….We haven’t been to the crocodile farm yet and we haven’t visited the floating market. We’re going to do that tomorrow. We’re also going to visit some temples and take a trip on the Skytrain.
(Para3) What you haven’t done.
I wish you were here with us. At least, you’ll see all our photos when we get back. See you soon.
Portfolio: Imagine you are on, holiday. Make notes under the paragraph headings
and write, a letter from a holiday destination. Use variety of adjectives.
I’ve got some great news. Richard and l are going on holiday for a whole month Guess where – Hawaii!
(Para 2,3) Your plant intentions with reason.
We’re leaving on 1st June. We both love swimming, so we’re going to stay at a fabulous hotel right next to the beach I’m going to relax as much as possible because I’m quite tired after working hard all this year.
We’re coming back from our holidays on 30th June, and I’ve got lots of plans for the rest of the summer. First, I’m going to work at a café because l want to earn some extra money and buy a new car. I’m also going to join a gum to lose weight. Finally, l want to find a better job in autumn, so I’m going to start a computer course.
(Para 4) Your arrangements.
(Para 5) Closing remarks.
Oh, l nearly forgot! On 16th August we’re having a garden party to celebrate Richard’s birthday. Please try to come. You’re welcome to spend the night here.
Well, that’s all for now. Hope to see you soon.
(Para1) Reason for writing the letter.
Start your letter with Dear + your friends first name.
End your letter with See you soon /Love/ Lots of love/ Best wishes + your first name.
Portfolio: Write a letter to a friend telling him/her about your plans and inviting
him/her to your house for a special event. Use the letter above to help
A formal letter asking for information
1. Dear Sir,
2. I have just read your advertisement for the activity centre in today's paper. My friends and I are interested in taking a weekend break but. I would like some more information before we book.
3. Firstly, I would like to know if we need to bring anything with us. Do we need to bring our own mountain bikes or does the centre provide bikes? Could you also tell me if we have to bring any special equipment or clothing for the canoeing or rafting activities? I would also like to know what kind of accommodation is provided. Can you tell me if you provide bed sheets or if we should bring our own sleeping bags? Finally, one of my friends is a vegetarian. Do you provide vegetarian meals?
4. I look forward to hearing from you.
5. Yours faithfully,
B Opening remarks
C Main body
D Closing remarks
Start your letter with “Dear sir or Madam”.
Start your letter with “Yours faithfully “+ your name and surname.
Portfolio: Write a letter to the activity centre asking for more information. Use the
model letter as an example.
SPECIAL WEEKEND (£79) AVAILABLE AT GANAWAY ACTIVITY CENTRE
Phone 096-9645060 for more details.
A letter of application
I would like to apply for the position of Part-time Sales Assistant which I saw advertised in the Guardian.
I am a seventeen-year-old student. I have ten GCSEs including Maths and English. At the moment I am studying for my 'A' Levels.
I have no actual work experience. However I would enjoy working with the public as I like meeting people. I am friendly and polite as well as responsible and hard working so I think I am suitable for the post.
I hope you will consider me for the position. I am able to attend an interview at any time.
(Para 1) reason for writing.
(Para 2) Age, qualifications.
(Para 3) current job, experience, personal qualities.
(Para 4) closing remarks.
Who will you address your letter to?
Introduction (Para 1) reason for writing? for what position? where was it advertised?
Main Body (Paras 2-3) age? qualifications? current job? previous experience? personal qualities?
Conclusion (Para 4) closing remarks?
How will you sign off?
Which beginnings/endings would be
A Dear Sir/Madam, Yours faithfully,
Dear Tom, Best wishes,
Dear Mr Smith,
Portfolio: You saw an advertisement in The Weekly News and you want to apply to the position. Answer the questions in the plan and use you CV to write the letter of application.
Which of the following are opening/closing remarks? 1. I am writing to apply for the post advertised in…
2. I look forward to hearing from you in due time.
3. I would be happy to attend an interview at any time convenient to you.
4. I am writing with regard to your advertisement in…
Date of birth:……………………….Nationality:……………………………
WORK EXPERIENCE (most recent first)
A letter of complaint
1 I am writing to complain about a camera which I bought online from your company.
2 On 20th October, I ordered a Nikon 140 ED camera from your website. Unfortunately, the camera seems to be faulty. When I tried to use it, the automatic flash did not work. As a result, when I had my film developed, the photographs were all too dark.
3 I would appreciate it if you could exchange it for another camera. I have enclosed copies of my invoice and guarantee. I look forward to your reply. Please contact me on 389 253582, Monday to Friday, 9:00 – 5:00.
Opening/Closing Remarks: I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with…
2. I hope you will replace…
3 .I feel I must complain about…
4. I feel I am entitled to refund / replacement…
(Para 1) Why are you writing the letter?
(Para 2) What did you buy? When/How/Where? What is the problem? Closing Remarks (Para 3) What do you want to be done?
What is your contact number/address?
(yours full name)
Portfolio: You recently bought a DVD player online which does not recognize your
DVD discs. Write a letter to the company in your letter you should:
state when/where/how you bought it ;
explain what the problem is ;
ask for a refund.
A formal letter making a reservation
Dear Ms Weatherby,
Further to our recent telephone conversation, I am writing to confirm that I wish to make a reservation for the Murder Mistery Weekend from 19 to 21 August.
There will be twelve people in our party and we will require six twin rooms in total. I would by very grateful if you could give us rooms on the same floor.
On the telephone, you mentioned that you would send me directions by post. Would it be possible to e-mail me the directions instead so that I can forward them to everyone in our group?
I am enclosing a cheque for £600 as a deposit. Please could you confirm the total amount due? I assume that the balance will be playable at the end of the weekend. Would you mind sending me a receipt for the deposit?
I look forward to hearing from you in due course.
Mr T Hamlyn
A weekend with a difference
Come alone or with friends to enjoy the Westerfield Wild Weekend.
An experience you`ll never forget!
Bungee jumping from Basiltone Bridge, paintballing in the park, Hang-gliding from the highest hill and much, much more!
Phone The Westerfield Hotel
03927 391 for more information
Portfolio: In your notebook write a formal letter to make a reservation for yourself and five friends for the adventure weekend advertised above. Include the following:
Polite requests to ask for:
- three rooms for two people on the same floor;
-directions by car to the hotel;
-payment details for the weekend;
-more information about the activities;
An extra comment at the end of your letter after your name.
An article about a person`s daily routine
Michael Paterson is a vet. He works in a small town in Yorkshire, England.
(Para 1) The person`s name, what the job is, where it is.
Michael`s day begins very early – at six o`clock. He gets up, has a quick breakfast, then gets into his car. In the mornings, he drives around the local farms to check on the animals – mostly cows, sheep and horses. At eleven o`clock he goes to his surgery in the town. People brings their pets for Michael to lock at. Most of the time, they only need an injection or some medicine, but sometimes they need a operation. Michael usually has lunch – a sandwich – stand up!
(Para 2) What the person does in the morning.
In the afternoon, Michael often goes to school in the area to talk to the students about looking their pets.
(Para 3) What the person does in the afternoon.
Michael`s evenings are very quiet. He gets home quite late, cooks dinner and usually reeds or watches TV. He goes to bed early, ready to face the next busy day.
This attractive two-bedroom house is in a quiet street near the city centre. It is in a very pleasant area and the rent is very reasonable. It has got two bathrooms with a toilet and shower, a modern kitchen with a cooker, fridge, washing-mashine and microwave oven, and a comfortable living room with a wonderful view of the park. There also a large garage at the back of the house and a pretty garden at the front.
For rent: £ 350/month
Address: 5, Linder Grove
This modern flat is in pleasant street and is just five minutes away from the town centre. There are lots of shops in the town where you can do your shopping. The flat is quite small, but the rent is very cheap for the area. It has got a pretty bedroom, a bathroom with a shower and toilet, a modern kitchen with a cooker, a dishwasher and a fridge and a very comfortable living- room with a fireplace. Most people like to sit in their living room in the evening. The flat has also got a balcony at the front with a great view. You can see mountains and a lots of trees.
Portfolio: Write a “For rent” ad for your house. Complete the following:
For rent (how much money a month)…………………………………………
• type of place:……………………………………………………………………………
• inside the house/flat(rooms, furniture, etc):…………………………….
• outside the house/flat:…………………………………………………………….
A restaurant review
Santa Fe Mexican Restaurant
Santa Fe is a new Mexican restaurant in Chestnut Street. The owner’s family run the restaurant so they take special care of all their customers.
The food is fresh and delicious and everything is homemade – even the tortillas are home-made! Try the chicken enchiladas with tomato sauce or the vegetarian empanadas with cheese and salsa. For those who don’t like spicy food, there’s a wonderful seafood pasta on the menu. For dessert, the cheesecake burritos are fantastic – or try the mango ice cream.
The service is friendly and fast and a meal for two people cost about £40. Santa Fe is open from 12 noon till 12 midnight. It is a good place to go for great food and and very a warm atmosphere, but it’s popular so you need to book a table. Call 8926310.
Have a wonderful meal!
(Para 1) Name, type and
location of a restaurant.
(Para 2) Dishes and deserts.
(Para 3) Cost, service,
Portfolio: Write a review of a restaurant in your town. Use the table and the model
text to help you.
An article about a town ‘then and now’
A hundred years ago, Folkestone in the sea south of England was a popular resort for rich people.
People went to Folrestone to take in the sea air and walk along the sea front. The Victorian pier was the most popular place to go, and famous music hall stars used to entertain in the pavilion at the end if the pier. In the old days, people used to stand at the harbour and watch the cross channel steamers coming and going.
Nowadays, most people spend their holidays abroad so there aren’t as many holidaymakers in Folkerstone as there used to be. There are playgrounds and amusement parks now – the pier and the pavilion aren’t there anymore. These days, people only go to Folkerstone for the Channel Tunnel so they can travel over to France for the day.
Folkestone was such a beautiful place to go a hundred years ago. It’s still a pretty fishing town, but many of its attraction are, sadly, lost forever.
( Para 1) Name of place.
( Para 2) What life was like then.
( Para 3) What life is like now.
( Para 4) Impressions.
Portfolio: Write an article for a magazine about a town now and then use the
model text and the paragraph plan to help you.
Save as Houses!!! We think that our homes are safest place to be. This isn’t always true thought. Every year in the UK nearly a million children under the age of 15 have to go hospital after having an accident at home. There are ways to improve the situation and be safe not sorry… Kitchen • Keep all knives and sharp objects away from children, so that they won’t cut fingers.
• Teach your children that the cooker is hot and they mustn’t touch it or they’ll burn their fingers.
• Don’t leave matches lying around. Children could burn their fingers or start a fire.
Bathroom • Keep medicine cleaning supplies and hair sprays out of reach of children, so that they won’t poison themselves.
Electricity • Cover all electrical outlets that are not in use with safety plugs to protect children from electric shocks.
Doors & Windows • Don’t leave anything near a window if children can climb on top of it.
• Install safety glass in large windows and French doors so that they won’t shatter if a child falls against them.
Stairs • Install safety gates on all open stairways to avoid falls.
• Never leave anything on the stairs that someone can trip over.
• Use imperatives in your leaflet to give advice or instruction.
• Modal verbs, to infinitive and “so that” can help you to organize your writing.
Portfolio: Write a leaflet of do’s and don’ts about pool safety. Use the information below.
1. Put / fence round / pool – protect children from drowning.
2. Install non-ship tiles – children / non-ship and fall down.
3. Use battery-operated radios you /not get / electric shock.
4. Install / telephone – you / not have to leave children alone.
An article describing a famous person
A Film Legend
Audrey Hepburn was a beautiful, stylish Hollywood star. In 1996, the British magazine Harpers & Queen named her ‘The Most Fascinating Woman of our Time’.
Audrey was born in Brussels, Belgium, on 4th May, 1929.Her father was a wealthy English banker and her mother was a Dutch baroness. After difficult times in Holland during World War II, Audrey went to a ballet school in London and later become a model. A film producer spotted her and she began to act in films.
Audrey became famous almost instantly in the USA when she won an Oscar for her role in the film Roman Holiday in 1953. She then gave other brilliant performances in popular films such as Sabrina (1954), Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961) and My Fair Lady (1964). In1988, she began to work for the United Nations, helping Children in Latin America and Africa until her death in 1993.
In total, Audrey Hepburn made 31 movies. Everyone loved her and she is an inspiration to us all. Hollywood will remember her for many years to come!
(Para 1) Who the person was.
(Para 2) Describing early years.
(Para 3) Describing later years.
(Para 4) What people thought of the person, a short conclusion.
Portfolio: Find information about any famous person in your country and write a
short article his/her life for your School magazine. Use Past Simple
tense and variety of adjectives in your writing. The model article can
An article a visit to a museum
Last week’s class visit took us to Durham, in the North of England. It also took us back two hundred years into the past.
Beamish covers 125 hectares and has two amazing ‘little worlds’ from the past – a market town, railway station, farm and coal-mining village, all from 1913, and a manor house and railway from 1825. Visitors can explore each area, watching people acting out the typical daily life of the time. The people’s clothes, vehicles, buildings and furniture are all from the period.
First we walked around the town, with its old-fashioned shops, offices and houses. The friendly museum staff, wearing historical costumes, were happy to answer our questions. We had a quick lunch at the picnic site, then we went on a genuine 1910 tram to beautiful Pockerley Manor. The expensive was fascinating, as we had the chance to see what it was like in those times.
We had a wonderful time at Beamish. It’s a great place for a day out and I’m not surprised it won the title of Britain’s Best Museum in 2005.
Portfolio: Think of your last visit to a museum. Use the paragraph plan and write a
short article for your school magazine describing the visit. Use Present and
Past Simple Tenses.
An article describing a place
Like no other place on earth!
Alaska is the USA’s 49th state and is situated to the north of Canada. It covers 586,000 square miles and is America’s largest state. In fact, it is one fifth the size of the whole of the USA!
(Para 1) Introduction (name, location, some general information).
Alaska is a beautiful state full of rich countryside and wildlife. It has 100,000 glaciers, 3,000 rivers and 3 million lakes! It also has the highest mountain in North America, Mount McKinley. Thousands of bears, eagles, wolves, moose (a kind of deer), sea lions and whales live in its oceans, green or snow-covered mountain.
(Para 2) Main Body (geographical features and wildlife).
The population of Alaska is almost 650,000. Around 40% of the state’s residents live in the largest city, Anchorage, in the south. This is because most of the state is very difficult to reach by very cold and dark in winter, but conditions are ideal for exciting activities such as skiing, snowboarding, ice fishing or dog sledding.
(Para 3) (people).
Alaska is amazing, record-breaking place. It is like no other place on Earth!
(Para 4) Conclusion (summaries the text).
Portfolio: A children’s geography magazine has asked its readers to send in articles
about interesting geographical locations. Find some information in your
encyclopedia about a place and write your article describing a location, its
geographical features, wildlife and people. Give it an interesting title.
A news report
Child Falls 25 Feet – Unhurt
A two-year-old child in Germany escaped unhurt after falling 25 feet from the second floor of the house in Dusseldorf yesterday.
Eva Klein, 28, was visiting a friend with her son Peter when he fell.
“The children were playing on the balcony,” she explained. “I heard a noise and ran outside, but Peter was gone. I looked down and saw him lying on the ground.
I thought he was dead.”
But then Peter started crying and she realised there was hope.
Staff at nearby Solingen Hospital were amazed to find that besides a few scratches he completely unhurt.
Police are now trying to find out how Peter could have fallen off the balcony in the first place. They believe he may have slipped through the balcony railings.
Portfolio: Write a news report about a helicopter crash.
-starting falling; -clear sky; people gather; -rescue pilot/passengers.
A report assessing good and bad points
To: Mr B. Fox
From: Frank Watts
Subject:: Sutton Shopping Centre
Date: 14th March
The aim this report is to describe Sutton Shopping Centre and asses its good and bad points.
B ) Facilities
Sutton Shopping Centre is centrally with plenty of parking. However, the car fees are quite expensive. What is more, there are escalators and lifts to the upper levels. There are also a lot of fast food restaurants and cafes with seating for 250 people. Yet, the area of often dirty and untidy and this is also true of the toilets.
There are over 200 different shops inside the Sutton Shopping Centre. There is a variety of large well-known chain stores and smaller shops and boutiques. However, most of the shops are rather expensive.
To sum up, Sutton Shopping Centre offers a wide range of facilities and a variety of shops in a good location. Although it could be cleaner, cheaper and better organized, I think it is a good place to go shopping.
Introductoin. (Para 1) State the purpose and content of report.
Main Body (Para 2) Describe facilities and services.
(Para 3) Describe shops of departments.
Conclusion (Para 4) Recommendations.
Useful tips: Contrast and Addition - We use although, yet, however to make contrasting point; - We use moreover, besides, in addition to add more points to the same topic.
I would recommend visiting the local for a shopping trip.
I would advise you to visit the local market for shopping trip.
The local market would be suitable for a shopping trip.
Portfolio: Write a report assessing the good and a supermarket in your town. Describe the facilities,
prices, recommend the place. Use the prompts and the report a model.
Facilities: large/small car park, clean/dirty toilets, good/poor/no baby changing facilities, coffee shop, cafe, seating area.
William Shakespeare, whose plays Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, As You Like It, King Lear and The Tempest, is probably the most famous playwright in the world.
Shakespeare, whose exact birth date no one knows, was born some time in April, 1564. He grew up in Stratford-upon-Avon, a town in the centre of England. He went to Stratford Grammar School, but he didn't go to university.
Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway in 1582, who gave him a daughter and a set of twins. Some years later, Shakespeare moved to London. There he worked as a playwright and an actor. A few years later, he joined «The Lord Chamberlain's Men», which was one of the most famous acting companies in England. Shakespeare wrote plays and acted in the «the Globe Theatre» which burnt down in 1613.
Shakespeare continued to write and act until he retired from the stage in 1613. Shakespeare died on what was believed to be his 52nd birthday in 1616.
Portfolio: Find the factfile in your encyclopedia about any famous person
and write a biography for your school magazine use present and
past tenses in your writing.
An article making suggestions
So you want to avoid exam stress?
It's ехаm time again, but how do you соре? Leave your studying until the last minute аnd then cut out everything you enjoy and study all the time, гight? Wгong! Аll you need is to bе sensible to organize your time.
(Para l) Present the main idea.
First of all you need to begin studying eaгly. If you just гevise all night befoгe, уоu'll definitely get stгessed! Just dгaw up а study plan and stick to it. In this way, you'll make sure уоu complete everything оn time. You will also bе much calmer and а lot more relaxed.
(Para 2) First suggestion and reason / example.
Secondly you should eat well and get enough sleep. If you have plenty of energy and your mind is rested, you will bе аblе to think morе clearly. Also don't forget you need to find time to relax and have fun! Take the dog fоr а walk, for example, оr have а quick snack with friends. This will help you to clear уоur mind.
(Para 3) Second suggestion and reason / example.
All in all, what you need is to plan your time carefully.If you do this, exam stress will be no problem.
(Para 4) Summaries your ideas.
Task: Match the suggestions to the
1 eat a variety of foods
2 not miss meals
3 take up a sport you like
body / burn / calories more slowly / can put on weight
if / exercise regularly / lose weight
if / only eat salads / not have enough energy / get through the day
Write an article for your school magazine making suggestions about how to lose weight. Use your answer. Follow the plan.
Introduction (Para 1)
Present the topic
Main Body (Paras 2-3)
first suggestion and reasons / examples
second suggestion and reasons / examples
Conclusion (Para 4)
Summarise your suggestions
An article describing an animal
Duck – Billed Platypus
The platypus has a flat body. It has a bill or beak like a duck`s, webbed feet five claws for digging and a short, flat tail. The bill and feet of a platypus are black while the fur is usually a dark brown colour. The platypus swims well but not very fast. While swimming, it has its eyes and ears shut. It finds its way with its bill, which also helps it to find food. While underwater it stores any food in finds in its cheeks. The platypus is a poisonous mammal. Its poison can cause pain to man but it can kill smaller animals. Its fur is one of the most waterproof in the animal kingdom. It is now a protected species.
Habitat – You can find the platypus in Eastern Australia, in and around streams and rivers. It lives in holes underground.
Reproduction – The platypus is one of only two mammals which lay eggs (the other is the echidna, an anteater also from Australia).
Characteristics – The platypus is a shy animal that spends most of its time alone. It sleeps during the day and comes out at night.
Diet – The platypus eats shrimps, frogs and fish eggs.
Senses – With its bill, the platypus can sense the creatures it wants to eat. It also has an excellent sense of sight and hearing.
Portfolio: Write about an animal which lives in your country.
Give information about:
where it lives
what it looks like
what it eats.
An article about a country and its people
Spain Spain is one of the most popular tourist destinations the south-west of Europe. It is famous for its beaches, bullfights and festivals.
(Para 1) Name of the country, location.
Spaniards are famous for their beauty. They have Mediterranean features, which means that they usually have black hair and brown eyes. They are not very tall. The Spanish are very lively, friendly and sociable.
In Spain, most people live in cities in small flats. Most Spaniards work in offices, shops of factories.
(Para 3) Dwelling, places of work.
The Spanish love to eat seafood. Many of the traditional dishes, such as paella, include seafood.
(Para 4) Food.
(Para 5) Leisure time.
Spain is a fantastic county to visit. Its warm climate and passionate people make it a great place for a holiday.
(Para 6) Recommendation for tourists.
Portfolio: Write an article desorbing your country and its people. Mention the
location people, their homes, place of work, free time activities.
Recommend you country for foreign tourists.
A profile of a famous person
1. Ronaldo Luiz Nazario da Lima, the famous footballer, was born on 22nd September 1976 in а роor агеа of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
2. Ronaldo didn't have the things most children have, but his great joy in life was football. Не оften missed school and was usually outside with his friends, with nо shoes оn, playing football with а rag ball! Ronaldo's mother didn't want him to play football. She believed that there was nо future in this for him. But Ronaldo loved the sport so much that nothing could stop him from playing it.
3. When Ronaldo was 14 years old, а former football player, Jairzinho, discovered him. Не realised that he was а talented player, апd two years later Ronaldo played for а Brazilian team, scoring 54 goals in 54 games! Ronaldo was оn his way to the top and еvеrуоnе wanted him оn their team. In fact, they thought he was the greatest football player since Pele.
4. Today, Ronaldo is оnе of the best players in the world and еvегуоnе knows his namе. Не is living proof of а person who turned his dream into а reality!
(Para 1) Person’s name, job, date and place of birth
(Para 2) Person’s early years
(Para 3) The beginning of his success
(Para 4) Person’s present life and feelings
Portfolio: Complete the spaidergram and the model as on example to write the profile
of the famous person you choose for a magazine.
An article describing a famous landmark
The Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty in New York is a huge statue of a woman holding a tablet in her left hand and a torch in her right. She wears a crown with seven points, which represent the seven oceans and continents of the world.
The Statue of Liberty was designed by Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi. It was started in 1876 and was finished in 1884. It is made of copper with steel supports. It was a gift to the Americans from the French, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of American Independence. The statue was made in sections, in June 1885, it was put into 214 boxes and shipped to New York, it was reassembled in four months. The statue was declared a national monument in 1924.
Nowadays, people can climb 354 steps to reach the crown, and admire the view from twenty-five windows. They can also visit the Statue of Liberty exhibit, which has museum objects, photographs, prints and videos,
You will be amazed by this beautiful statue, which should not be missed by any visitor to the New York area.
Name, place, description.
What visitors can see/do there.
Portfolio:Use the paragraph plan and the model article to write a description of your country landmark.
An article suggesting solution to a problem “How can we make our town a better place to live in?” PLAN
Para 1: state the problem:
Useful tips: Before you write a composition providing solutions to a problem, you should write a list or suggestions and results. Join them using so, consequently, therefore, by doing this, in this way etc.
Para 2: suggestion 1 & result
Раra 3: suggestion 2 & result
Para 4: suggestion 3 & result
The living conditions in our city аге getting worse and worse. Ехhaust fumes and smоkе frоm the factories are polluting the аir аnd trees аrе being cut down. Furthermore, the river is being роllutеd bу chemicals from the factories and реорlе arе suffering from breathing difficulties and stomach problems. We should do something before it is too late.
Firstly, to reduce air pollution, the government could ban cars from the city centre. This would make our streets cleaner, safer and quieter. The government should also force factory owners to put filters on their chimneys. By doing this, harmful gases won’t be able to pollute the air and people won’t have difficulty breathing.
The ргоblеm of people cutting down trees could be solved by planting ten new ones for еvеry tree that is cut down. In this way, animals won’t lose their natuгal habitat. We should also гесусlе paper products so that there is less need for trees to bе cut dоwn.
As for factories polluting our rivers, strict fines shоuld be given to the owners of the factories if they dump their dangerous chemicals in the water. As a result, our water will be cleaner and safer to drink and people will have fewer stomach problems.
Рara 5: summarise уоur opinion:
All things considered, there аrе manу solutions tо аll the problems. The sooner wе put them into practice, the better out lives will become.
Portfolio: Rewrite the parts of the text info an article suggesting solutions to a problem.
An article describing a holidayaccommodation
3 Degrees BelowFreezing
1. Looking for an exciting winter getaway? Then try the tee Hotel in northern Sweden and spend a few days in a giant igloo. 2,000 tonnes of ice and 30,000 tonnes of snow are needed to build the Ice Hotel every year. When the thermometer hits 3 degrees below freezing, the building of the hotel starts.
2. The hotel has rooms for over 100 guests, as well as an ice sauna, a cinema, the toe Chapel and the world-famous Absolut Ice Bar, The temperature inside the hotel is minus 3 degrees Celsius, but that seems warm when you compare it to the temperature outside, which can fall beiow minus 30 degrees Celsius.
3. Before bedtime, have a meal prepared by master chefs, then visit the Absolut See Bar, where you /night just meet your favourite mode! or actor, or enjoy a crystal-clear view of the starry Arctic sky. When it's time for bed, don't worry about keeping warm. The ice Hotel provides guests with warm sleeping bags to sleep in. Guests wake up to a hot drink, after which they can enjoy an early morning sauna and a tasty breakfast
4. The Arctic is the perfect place for outdoor activities such as dog-sledding, ice-fishing and skiing. If you haven't got skis, the staff at reception will provide you with everything you need.
5. A visit to the Ice Hotel is an unforgettable experience and the perfect way to liven up your winter. Don't miss this chance of a lifetime!