Technical writing vs. Academic writing types of writing



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TECHNICAL WRITING vs. ACADEMIC WRITING

TYPES of WRITING

  • PERSONAL
  • ACADEMIC
  • PROFESSIONAL

PERSONAL WRITING

  • Purpose/Objective:
    • to entertain
    • to inform
  • Evaluation:
    • desired emotional response
    • informed

PERSONAL WRITING

  • Graphics:
    • emoticons
    • text-messaging lingo
  • Formats:
    • e-mail
    • letters
    • journals
    • text messages

PERSONAL WRITING

  • Audience:
    • equal knowledge
    • friends
    • colleagues
  • Informality

TECHNICAL WRITING vs. ACADEMIC WRITING

*AUDIENCES*

  • Specific Audiences
  • boss
  • supervisor
  • team
  • committee
  • politicians
  • bank officers
  • general public
  • General Audience
  • generic reader
  • teacher
  • perhaps fellow students
  • AW
  • TC

*AUDIENCES*

  • 1 Document = Many Readers:
  • (Many Readers = Many Needs)
  • “food chain”
  • boss, supervisor
  • team
  • engineers
  • workers
  • politicians
  • bank officers
  • general public
  • 1 Document = 1 Reader:
  • (1 Reader = 1 Need)
  • teacher
  • TC
  • AW

PURPOSES

  • Purpose =
  • Writing Situation
  • Objective
  • Why was the document written?

PURPOSES

  • Situation-Oriented
  • see a need —
  • address a need
  • internal motivation
  • professional motivation
  • outcome-oriented:
    • to get something accomplished
  • Assignment-Oriented
  • passive (vs. active)
  • given a topic, test
  • given an assignment
  • external motivation
  • scholastic motivation
  • grade-oriented
    • grade, g.p.a., degree
  • TC
  • AW

EVALUATION CRITERIA

  • Success
  • satisfaction of the needs of all readers
  • something was done
  • informed
  • persuaded
  • Success
  • correct answer
  • right information
  • unity, coherence
  • support, detail
  • grammar
  • AW
  • TC

APPLICATIONS

  • Real-World Applications
  • case studies
  • illustrative scenarios
  • operations management
  • for a job
  • for a raise or promotion
  • for a bid
  • practical
  • College Application
  • “academic” writing
  • essays
  • essay exams
  • for academics
  • for grade
  • for degree
  • “show what you know”
  • demonstrative
  • TC
  • AW

DISCIPLINES

  • Across Disciplines
  • “interdisciplinary”
  • computer sciences
  • psychology
  • mixture of:
    • history
    • math
    • science
    • technology
  • Single Discipline
  • “discipline-specific”
    • literary data for an English paper
    • historical information on a history paper
    • psychological ideas on a psychology test
  • rarely a mixture
  • TC
  • AW

*PAGE DESIGN*

  • Paragraphs
    • 6-10 lines
    • vary lengths for visual
  • White Space
  • Columns
  • Headings
  • Lists
  • Graphics
  • Varying Fonts
  • Use of Color
  • Relative Spacing
  • Relative Margins
  • Relative Justification
  • Paragraphs
  • NO
    • White Space
    • Columns
    • Headings
    • Lists
    • Graphics
    • Varying Fonts
    • Use of Color
  • Double Spacing
  • Equal Margins
  • Left Justification
  • TC
  • AW

COMPONENTS

  • Oral, Visual, Written
  • produce documents
  • present documents
  • write to be read
  • write to be seen
  • write to be heard
  • Written
  • infrequent oral and visual components
  • predominant written component
  • write to be read
    • by teacher
  • write to be graded
  • not to be seen or heard
  • TC
  • AW

GRAPHICS

  • tables
  • charts
  • graphs
  • diagrams
  • photographs
  • maps
  • blue prints
  • uncommon
  • photographs
  • TC
  • AW

FORMATS

  • memos
  • e-mails
  • letters
  • cover letters
  • resumes
  • proposals
  • manuals
  • portfolio
  • abstracts
  • reports
    • formal
    • informal
  • essay questions
  • essays based on the rhetorical strategies
    • Description
    • Narration
    • Illustration
    • Process-Analysis
    • Division-Classification
    • Comparison-Contrast
    • Definition
    • Cause-Effect
    • Pro-Con Argument
  • TC
  • AW

GRAMMAR

  • Grammar-less
  • visual-oriented
  • grammar = less important
  • fragments = permissible
  • active voice
  • descriptive writing
  • concise sentences
  • spelling!
  • proofread!
  • Grammar-full
  • written-oriented
  • grammar = key
  • sentence errors = avoided
  • active voice
  • descriptive writing
  • concise sentences
  • spelling!
  • proofread!
  • TC
  • AW

CONCLUSIONS

  • Technical Communication:
    • Practicality in the employment world
    • Real-World application
  • Academic Writing:

CONCLUSIONS

  • Technical Communication:
    • By an informed writer
    • Conveying necessary information
    • Both visually & verbally
    • To a lesser-informed reader
      • (writer = teacher)
  • Academic Writing:
    • By a student-learner for an expert reader

CONCLUSIONS

  • Technical Communication:
    • Read by many,
    • To satisfy the needs of many
  • Academic Writing:
    • Read by one,
    • To appease the criteria of one

CONCLUSIONS

  • Technical Communication:
    • “Information Retrieval”
      • organization & format = designed
      • to help readers quickly & easily locate information
  • Academic Writing:
    • “Information Retrieval”
      • little concern beyond a logical organization

CONCLUSIONS

  • Technical Communication:
    • Public Speaking component —
      • formal conference speeches
      • informal meeting speeches
  • Academic Writing:
    • Limited Public Speaking opportunities
      • conferences or rare class projects
      • Public Speaking courses

DEFINITION

  • Technical Communication:
  • Encompasses a wide range
  • of writing and speaking responsibilities
  • required to communicate your ideas
  • on the job.

SIMILARITIES

  • Grammar:
    • active voice
    • descriptive writing
    • concise sentences
    • spelling!
    • proofread!

SIMILARITIES

  • Writing as a Process:
    • Planning
    • Drafting
    • Revising

EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES

  • writing: process & product
  • HEURISTIC:
    • process
    • reader-focused
    • how-to
    • analyze-and-compose process
  • PRESCRIPTIVE:
    • product
    • writer-focused
    • models/forms of writing
  • writing: product
  • prescriptive
  • teach from models
  • rhetorical strategies
  • writer-focused
  • TC
  • AW

ACADEMIC WRITING

  • Purpose/Objective:
    • to demonstrate knowledge
    • to “show what you know”
  • Audience:
  • Evaluation:
    • correct information
    • unity, coherence,
    • depth, clarity, grammar
  • Graphics:
    • limited
    • to explain or persuade

ACADEMIC WRITING

  • Formats:
    • Description
    • Narration
    • Illustration
    • Process-Analysis
    • Division-Classification
  • (Rhetorical Strategies or Writing Models)
    • Comparison-Contrast
    • Definition
    • Cause-Effect
    • Pro-Con
    • Argument-Persuasion

TECHNICAL WRITING

  • Purpose/Objective:
    • to entertain
    • to inform
  • Audience:
    • equal knowledge
    • friends, colleagues
  • Evaluation:
    • desired emotional response
    • informed
  • Graphics:
    • emoticons
    • text-messaging lingo
  • Formats:
    • e-mail
    • letters
    • journals
    • text messages


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