Teaching Pacific Islands from


Palau Paradise of the Pacific – Aquatic Classroom



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Palau Paradise of the Pacific – Aquatic Classroom

Part of the Public Broadcasting System website, this “Aquatic Classroom” has four exercises for teachers and students, and explains how each addresses particular National Science Standards in the United States.

http://www.pbs.org/edens/palau/p_classroom.htm
The Coral Reef Teacher’s Guide from Reef Relief includes lesson plans for grades K-5, 6-8, and 9-12. It is available through their website for US$45: http://www.reefrelief.org/Coral Forest/tguide.html
There are a range of books and materials on aquatic life in different portions of the Pacific.

  • Shore Fishes of Hawaii by John E. Randall

  • Micronesian Reef Fishes : A Field Guide for Divers and Aquarists by Robert F. Myers

  • Hawaiian Reefs by Ron Russo

  • Hawaiian reefs and Tidepools by Ann Fielding.

  • Tropical Pacific Invertebrates: A Field Guide to Marine Invertebrates Occurring on Tropical Pacific Ocean Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds, & Mangroves by Patrick L. Colin, Charles Arneson



Notes:
This lesson invites the collection of lore from local people, including surfers, fishermen, swimmers, and others who use the sea and know of its landscape, conditions, places, and habits.

 Exercise 1: Seaside


Website: The Sea >Seaside

--Using a map such as specified in “Tools,” above, sketch in the coastal and shoreline features for your land division.


--Identify any coastal locations, such as beach parks, points, rocks, islands, coves, bays, and so forth. Are there any fishponds or other human-made sites?
--How close did the peoples of your island’s culture live to the shore? What sorts of activities went on next to the sea? For example, were there canoe houses? If so, what went on there?
--Compare your findings with the other cultures found on Pacific Worlds. How do they differ? Why? Where do you see similarities, and where do you see differences?

 Exercise 2: Beaches and Shoreline


Website: The Sea >Beaches

--Add to your map any beach or coastal names that you know of, that were not included on the map you used, including portions of the shore that may have separate names, as well as contemporary surfing or fishing sites, and new names.


--Consider the “characteristics” of each beach or portion of the shoreline: how safe is it to swim, and does that vary from one season to another? Does beach sand disappear altogether at different times of year?
--Identify on your map any surfing sites, gathering sites, or other usage areas, and their names. Try to find the story or explanation that goes with each name, whether they are old or new names. Discuss use and gathering practices, and compare to other places on the Pacific Worlds website.
--Consideration: how much of the shoreline is park or otherwise public access, and how much is lined with residential areas? What impact does this have on your use of the shore area? Discuss usage rights to the shore.

 Exercise 3: The Reef


Website: The Sea >On the Reef

--Using one of the listed books or any other source on coral reefs, explain the difference between fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. Which type of reef is present in you land division, if any? Why?


--Identify names of reefs or locations on the reefs, or even types of reefs in your local language, and discuss or try to determine their meanings. Consider these in the larger context of your community’s practices. Compare to other communities.
--What types of reef fishes or aquatic animals are common offshore your land division? List their local names. What are the traditions concerning these fish and their characteristics.
--Compare your findings with the other cultures found on Pacific Worlds. Where do you see similarities, and where do you see differences?

 Exercise 4: Fishing


Website: The Sea >Fishing

Pacific Island cultures engage in a number of fishing techniques, and have wide ranges of lore and customs concerning fishing. Some of these are culturally based, but others have to do with the nature of the sea offshore—for example, whether there is a protective reef or lagoon, or just open ocean.


--In most places, there are particular fish, often at particular seasons, that are of special importance. Identify these fish. Then, identify the traditions or lore associated with them.
--Are these the same fish, or different fish, from those discussed in other Pacific Worlds locations? If they are the same fish, how do other Pacific cultures perceive them?
--The Fishing pages on the Pacific Worlds websites discuss particular fishing techniques, methods, and lures. What are the techniques specific to your culture? Are they the same or different from those presented elsewhere?
--What terminology do you have for conditions of the sea?

 Exercise 5: Language


Website: The Sea > Language

Pacific Island languages are rich in terms for areas and characteristics in the ocean, fishing practices, and types of fish and marine life. Looking at these terms across different cultures is revealing about the ways these cultures understand the sea.


Go to the Language page of any The Sea chapter and compare terms on the different topics:
--Names of areas in the sea, from the shoreline and out to the deep ocean;
--Words for waves and tides;
--Names for fish, and types of fishing;
--Names or terms for fishing grounds.
Are these terms similar to yours? Do you see similarities across Pacific Island languages? What do you make of these, and of the differences? Most importantly, what do these terms and their varieties tell you about these cultures?
Lesson 4: The Land
Overview: The amount and quality of land available in different Pacific Island locations varies enormously, from high islands to coral atolls. But in each case, things such as control of land, descriptions of land areas, vegetation, wind, rain, water, and agriculture will be present.
In modern geographic texts, the focus is placed on scientific understandings or categorizations of landforms, vegetation, climate, and so on. But this approach does not do justice to the subtlety and richness of Pacific Islanders’ perspectives.
Our purpose here is to engage with how Pacific Islanders understand land in distinct and sophisticated ways, and use language and metaphor to describe aspects of the terrestrial environment.
At the same time, we may learn useful modern tools for understanding aspects of the environment, and monitoring them. But we do not wish to emphasize the modern perspective over the indigenous perspective. Local knowledge derives from centuries or millennia of careful observation and interpretation. This knowledge is invaluable and irreplaceable.

Lesson at a glance: Students will learn about the natural environment using indigenous terms, and in some places comparing these with modern interpretations., to derive a rich perspective on
Key Concepts: Indigenous divisions of the land by altitude and forest cover; variations in vegetation zones across Pacific Islands; contemporary environmental issues including introduced and endangered species; basic climatology.
Lesson Outcomes: The students will:

1. gain a sense of how Pacific Islanders distinguished environmental zones;

2. learn about the natural environment in their area, and how it compares to other Pacific Island areas.

Tools:


  • An atlas or maps that show environmental themes for your region

  • Topographic map for your area

  • Otherwise, climatic data for as close to your area as possible

  • Any historical maps or material on your area

  • Internet access



Websites:
Endangered Species of Hawai‘i is an excellent on-line K-12 educational resources: http://endangeredspecies.k12.hi.us/

This site also has extensive links to other pages on endangered species in Hawai‘i.


Endangered Species of Hawaii: A Webliography also has extensive links:

http://www.buffalostate.edu/~chris/hawaii.html


Hawaiian Streams: The Mauka to Makai Connection:

http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/dar/hawn_streams.htm

An excellent educational site on streams and stream animals by The Department of Land and Natural Resources

Notes:
This lesson explores aspects of climate and terrestrial ecosystems. As with other topics in this project, these issues may be considered from both “Western” scientific and indigenous scientific approaches. Pacific Worlds focuses on values and on world-view: how to island people understand and classify the systems and zones of their ecosystem?
The preservation of indigenous environmental knowledge is important for the good of humanity, and for engaging in locally appropriate environmental action. This is one area where modern and traditional approaches should work together hand in hand, drawing on the strengths of each.

 Exercise 1: Areas


Website: The Land >Areas

“Areas” can mean different things in different parts of the Pacific. In some cultures, there are specific terms for elevation zones, regardless of where they re found. In other cases, “areas” is a matter of specific place names for portions of the land division.


--Determine which one of the above is the case in your area.
--Then, identify the names for these different areas. List them and mark them on a map of your land division.
--Investigate the meanings of these names: what do they reveal about cultural perspectives on the environment?
--Compare your classification of “areas” to other places on the Pacific Worlds website. How do different cultures define their “areas”? What types of ecosystems correspond to these areas, and why do they differ? You might consider the role of elevation.

 Exercise 2: Winds & Rain



Website: The Land >Winds; The Land >Rains
--What are the seasons in your location? Identify them using both modern and indigenous calendrical systems.
--Determine where your land division is located in terms of “Windward” and “Leeward,” and other major climatic forces such as the path of typhoons. How does your culture describe winds and wind directions? What proverbs or sayings do you have regarding wind?
--Obtain and use climatic data to estimate the annual rainfall in your area. Does it change significantly going inland from the coast? From one time of year to another? Compare the rainfall data to the names of months in your calendrical system: is your calendar based on wind or rain, or what?
--Compare your seasons to those in other Pacific Island locations. How or why do they vary? Search for information on the web or in books that explains the rainfall pattern in your island entity.
--Winds and Rains in some cases have personal names, and often there are stories, proverbs or poems associated with those names, or with different types of rain in general. Are there any for your area, or for your culture in general?
--On this note, compare your culture’s attitudes towards rain with the other cultures presented on the Pacific Worlds website. Are there differences? If so, how do you explain them?

 Exercise 3: The Forest



Website: The Land >Forest
--Depending on how much change of elevation there is in your area, there will be a range of vegetation zones, starting with the shoreline and going inward (or vice versa). What are the local terms for these areas? Or, look for local terms for certain kinds of vegetation groups (similar to “forest,” “grassland,” “jungle,” etc.
--Are there particular traditions regarding these areas, such as how one should behave while in the forest? What kinds of attitudes and practices regarding the Forest are found in other cultures within Pacific Worlds? How might these influence your own attitude towards the Forest?
--Identify the plants are most important to the indigenous practices of your area. Distinguish between native and introduced plants. Are these the same plants or different plants from those discussed in other Pacific Worlds communities? If they are the same, how do the practices and traditions of other cultures compare to your own?
--Identify native birds or other animals about which there are traditions, proverbs, or sayings, or which have important cultural value (including as food). Again, compare your community to other sites in Pacific Worlds.
--Using internet resources, try to identify some endangered species and invasive species in your area, and discuss any policies regarding them.

 Exercise 4: Water Resources



Website:The Land >Water
--Identify the stream(s) or fresh-water sources in your area. What are their names? What do these names mean?
--If you have streams perennial (flow all year round) or intermittent (seasonal)? Why do some islands have streams and others do not?
--In your culture, are there any freshwater plants or animals that are used for food or medicine? Gather any stories or sayings regarding these, and compare to other communities in the Pacific.
--Because Pacific Islands are small, finite environments, fresh water is a critical resource that is often carefully controlled and respected. Consider traditional cultural attitudes, beliefs or practices concerning use of water in your community, and compare to other places in the Pacific.
--Where does your fresh water come from today? Is it treated with respect? Should it be?

 Exercise 5: Planting



Website:The Land >Planting
Different islands of the Pacific focus on different crops. And even though the same crops appear in many locations, the emphasis can differ, with taro being very important in some places, breadfruit being more important in others.
--What are the major crop plants associated with the indigenous culture of your area? Where are they grown? Who tends to them? What practices and traditions are there concerning both the plants, and the places where they are grown? Compare to other Pacific Island locations.
-- Who tends to them? What practices and traditions are there concerning both the plants, and the places where they are grown? Compare to other Pacific Island locations.
--If you have a historical map available that shows agricultural areas, compare it to what you see today. Are the traditional foods still important? What do you prefer to eat?

 Exercise 6: Language



Website: The Land > Language
Pacific Island languages discuss land and climate in terms that reflect their physical geography and their cultural practices. Hence these terms tell us about the combination of environment and culture.
Go to the Language page of any The Land chapter and compare terms on the different topics:
--Zones: different types of areas, which may be defined by vegetation, or type of soil (sand, rock, gravel) or cultural uses;
--Landscape features, such as hills, valleys, roads, volcanic calderas;
--Terms for winds and rains, also trees, plants, rocks, and other environmental features;
--Names and types of crops, methods of farming, and other terms related to agriculture.
These terms are best understood within the context of the individual cultures. But at the same time, you can compare this terms across different places to learn more about commonalities and differences in the region.

Lesson 5: Footprints (Storied Places)
Overview: This lesson follows on the exercises we did in Lesson 2: Native Place. In that lesson, we looked at remnants of the ancient human-built environment. Here, we are looking more for legendary places, sites of significance based on mythological or legendary traditions.
These may be certain rocks, or mountains, or spots in the forest, or hills, or any natural feature in the landscape about which some story remains that may explain its origin or describe its characteristics.
In the event there are no such places in your area, you will need to turn to other ways in which indigenous traditions manifest in life today. The Guam-Inarajan website provides examples of how indigenous values and practices remain, although in new guises.

Lesson at a glance: Students will consult place-names sources and other materials, including oral tradition and local lore, to build a collection of place-based stories for their land division. The meanings and morals of these stories will be discussed. Role-playing may be used to explore them further.
Key Concepts: Landscape as a “book” onto which cultural lessons are “written” in the form of place names and their legends.
Lesson Outcomes: The students will:

1. compile a portfolio of local place-based stories;



  1. draw conclusions about the lessons of these stories;

  2. Compare and discuss other stories from other places.



Tools:

  • Books on legends, stories, myths, or tales for your Island or your area specifically. If your area is associated with a major story from the local culture, sources on these stories should be consulted.

  • Blank map of your land division, to draw on.

 Exercise 1: Landmarks

Website: Footprints chapters
--What landmarks are there in your land division that you know have stories associated with them?

 Exercise 2: Interpret Your Stories


-- For each of these stories, discuss and explore the meanings and messages they hold. Are these messages still valid today?

 Exercise 3: Other Cultures’ Stories



Website: Footprints chapters
--Go to the Footprints chapters on other Pacific Worlds websites, and for each of these stories, discuss and explore the meanings and messages they hold. Are these messages relevant to your culture?

 Exercise 4: Role-playing


--Take one of your stories, or one of the stories from any Pacific Worlds website, and engage students into acting it out. Use this as an opportunity to explore the morals or lessons that the stories present.

 Exercise 5: Cultural Heritage


On some Pacific Worlds websites, there are communities which have few or no legendary places remembered today. In this places, the focus turns to other ways in which cultural heritage is passed on: through rituals and practices that may be mixed with modern, Western ones, but that retain a distinct flavor or character for that culture. As you come across these places, ask yourself whether there are any comparable situations within your own.

Lesson 6: Visitors
Overview: This is the first of two lessons on historical transformation in your island entity and in your area specifically. These lessons—and this lesson in particular—are useful in conjunction with teaching the history of your island entity, and of the Pacific Islands as a whole.
The sections of the Visitors chapter correspond with a generalized sequence of events involved in the Western-colonial encounter with Pacific Islands. These may or may not all be relevant to your area, or may be relevant to different degrees and in a different order. The purpose, however, is to outline that there were different stages of colonization that underlie the status of your islands today.

Lesson at a glance: Students will explore the history of Foreign encounters in their island entity and in their area in particular. This history will be understood in terms of actual geographically based events and impacts.
Key Concepts: Voyages of exploration; missionaries; colonization; and the demographic changes that resulted from the impact of these visitors.
Lesson Outcomes: The students will:

  • Be familiar with the early foreign encounters, the people involved, and the impact of those visits

  • Examine the role of missionaries, if any, in the cultural and political transformation of their islands

  • Understand colonial encounters in the broader geographical context of Western activities in the Pacific

  • Understand the impacts of the colonial encounter on the indigenous population



Tools:



  • Other historical resources as necessary, including perhaps journals of the missionaries that were stationed in your area.



Notes:

--This lesson should follow on a general lesson on colonial history in your island entity and/or region.


--Currently, the Visitors chapters on the Hawaiian Islands websites focus on the 1848 Mahele, the foreigner-motivated event that transformed land tenure in the Hawaiian Islands, setting the stage for the struggles and transformations of the subsequent 150-plus years. This material presents the opportunity to consider similar such changes (usually under the headings “Colony” and “Aftermath” that took place elsewhere in the Pacific.

 Exercise 1: Explorers



Website: Visitors > Explorers or Mahele > The People
--Identify the earliest encounters with Explorers in your island entity: who were they, where were they from, when did they arrive?
--Discuss various aspects of cultural difference between the explorers and the inhabitants of your islands at that time. Keep in mind that both societies were in a state of evolution: neither was “backwards,” but both were subject to different opportunities, including access to resources such as metals and to innovations and ideas from other places.
--How were these explorers received? Was their violence, or peace? If there was violence, are there two points of view on why that happened? Are their differences between the stories told by your people, and by Western historians?
--Compare your stories to those of other communities in Pacific Worlds. Discuss similarities and differences.
--How did these first encounters shape the perceptions of your island(s) by outsiders? To what extent are these perceptions maintained today?
--What were the immediate impacts of these visits? How did it change life in your islands?

 Exercise 2: Missionaries



Website: Visitors > Missionaries
Missionaries and the introduction of Christianity can be a difficult topic to discuss fairly. In some cases, these people are reviled interlopers who brought on the destruction of local culture. In other cases, they are revered benefactors who brought the light of Christianity. Our purpose here, however, is to view them as factors in the cultural and political transformation of Pacific Islands, good or bad (or both).
--Identify the first missionaries, and the most important early missionary figures to your islands: who were they, where did they come from, and when?
--Compare the encounters of early missionaries in your area with those of communities on the Pacific Worlds website. Consider the different receptions the islanders gave them, and the degrees of impact that the missionaries ultimately had.
--How did the values of the Missionaries compare with those of your culture?
--Did the presence of these missionaries help or hinder the process of Western colonization? Discuss.
--What were the geographic impacts of the missionaries, if any? For example, did they establish districts for administration of their parishes? Or create villages where there were not villages before? Did their presence help establish a new capitol?
--How are these missionaries viewed today? Compare to other island entities.

 Exercise 3: Colony



Website: Visitors > Colony

--Almost all Pacific Islands became colonies or protectorates of major powers, sometimes more than one, during the 19th century. Which power(s) colonized your islands, and what were their motives? Consider the larger global geo-politics of colonization in the Pacific at that time.


--On that same note, what were the economies that the colonizing powers were pursuing (such as copra, sandalwood, etc)? How did the promotion of these economies affect your islands? Compare to other island localities.
--What immediate impacts or changes were brought about as a result of colonization? Compare to other island localities.

 Exercise 4: Society



Website: Visitors > Society
The Colonial period is generally the time when social and political structures in the islands changed or solidified, sometimes adopting Western forms (monarchy, for example).
--What were the political institutions (chieftainships, titles, clans, etc) of the society in your islands during the early colonial period? Compare to other island communities.
--Explore population issues in your society during the early “historical” period, including the impact of any introduced diseases.
--What do you see as the outcome, in terms of effects on your society, by the time colonial rule was solidified?

 Exercise 5: Aftermath



Website: Visitors > Aftermath
“Aftermath” looks at the overall impacts of the early contact or colonial period. Long-term colonial rule had different effects depending on who the new masters were (among other things). Factors include Christianization, the introduction of literacy, or the transformation of the social structure or the economy.
--Did the colonial period involve war, either against the colonizers or within your island entity? What were the impacts of that (for example, unifying the islands)?
--Was the economy of your island(s) transformed during the colonial period?
--How strong was the presence of the colonizers? Were there many of them, or just a few? Did they bring in other peoples to your island(s)?
-- What were the long-term impacts of colonial rule in your case? How much of the indigenous culture was changed or lost?


Lesson 7: Memories
Overview: The Memories chapter is most clearly the “oral history” chapter of each website. It is the intent of this chapter that it contain elements of recent history (post 1900) that are actually remembered by the participants, or at least they can remember their parents talking about them.
This chapter also aims to bring the reader up towards the present, from the more colonial history of the previous chapter. In this manner, it prepares the reader for the final chapter, Onwards, wherein present-day issues and activities are disussed.
Consequently, exercises associated with this chapter have two potential objectives. The first is to learn the recent history of your land division, and compare it to the events that took place elsewhere in the Pacific during the 20th century. Second, it opens up the opportunity for students to conduct oral history research, and to learn what that is about. This in turn opens up questions about the nature of history, and oral versus written accounts. We hope that this will engender a respect for oral history and for the lessons of community elders.

Lesson at a glance: Students will explore the historical transformation of their land division since the turn of the 20th century, with particular emphasis on events that are still remembered by living persons. This includes changes in land use, land ownership, economics, population dynamics, and any special local events that defined the area.
Key Concepts: Oral History, modernization, demographics, economic activities.
Lesson Outcomes: The students will:

  • develop a chronology of major 20th-century events and changes in their island entity and land division;

  • identify special historical events important to their area;

  • compare the changes within their area with those in other parts of the Pacific;

  • grasp the principle of oral history as an approach to collecting data.



Tools:

  • History books and resources for your island entity;

  • Books on the War in the Pacific

  • Historical maps of your area,


Notes:

There are some major themes in 20th century Pacific Island history that are likely to be found widely, for example, WWII, and post-war changes. These are particularly useful for considering how such shared experiences nonetheless differed in different places. But as other important historical factors emerge, these can be compared in time to what was happening in other places at roughly the same time.

 Exercise 1: Chronology

Website: Memories > Chronology
--Using historical materials your island entity, have students construct a chronology of major events. You can choose any point as your starting point, such as the arrival of the first explorers, or the unification of your island group. This exercise focuses both on critical thinking in deciding what constitutes a “major event,” and on the process of constructing a chronology.
--Distinguish different types of major events: for example, epidemics, natural disasters, visits by important figures, revolts or uprisings, and so on. Use these different types of events to consider how the history of your island entity was shaped by various forces.
--Discuss the concept of “history” as meaning “written history,” in Western culture. Why does oral history not qualify? Is this a valid distinction to draw, and what does it say about traditional culture? Be critical.

 Exercise 2: Early 20th century



Website: Memories
Early 20th century events probably pre-date oral history, but not necessarily. This exercise does not require oral history collection, but that is optional.
--Using historical materials, consider the way of life in your island entity in the early decades of the 20th century: how different was it from now? Be specific: what was the major economic activity(s)? What did most people do for a living?
--What was the political status of your entity?
--What was the level of technology, for example, for transportation?

 Exercise 3: Oral History:



Website: Memories
Have students, either individually or in small groups, use a recording device to interview an older relative or local elder, about their lives. Have them ask specific questions, such as:
-- Remembering WWII (if the interviewee is old enough) and the post-war years;
--What major changes have they seen in their lives? You can use events from your chronology to prompt them, if necessary, to consider the impact of specific, larger-scale events like Independence or change of political status;
--What sort of work did people do in the “old days”? What did they do for food?
--How did one get around the island?

 Exercise 4: World War II:



Website: Memories > WWII (if available)
--If you obtained information about WWII in your area, compare these stories to those from other websites.
--Use this information to teach about the War in the Pacific.
--What about changes after the War? What were the major forces of change? How effective have they been?
--To what extent have post-War changes been motivated by local, indigenous forces, and to what extent have they come from outside?

 Exercise 5: Land Use


Using historical maps of your area (if available), discuss the changes of land use in your area for the period that your maps cover. Maps that show agriculture, housing, roads, and other such features are needed here.
Put these changes into the context of the history you have seen in the previous exercises. Consider how historical forces manifest in actual changes on the land.

Lesson 8: Onwards
Overview: This final lesson focuses on cultural preservation and community developments today. It also asks that students consider the contemporary situation in your land division or island entity, in the light of the historical layers they have seen in the previous lessons.
Consequently, this lesson also asks that students consider the future of their community (people and environment), and ways to balance local culture with global culture. For this reason, our Pacific Worlds websites tend to focus on places where some community efforts are already underway towards preserving and protecting local culture while adapting and growing with new technologies and modern circumstances.

Lesson at a glance: Students will collect information on the current state of their land division, including demographic data from the most recent census, community and cultural organizations, and any work or projects being done to restore Indigenous cultural or physical landscapes.
Key Concepts: Population statistics, cultural preservation, local action.
Lesson Outcomes: The students will:

  1. analyze the population breakdown for their census tract;

  2. compile a list of community cultural groups

  3. plan a course of future development for their area.



Tools:

  • Census figures or population data for your area or island entity

  • Zoning map of your area, if applicable

  • A local telephone directory--Yellow Pages.

  • Graph paper.



Notes:

This lesson provides ample opportunity for students to explore and even map their own areas. Out-of-classroom data collection; field trips engaging with community groups; and guest presentations by community leaders and “frontline” workers are all possible ways of enhancing this portion of the program.


The ultimate aspect of this exercise is for students to envision a future for their area: what would they like to see, and where? Imagination is encouraged.

 Exercise 1: People



Website: Onwards > People
--Using census data, look at the population breakdown for your area with particular attention to the following categories:

  • Ethnic Origin

  • Age

  • Income

--Use graph paper to make simple bar-charts to show the structure of the population in terms of each of the above three categories.


--Discuss what this information tells you about your community.

 Exercise 2: Land Use and Zoning



Website: Onwards > Village
--Traditional land division systems produced self-sustained units in which all necessary resources could be found. Looking at the zoning map (and other maps, as necessary) of your land division today, discuss the new “land-use” zones that have arisen. Compare these to what you know about traditional zones.
--Is your area “self sufficient?” Or do you have to travel outside of it to get what you need. If you need to go elsewhere, where do you go?

 Exercise 3: Community



Website: Onwards > Village
The purpose of this exercise is to call attention to what is going on in the students’ community.
--Identify the active community groups in your area that are focused on cultural or environmental issues, with particular attention to those with a Indigenous focus. For example:


  • Dance or Music Schools

  • Canoe Clubs

  • Language Immersion programs

  • Arts

--Are these popular activities? What do students think about the importance of preserving these arts and traditions?

 Exercise 4: Replanting

Website: Onwards > Replanting
This page focuses on both physical replanting—preserving or recreating the environment and/or restoring traditional agriculture, or cultural replanting—restoring and preserving cultural practices. You can focus on either, or both.
--We looked at agriculture on The Land > Planting page. To what extent does agriculture—traditional or otherwise—remain in your land division? Are you fed directly from your land?
--To what extent does education promote and preserve cultural values? Compare to other communities.

 Exercise 5: Sacred Sites



Website: Onwards > Sacred Sites
In Lesson 2—“Native Place”—and Lesson 5—“Footprints”—we looked at important cultural sites in your area.
--How are these sites being treated today?
--What laws, practices, or policies protect and preserve them?
--To what extent are these sites utilized by the community today? Do you feel they should be? Or should they be left alone? Is it appropriate for tourists to visit these sites?

 Exercise 6: Onwards



Website: Onwards > Farewell

--You have now collected a great deal of information about your land division, and are intimately familiar with its history and transformation, its resources and its people. If you were a Government Planner, what would you want to do for the future of your area? Use a blank map of your land division and create a vision of the future you would like to see.


--What would it take to get from the present situation to the future you envision?
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