Teacher dial sessions 10/19, 11/19, 4/6

The power of formative assessment lies in its double-barreled approach, addressing both cognitive and motivational factors at the same time. --- Susan Brookhart

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The power of formative assessment lies in its double-barreled approach, addressing both cognitive and motivational factors at the same time. --- Susan Brookhart

Key Elements of Formative Assessment:

  • Establishment of a classroom culture that encourages interaction and the use of assessment tools.
  • Establishment of learning goals and tracking of individual student progress toward those goals.
  • Use of varied instruction methods to meet diverse student needs.
  • Use of varied approaches to assessing student understanding.
  • Feedback on student performance and adaptation of instruction to meet identified needs.
  • Active involvement of students in the learning process.
  • ----Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

Formative assessment critical

  • We do too much “testing” and not enough “feedback giving”
    • The research is clear: lots of formative assessment and opportunities to use it is key to the greatest gains in learning, as measured on conventional tests
      • See Black and Wiliam, “Inside the Black Box” in the Kappan; and How People Learn, Bransford et al.

Four Criteria of Quality Feedback

  • It must be timely.
  • It must be specific.
  • It must be understandable to the receiver.
  • It must allow the student to act on the feedback (refine, revise, practice, and retry).
  • Wiggins, 1998
  • We know that more frequent feedback is associated with improved student work ethic, motivation, and performance.
  • Douglas B. Reeves
  • Accountability for Learning

Ongoing Assessment Strategies Work alone or with a partner.

  • Read over the examples in the next 14 slides.
  • Make note of any questions you may have.
  • How could you use these strategies to drive instruction?
  • How will ongoing assessment help you teach for success?
  • Note: Homework and quizzes are not included in the slides, but would certainly be considered formative assessment.


  • Journal entry
  • Short answer test
  • Open response test
  • Home learning
  • Notebook
  • Oral response
  • Portfolio entry
  • Exhibition
  • Culminating product
  • Question writing
  • Problem solving
  • Anecdotal records
  • Observation by checklist
  • Skills checklist
  • Class discussion
  • Small group interaction
  • Teacher – student conference
  • Assessment stations
  • Exit cards
  • Problem posing
  • Performance tasks and rubrics

Squaring Off

  • Whole Group Assessment
  • 1. Place a card in each corner of the room with one of the following words or phrases that are effective ways to group according to learner knowledge.
  • Rarely ever Sometimes Often I have it!
  • Dirt road Paved road Highway Yellow brick road
  • Tell the students to go to the corner of the room that matches their place in the learning journey.
  • Participants go to the corner that most closely matches their own learning status and discuss what they know about the topic and why they chose to go there.
  • Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

Yes/No Cards

  • Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on one side and NO on the other.
  • When a question is asked the students hold up YES or NO.
  • Ask the students if they know the following vocabulary words and what they mean.
  • Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES they may be called on to give the correct answer.
  • Remind them that if they don’t know the words it is OK because they will be learning them.
  • You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas, etc.
  • YES
  • NO
  • Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

Thumb It!

  • Have students respond with the position of their thumb to get an assessment of what their current understanding of a topic being studied.
  • Where I am now in my understanding of ______?
  • Up Sideways Down
  • Full Speed Ahead! Slow Down, I’m getting Stop! I’m lost.
  • confused.

Fist of Five

  • Show the number of fingers on a scale, with 1 being lowest and 5 the highest.
  • Ask, How well do you feel you know this information?
  • I know it so well I could explain it to anyone.
  • I can do it alone.
  • I need some help.
  • I could use more practice.
  • 1. I am only beginning.
  • Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

Assessment Strategies to Support Success

  • Whip Around: Assessment)
    • Teacher poses question
    • Students write response
    • Students read written responses rapidly, in specified order.
    • Teacher takes notes
    • Develop closure / clarification / summary
  • 2. Status checks: (Assessment)
    • Thumbs up/thumbs down/ wiggle palm
    • Colored cards (red, green, yellow)
    • Windshield

3. Quartet Quiz: (Assessment)

  • 3. Quartet Quiz: (Assessment)
    • Teacher poses question
    • Students write/prepare response
    • Students meet in quads and check answers
    • Summarizer reports, “We know/ We wonder”
    • Teacher records on board
    • Closure/clarification/next steps
  • Assessment Strategies to Support Success
  • 4. Jigsaw Check: (Review/Assessment)
    • Teacher assigns students to groups of 5-6
    • Teacher gives each student a question card, posing a Key understanding question
    • Students read their question to group
    • Scorecard Keeper records # of students for each question who are:
      • Really sure
      • Pretty sure
      • Foggy
      • clueless
    • Students scramble to groups with same question they have/prepare solid answer
    • Go back to original groups, share answers
    • Re-read questions
    • Re-do scoreboard
    • Report before and after scoreboards
  • Assessment Strategies to Support Success

Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Civil Rights. Write as much as you can.

  • Definition
  • Information
  • Examples
  • Non-Examples
  • Patriotism
  • Brett Favre

Your turn!

  • Use the Frayer template and create an assessment you could use in your classroom. Note that you can change the prompts!

Exit Cards

  • List
  • 3 things you learned today
  • 2 things you’d like to learn more about
  • 1 question you still have

Exit Cards

  • Explain the difference between simile and metaphor. Give some examples of each as part of your explanation.

Exit Cards

  • We have been learning about patriotism. Use words and/or pictures to show your understanding of what it is. What questions do you have about this? topic?

Journal Prompts for Ongoing Assessment

    • A. Write a step by step set of directions, including diagrams and computations, to show someone who has been absent how to do the kind of problem we’ve worked with this week.
  • B. Write a set of directions for someone who is going to solve a problem in their life by using the kind of math problem we’ve studied this week. Explain their problem first. Be sure the directions address their problem, not just the computations.
  • Assessment Idea!

Design an Exit Card

  • General open-ended questions
  • 1. Write one thing you learned today.
  • 2. What area gave you the most difficulty today?
  • 3. Something that really helped me in my learning today was ....
  • 4. What connection did you make today that made you say, "AHA! I get it!"
  • 5. Describe how you solved a problem today.
  • 6. Something I still don't understand is ...
  • 7. Write a question you'd like to ask or something you'd like to know more about.
  • 8. What mathematical terms do you clearly understand or have difficulty understanding?
  • 9. Did working with a partner make your work easier or harder. Please explain.
  • 10. In what ways do you see today's mathematics connected to your everyday life?

Designing an Exit Card 2

A RAFT is . . .

  • An engaging, high level strategy that
  • encourages writing across the curriculum
  • and encourages students to:
  • Assume a role
  • Consider their audience
  • Communicate in a variety of formats
  • Examine a topic from different perspectives

R.A.F.T guidelines

  • Role of the writer: reporter, observer, eyewitness, participant?
  • Audience: Who will be reading this? An editor? Classmate? Historical figure?
  • Format: How will this be presented? Poem? Article? Cartoon? Email? Diary?
  • Topic:Who or what is the subject? A person, place, thing, event?

Use strong roles & audiences

  • Ad agencies
  • Athletes
  • Cartoonists
  • Pen pals
  • Historical figures
  • TV characters
  • Body organs
  • Historical events
  • Animals and plants
  • Inanimate objects
  • Mythological creatures
  • Parts of speech
  • Literary figures
  • Math symbols

Use strong formats

  • Ads
  • Application
  • Brochure
  • “Dear Abby” letter
  • Debate
  • Editorial
  • E-mail
  • Epitaph
  • Wanted poster
  • Greeting card
  • Journal entry
  • Letter
  • List
  • Map
  • Motto
  • Poster
  • Top ten list
  • Test question

Use provocative & varied verbs

  • Advise
  • Appeal
  • Brainstorm
  • Convince
  • Decipher
  • Defend
  • Diagnose
  • Highlight
  • Inspect
  • Introduce
  • Disprove
  • Quote
  • Reflect
  • Showcase
  • Urge
  • Warn

Quality RAFTS

  • Tied to standards, outcomes, essential ?’s
  • Offer choice (are differentiated via readiness and learning styles)
  • Are rigorous (high end Bloom)
  • Require thinking outside the box
  • Focus clearly on what students need to know, understand, and be able to do (KUD’s) within the lesson or units
  • Inclined toward fun!

A DI example Role Audience Format Topic

  • You
  • Gifted
  • student
  • Struggling
  • student
  • ____?__

Sample RAFT Strips

  • Role
  • Audience
  • Format
  • Topic
  • Semicolon
  • Middle School
  • Diary Entry
  • I Wish You Really Understood Where I Belong
  • N.Y. Times
  • Public
  • Op Ed piece
  • How our Language Defines Who We Are
  • Huck Finn
  • Tom Sawyer
  • Note hidden in a tree knot
  • A Few Things You Should Know
  • Rain Drop
  • Future Droplets
  • Advice Column
  • The Beauty of Cycles
  • Lung
  • Owner
  • Owner’s Guide
  • To Maximize Product Life
  • Rain Forest
  • John Q. Citizen
  • Paste Up “Ransom” Note
  • Before It’s Too Late
  • Reporter
  • Public
  • Obituary
  • Hitler is Dead
  • Martin Luther King
  • TV audience of 2010
  • Speech
  • The Dream Revisited
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Current Residents of Virginia
  • Full page newspaper ad
  • If I could Talk to You Now
  • Fractions
  • Whole numbers
  • Petition
  • A word problem
  • Students in your class
  • Set of directions
  • How to Get to Know Me
  • Language Arts
  • Science
  • History
  • Math
  • Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Bill Meyer and Martin, 1998

R.A.F.T. sites

  • http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/instruction/ELA/6-12/Reading/Reading%20Strategies/RAFT.htm
  • http://www.tantasqua.org/Superintendent/Profdevelopment/etraft.html
  • http://www.earth.uni.edu/EECP/mid/mod3_la.html

Practice with RAFTs

  • At your table, create an abbreviated
  • lesson using the RAFT Template:
  • Establish the KUD’s
  • State the general topic
  • Create several products/outcomes/tasks that relate to learning styles or Bloom
  • Transfer to a transparency and share with the whole group


  • ROLE

Quality DI

  • Requires a “GROWTH”
  • or
  • “FLUID” mindset.
  • How Do We Choose to See the Kids in Front of Us?
  • Worthy Resilient
  • Competent Curious
  • Capable Promising
  • Strong Creative
  • How Does that Lead us to Feel About Them?
  • Anger Distress
  • Resentment Alienation
  • Repulsion Pessimistic
  • Distant Rejecting
  • Interest Respect
  • Affection Optimism
  • Admiration Concern
  • Empathy Intrigued
  • Disown Punish
  • Avoid Blame
  • Coerce Overlook
  • Neglect Excuse
  • Own Encourage
  • Befriend Empower
  • Mentor Invest
  • Nurture Affirm
  • How Does that Shape How We Act Toward Them?
  • Incapable Defiant
  • Disruptive Turned Off
  • Disrespectful Deviant
  • Discouraged Destructive

The Predictive Power of MINDSET

  • -Success comes from -Success comes from effort
  • being smart -With hard work, most students
  • -Genetics, environment can do most things
  • determine what we can do -Teachers can override students’
  • -Some kids are smart - profiles
  • some aren’t -A key role of the teacher is
  • -Teachers can’t do anything to set high goals, provide high
  • about students’ profiles support, ensure student focus --
  • to find the thing that makes school work for a student
  • Carol Tomlinson, 2009


  • Mindset
  • Who
  • Where
  • What
  • How
  • Shapes student self-perception
  • Builds or erodes group trust
  • I teach what I believe you can learn
  • Coverage vs whatever it takes
  • TALK ABOUT IT . . .
  • How does teacher MINDSET impact who, where, what & how we teach?
  • What are the implications of MINDSET for differentiation?

Evidence that schools Evidence that schools are Fixed Mindset Organizations are Fluid Mindset Organizations

  • See how much evidence for each column you can generate.

Plan for November 19 Continue with:

  • Choice boards
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Tiering
  • Bloom’s (revised) Taxonomy
  • Whatdayathink?
  • Pluses, Minuses, Questions…

Burning Questions???

  • Suggested Resources Related to Differentiated Instruction
  • ASCD.org, Educational Leadership magazine, ASCD video series
  • Brandt, Ron (1998) Powerful Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Cooper, J. David (2000). Literacy: Helping Children Construct Meaning, Fourth Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
  • Cummings, Carol (2000). Winning Strategies for Classroom Management. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Erickson, H. Lynn (1998). Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction: Teaching Beyond the Facts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
  • Erickson, H. Lynn (2001). Stirring the Head, Heart, and Soul, Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
  • Gibbs, Jeanne (1995). Tribes: A New Way of Learning and Being Together. Sausalito, California: Center Source Systems
  • Jensen, Eric (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Keene, Ellin Oliver $ Zimmerman, Susan (1997). Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
  • Levine, Mel (2002). A Mind at a Time. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Marzano, Robert J. (2000). Transforming Classroom Grading. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Marzano, Robert J. & Pickering, Debra J. & Pollock, Jane E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Silver, Harvey & Strong, Richard W. & Perini, Matthew J. (2000). So Each May Learn: Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Reeves, Douglas B. (2004). Accountability for Learning: How Teachers and Leaders Can Take Charge. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Sternberg, Robert. (1998). Successful Intelligence: How Practical and Creative Intelligence Determine Success in Life.
  • Stiggins, Richard J. (1997). Student-Centered Classroom Assessment, Second Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
  • Strachota, B. (1996). On Their Side: Helping Children Take Charge of Their Learning. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Society for Children.
  • Stronge, James H. (2002) Qualities of Effective Teachers, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Tomlinson, C. (1996). Differentiating Instruction for Mixed Ability Classrooms; A Professional Inquiry Kit. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Tomlinson, C. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Tomlinson, C. & Allan, Susan D. (2000). Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Tomlinson, C. & Eidson, Caroline Cunningham (2003). Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum, Grades K-5. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Tomlinson, C. (2003). Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom: Strategies and Tools for Responsive Teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Wiggins, Grant & McTighe, Jay (1998. Understanding By Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Winebrenner, S. (2001). Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom (revised, expanded, updated edition). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
  • Winebrenner, S. (1996). Teaching Kids With Learning Difficulties in the Regular Classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.

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