Table of Contents Dedication 4 Acknowledgement 5 Introduction: 8 world trade organization 10

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Table of Contents

Dedication 4

Acknowledgement 5

Introduction: 8


[I] HISTORY – 10

(II) Objectives: 12

(i) To help Free Trade Flow 12

(ii)To help Fair Trade Flows: - 13

(iii) To help Predictable Trade flow: - 14

(III)Secretariat- 14

(IV) Structure: 14

(V) Agreements: 17

(VI) Functions: 18

WTO Agreements 18

(i) GATT: 18

(ii) GATS :( General Agreement on Trade in Services) 19

Structure of GATS: 20

(I) Legal services: 20

(2) Health Services and Social Services: 21

(3)Computer Related Services: 22

(4) Education and Trading Services: 23


Compulsory Licensing: 24

Transition Period: 25

Turmeric Case 26

The Basmati case 27


Appointment of Panel 29

Remedies under Dispute Resolution: changes required - 34

Most Favor Nation Treatment 36

MFN for product: 37

Exception to MFN: 19-04-05 38

National Treatment 40

Regional Arrangements / Free Trade Agreements. 44

Some worldwide RTAs 45

Anti-Dumping Measures 46

Counterveiling Measures 46

Anti-dumping and India 47

Dumping Margin 48

Agreement on Agriculture : 50

Agreement on Textile and Clothing 52

Textiles Monitoring Body . 53

India and ATC 54


(i)HISTORY – 55

(iii)Agreements: 56

Paris Convention 57

Articles XIII to XXX deal with the organization and its administration.Paris Convention and India 58

Patent Cooperation Treaty 59

(iv) Secretariat: 59

(v) Structure: 60

What is a domain Name? 60


WIPO domain name 61

Dispute Resolution under the DNS 61

Case: 62

OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation andDevelopment) 67

The work of the OECD 70

ICSID ( International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes) 71


(a) History: 75

(b) Composition: 75

(c) Conventions: 75

Foreign Investment 77

Role of Foreign Investment 78


Common law countries: - English Law 82

French Legal system: - 82

NIEO (New International Economic Order) 89

History: 89

NIEO –meaning 89



History 93

Conferences: 93

Reason 94

International Law 95

Nature and scope of International Law: - 95

Public International Law and Private International Law 97

International Court of Justice: 101

Relationships between International Law and Municipal Law 102

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 110

Background 110

70-07-05 111

IMF activities 111

World Bank 112

History: 112

Guiding principle in lending operations 112

Importance of World Bank in India 113

Funding for World Bank 114

International Development Association (IDA) 115

IDA’s History 115

IDA’s Mission 116

IDA's Borrowers 116

International Finance Corporation 118

History 118

Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam’s Speech in Hyderabad 121

Appendix I 126


Relevant News 127

India enters product patent regime Saturday 129

The Patent (Amendment) Ordinance 2004 131


This book is dedicated to my Gurus

Shri B.E. Avhad Sir, Shri S.E. Avhad Sir,

Shri H.P. Deshmukh Sir and Shri Sharad Ghatpande Sir

Sarve bhavantu sukhinah, Sarve santu niramayah,

Sarve bhadrani pashyantu, Ma kaschid dukhabhagbhaavet”
May all be happy; May all be healthy; May all see good things;

Let none beget sorrow.

Sanskrit Subhashit


Firstly, I would like to express my deep gratitude towards the ‘Almighty’ as his power has carried me till this stage. I am very happy to take this opportunity to thank my family members for providing moral support throughout my studies, more specifically my Mother, Father and Uncle’s contribution in my life is beyond measure.

I would like to give my thank to all my Gurus, especially Advocate S.E Avhad, Advocate B.E. Avhad, Prof. H.P. Deshmukh and all my teachers since my school, as all of them taught me the key to survival in this beautiful world that ‘living for others is the beauty of life’

This book is the creation of inspiration given by Hon’ble President Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam, when I met him in Raj Bhavan atPune on 28th May 2003 and expressed uneasiness with respect to development in GATT especially lack of awareness of it in education field then this humble man and source of inspiration directed me “Excel in your work and that itself is contribution to the National Development”. This book is nothing but the outcome of his direction.
I remain indebted forever to Shri Rajaram Retawade Sir, (Rtd Judge), and Mrs. Devayani Mungali, Principal, BG Academy, for the valuable time they had spent to read this book and give important suggestions.
I cannot express my gratitude in words for my dearest friends Anand and Girish because of whom I got an opportunity to study abroad. I am also very thankful to my dear friend Jaydeep Deo for his unforgettable and invaluable help during my abroad study.
I would like to give my thanks to all my friends Rajesh, Raja, Prashant, Adv. Shriram Pingale, Abhijit and all of my student friends, Shivaji Indalkar, Achutrao Karad, Prasad Sapte, Baban Mohakar, Sanket Kulkarni, , Kaumudi Mishra, Saugat, Prashant, Vinod, Chaitanya, and Ramesh Chikate, without their help this book would not have been completed, I would say this book is nothing but the outcome of team work,
I would also like to thanks the Principals of the following institutes, Symbiosis International Education Centre, Pune, International Institute of Information Technology, Hinjawadi and Bharati Vidyapeeth for giving me an opportunity to interact with law and management students. Shri Avinash Dharmadikari gave me my first opportunity as a lecturer; hence I cannot forget his help. My special thanks also goes to the parents of my friends because of their blessing I completed this piece of work. My special thanks also goes to Shri Mukund Rao and ‘Shram Seva Nyas’, who gave me an opportunity to attend the WTO’s Cancun Ministerial Conference at Mexico in September 2003.
I am very pleased to mention invaluable and encouraging guidance of Col. G.S. Munagli ( Rtd) CEO of Venkateshwara Hatcheries, , Shri . V Kumar , Shri Dr. BS Chopra and Shri Vijay Gaikwad

I would like to express my most favorable thanks to Ms. Mandani Madam, Mr. Gopinath Munde and Mr Balaji Rao from Venkateshwra Hatcheries for their great help for my UK Master’s study.

Lastly I am greatful to the publisher and his assistants especially Mr. Sachin for memorable help in preparing this book.

ACP : African Caribbean and Pacific Region Group.

ADNDRC : Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre.

AIREA : All India Rice Exporters Association.

AMTC : Affordable Medicines and Treatment Campaign.

AOA : Agreement On Agriculture.

APEDA : Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development

ASEAN : Association of South East Asian Nations.

ASSOCHAM : Associated Chambers of Commerce.

ATC : Agreement on Textile and Clothing.

BIRPI : International Burex for the Protection of Intellectual Property

Rights. (a French acronym )

BPO : Business Process Outsourcing.

BSNL : Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.

CDR : Centre for Dispute Resolution.

CERDS : Charter for Economic Rights and Duties for States.

CIF : Cost Insurance Freight.

CPR : Centre for Dispute Resolution.

CSIR : Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.

DDA : Doha Development Agenda.

DGAAD :Directorate General of Antidumping and Allied Duties.

DN : Domain Name.

DSB : Dispute Settlement Body.

DSM : Dispute Settlement Mechanism.

DSU : Dispute Settlement Understanding.

EMR : Exclusive Marketing Rights.

EPO : European Patent Office.

EU : European Union ( European Community )

FDI : Foreign Direct Investment.

FIAS : Foreign Investment Adversary Services.

FIP : Five Interesting Parties.

FTA : Free Trade Agreement.

GATS : General Agreement on Trade Services.

GATT : General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

IBRD : International Bank for Reconstruction And Development.

(: World Bank )


ICAR : Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

ICJ : International Court of Justice.

ICSID : International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes.

IDA : International Development Association.

IFC : International Finance Corporation.

IMF : International Monetary Fund.

IP : Internet Protocol / Intellectual Property.

ITES : Information Technology Enabled Services.

ITO : International Trade Organisation.

MC : Ministerial Conference.

MDG : Millennium Development Goals.

MFA : Multi Fibre Arrangement.

MFN : Most Favour Nation.

MNC : Multi National Company.

MTNL : Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited.

MTNR : Multilateral Trade Negotiations Rounds.

NAF : National Arbitration Forum.

NAFTA : North American Free Trade Agreement.

NAMA : Non Agricultural Market Access.

NGO : Non Governmental Organisation.

NIEO : New International Economic Law

NT : National Treatment.

OECD : Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

PANAP : Pesticide Action Network Asia and and the Pacific.

PCT: Patent Co operation Treaty.

SAFTA : South Asian Free Trade Agreement.

TM : Trade Mark.

TMB : Textiles Monitoring Body.

TPRB : Trade Policy Review Body.

TRIPS : Trade Related aspect of Intellectual Property Rights.

UDRP : Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy

UNCITRAL : United Nations Commission on International Trade Law.

UNCTAD : United Nations Conference on Trade and Development .

UNDD : United Nations Development Decade.

UNIDROIT : Principles of International Commercial Contract.

UNO : United Nations Organisation.

USDA : United States Department of Agriculture.

USPTO : United States Patent and Trade Mark Office.

WIPO : World Intellectual Property Organisation.

WTO : World Trade Organisation.

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