Syllabus M. Sc. (Microbial & Food Technology) Session 2014-15 and 2015-16 Continue Session 2016-17 and 2017-18



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Syllabus

M.Sc. (Microbial & Food Technology)

Session 2014-15 and 2015-16

Continue
Session 2016-17 and 2017-18
The course will consist of four semesters, two in each year. In each of the four semesters, there would be four theory papers and two practical papers. The students will undertake in-plant training of 4-6 weeks at various industries/institutions/R & D centers at the end of semester II, which would be evaluated in semester III and IV. During the M.Sc. course, the students would visit at least two industries/R & D centers to become familiar with the industrial operations and sophisticated scientific equipments, etc.

Each theory paper shall have 4 hours teaching and 3 practical hours per week. Each theory paper shall be of 100 marks of which 75 marks shall be allocated to theory paper set by external examiner and 25 marks to the internal assessment. The internal assessment would comprise of one assignment of 5 marks, one seminar of 5 marks and test of 10 marks (average of the two tests shall be considered),and 5 marks for attendance.

The awards of internal assessment shall be dispatched by the Head of the Department before the commencement of semester examinations. The seminars would be allotted to all the students from the respective syllabi of theory papers in such a way that each student would be assessed by the teacher of the subject. The subjects and distribution of marks shall be as under:

Semester-I

Theory Papers

Paper I: Principles of Biochemistry 100 Marks

Paper II: Microbial Genetics & R-DNA Technology 100 Marks

Paper III: Introductory Microbiology 100 Marks

Paper IV: Principles of Food Processing Technology 100 Marks

Practical Papers

Practical Paper I: Pertaining to theory paper I and II 100 Marks

Practical Paper II: Pertaining to theory paper III and IV 100 Marks

_______________________

Total 600 Marks

_______________________ 2
Semester-II

Theory Papers

Paper V: Fundamentals of Food Microbiology 100 Marks

Paper VI: Fundamentals of Food Chemistry 100 Marks

Paper VII: Fundamentals of Bioprocess Development 100 Marks

Paper VIII: Microbial Technology 100 Marks

Practical Papers

Practical Paper III: Pertaining to theory paper V and VI 100 Marks

Practical Paper IV: Pertaining to theory paper VII and VIII 100 Marks

_______________________

Total 600 Marks

_______________________

Semester-III

Theory Papers

Paper IX: Dairy & Meat Technology 100 Marks

Paper X: Fruit, Vegetable & Cereal Technology 100 Marks

Paper XI: Environmental Technology 100 Marks

Paper XII: TQM and Commercial Food Technology 100 Marks

Practical Papers

Practical Paper V: Pertaining to theory paper IX and X 100 Marks

Practical Paper VI: Pertaining to theory paper XI and XII 100 Marks

_______________________

Total 600 Marks

_______________________

Semester-IV

Theory Papers

Paper XIII: Fundamentals of Food Engineering 100 Marks

Paper XIV: Research Methodology 100 Marks

Paper XV: Computers & Biostatistics 100 Marks

Paper XVI: Bioinformatics 100 Marks

Practical Paper

Practical Paper VII: Pertaining to theory paper XIII and XIV 100 Marks

Practical Paper VIII: Pertaining to theory paper XV and XVI 100 Marks

In-Plant Training* Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory



________________________

Total 600 Marks

_________________________ 3
*In-plant training seminars shall be evaluated by a board of three teachers and the result would be communicated by Head of the Department before commencement of semester IV examinations.

M.Sc. (Microbial & Food Technology) Part I

Semester I

PAPER-I

PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY

M. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 60

Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 35% (Theory and Practical separately)

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTERS

The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will have four questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and carry I5 marks each. Section- C will consist of 10 short answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all.



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
1. Candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B and the entire Section C.
2. The use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION-A
1. Introduction to biomolecules: Biological properties of water, pH, ionization, biological buffers, titration of amino acids, amino acids, proteins and their three dimensional structure, weak and strong interactions, hydrophobic interactions.
2. Structure and function of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, homopolysaccharides (starch, cellulose, chitin), heteropolysaccharides, mucopolysaccharides; Structure and function of nucleic acids (purines, pyrimindines, nucleosides, nucleotides, inter nucleotide bonding, tautomerism).
3. Structure and function of lipids: Neutral lipids, phospholipids, isoprenoids, phosphatidyl inositol (intracellular messenger), biological effectors.
4. Vitamins: Water soluble and fat soluble; Hormones, their structure and functions.

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5. Enzymes: General properties of enzymes and coenzymes, their nature, classification and nomenclature of enzymes, fundamentals of steady state kinetics, enzyme inhibition, isozymes.


6. Biological membrane and cell wall: Properties of lipid aggregates, micelles, liposomes, structure and properties, membrane proteins and their function, fluid mosaic model, membrane mediated transport, membrane equilibrium and permeability, chemical, physical composition and biosynthesis of cell wall components.
SECTION-B
7. Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, biochemistry of alcohol and lactic acid fermentation, citric acid cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, EDP pathway, disaccharide and polysaccharide metabolism, gluconeogenesis, regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.
8. Oxidative phosphorylation/respiration: Electron transport chain, photorespiration, microsomal electron transport.
9. Biochemistry of lipid metabolism: Biosynthesis and catabolism of fatty acids, neutral lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol, glycolate cycle, regulation of fatty acid metabolism.
10. Amino acid metabolism: Biosynthetic families of amino acids, ammonia ion assimilation into amino acid by Glu and Gln, regulation of amino acid synthesis; Degradation of amino acids-oxidative deamination of glutamate, carbon atom degradation, amino acid as major metabolic intermediates, C3, C4 and C5 families, amino acid degradation to succinyl CoA, leucine, phenyl alanine and tyrosine degradation; Urea cycle; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase complex.
11. Nucleotide metabolism: Purine and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis, synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, degradation of purines, regulation of nucleotide metabolism.
12. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, cyclic and noncycylic electron flow; Oxygen evolution system; Calvin cycle; C3 and C4 mode of photosynthesis.
Recommended Readings:
1. Biochemistry by D. Voet and J.G. Voet, John Wiley & Sons, USA (2010).
2. Biochemistry by L. Stryer, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (2002).
3. Biochemistry by M.K. Campbell and C.H. Farrell, Cengage Learning, USA (2011).
4. Biochemistry by R.A. Harvey, R.A. Harvey and D.R. Ferrier, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, China (2011).
5. Biochemistry by R.H. Garrett and C.M. Grisham, Cengage Learning, USA (2012).

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6. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry by R.K. Murray, D.A. Bender, K.M. Botham, P.J. Kennelly, V.W. Rodwell and P.A. Weil, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., India (2012).


7. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry by D.L. Nelson and M.M. Cox, Macmillan worth Publisher, New York, USA (2012).
PAPER-II

MICROBIAL GENETICS & R-DNA TECHNOLOGY

M. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 60

Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 35% (Theory and Practical separately)

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTERS

The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will have four questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and carry I5 marks each. Section- C will consist of 10 short answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all.



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
1 Candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B and the entire Section C.
2 The use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION-A
1. Introduction to microbial genome: Structure and types of genetic material DNA and RNA; Plasmids, viral genomes (phiX174, T-4, Mu, lambda).
2. Replication of microbial genome: Microbial replication processes, DNA polymerases, Klenow fragment, primosome, polymerase chain reaction.
3. Mutations and repair: Mutagenic agents, molecular basis of mutations, site directed mutagenesis and protein engineering; Industrial applications of mutant organisms; DNA repair mechanisms-photo reactivation, SOS repair, recombination repair.
4. Transcription and translation: Transcription-process, transcription factors and motifs, inhibitors, post-transcriptional modifications, reverse transcription; Translation-characteristics of genetic code, initiation, elongation, termination, translation factors and inhibitors, post-translational modifications in microbes.
5. Gene regulation: Lac, Ara, Trp and Hut operons; Negative, positive and compound control; Stringent response, quorum sensing, signal transduction.
6. Basic techniques of recombinant DNA technology: Mechanism and application of various enzymes as tools in r-DNA, nucleic acids probes, DNA finger printing, foot printing, Southern, Northern, Western and dot blotting; DNA sequencing.

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SECTION-B


7. Preparation of DNA fragments and libraries: Isolation of DNA fragments, preparation and screening of genomic library and c-DNA library; Chemical synthesis of DNA, gene and control regions; Construction of hybrid promoters.
8. Cloning vectors and construction of R-DNA: Salient properties and host range of vectors, plasmids, phage based vectors, cosmids, phasmids, transposable vectors etc.; In vitro packaging of viral DNA.
9. Transfer of R-DNA into host: Transformation techniques for E. coli and yeast.
10. Selection, identification and expression of recombinants: Direct and indirect methods; Expression of cloned genes in bacteria and yeast; Strategies to maximize expression of cloned genes; Expression of fusion proteins.
11. Applications and guidelines of R-DNA technology: Applications of R-DNA in microbial and food technology, potential risks and guidelines on R-DNA (NIH, DBT and FDA guidelines).
12. Metabolic engineering: Metabolomics, metabolic flux analysis, strategies to increase/alter metabolite flow, metabolic control analysis; Importance of metabolic engineering-completion of partial pathways giving novel products (Erwinia herbicola), transfer of entire biosynthetic pathway (Trp biosynthesis to E. coli and overproduction of Trp in C. glutamicum), creating new products (indigo and melanin in E. coli), redirecting metabolite flow (Increased Thr in bacteria and Lys in crops; Increased CephC production); Metabolic engineering of PHAs and carotenoids.
Recommended Readings:
1. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, Volume 73 (Metabolic Engineering) by J. Nielsen, Springer Verlag, USA (2001).
2. From Genes to Genomes: Concepts and Applications of DNA Technology by J.W. Dale, M. von Schantz and N. Plant, John-Wiley & Sons Ltd., USA (2012).
2. Genomes 3 by T.A. Brown, Garland Science, New York (2006).
3. Lewin’s Genes X by J.E. Krebs, E.S. Goldstein and S.T. Kilpatrick, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC Sudbury, USA (2011).
4. Metabolic Engineering by S.Y. Lee and E.P. Popoutsakis, Marcel Dekker, Taylor & Francis Group, USA (1999).
5. Molecular Biology of Gene by J.D. Watson, T.A. Baker, S.P. Bell, A. Gann, M. Levine and R. Losick, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc., USA (2008).
6. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA by B.R. Glick and J.J. Pasternak, ASM Press, USA (2010).

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7. Principles of Gene Manipulation and Genomics by S.B. Primrose and R. Twymann, Wiley-Blackwell Publishers, USA (2006).


8. Text book of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations by T.M. Devlin, Wiley-Liss, USA (2002).
PAPER-III

INTRODUCTORY MICROBIOLOGY

M. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 60

Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 35% (Theory and Practical separately)

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTERS

The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will have four questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and carry I5 marks each. Section- C will consist of 10 short answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all.



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
1. Candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B and the entire Section C.
2. The use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION-A
1. Introduction: Beginnings of Microbiology; Contributions of Lister, Koch and Pasteur; Microscopy-brief account of various types and their applications.
2. Microbial systematics and taxonomy: Morphological, physiological, biochemical & ecological characteristics and molecular techniques used in taxonomy; A brief account of Bergey’s system of bacterial classification.
3. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Generalized account of bacteria, archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, molds, slime molds, yeast, algae, protozoa, etc.
4. Viruses: Structure, classification and replication of important bacterial, plant and animal viruses.
5. Microbial growth: Requirements of various nutrients for microbial growth, mathematical expression of growth, measurement of growth, factors affecting growth; Synchronous and diauxic growth.
6. Methods of microbiology: Basic techniques of isolation, sterilization, maintenance and preservation of cultures; Types of media.

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SECTION-B


7. Cultural characteristics and anaerobic cultivation: Cultural characteristics on solid and liquid media; Methods for culturing anaerobes.
8. Microbial metabolism: Utilization of energy and biosynthesis.
9. Microbial genetics: Generalized account of gene function and mutation.
10. Microbial interactions: Symbiotic interactions, parasitism, ammensalism and competition; A brief account of cycles of matter and microbial interactions.
11. Microbial flora of healthy human host: Distribution and occurrence of normal flora in humans.
12. Microbial pathogenesis: Host-microbe interactions; Bacterial, fungal and protozoal pathogenesis in humans.
Recommended Readings:
1. Brock Biology of Microorganisms by M.T. Madigan, J.M. Martingo, D.A. Stahl and D.P. Clark, Pearson Education Limited, USA (2011).
2. General Microbiology by R.Y. Stanier, J.L. Ingraham, M.L. Wheelis and P.R. Painter, Mac Millan, Hong Kong (2005).
3. Microbiology by M.J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan and N.R. Krieg, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, India (1993).
4. Microbiology: An Introduction by G.J. Tortora, Pearson Education, India (2008).
5. Microbiology: Principles and Explorations by J.G. Black, John Wiley & Sons, USA (2008).
6. Principles of Microbiology by R.M. Atlas, WC Brown Publishers, USA (1997).
PAPER-IV

PRINCIPLES OF FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

M. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 60

Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 35% (Theory and Practical separately)

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTERS

The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will have four questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and carry I5 marks each. Section- C will consist of 10 short answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all. 9


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
1 Candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B and the entire Section C.
2 The use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION-A
1. Introduction: Historical developments in food processing; World and Indian food processing scenario; Types of food processing industries.
2. Food Preservation: Importance and scope, foods perishability, food deterioration-causes and prevention, food poisoning.
3. Effect of processing on nutritive value of foods, quality control and assurance, sensory evaluation of foods.
4. Raw material preparation: Size reduction, mixing and forming; Mechanical separation and membrane concentration.
5. High temperature processing: Concept of D, F and Z values, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, canning, evaporation, dehydration, baking, roasting, frying; Irradiation processing.
6. Low temperature processing: Controlled atmosphere storage, chilling, refrigeration, freeze concentration and freeze drying.
SECTION-B
7. Conventional preservation: Asepsis, chemical preservation, pickling, steeping preservation, preservation by fermentation.
8. Post processing technology and packaging: Coating, packaging, functions of a package, types of containers, packing materials, packing of fresh foods, aseptic packaging, retort pouch processing technology.
9. Concept of intermediate moisture foods, newer foods, GM foods and organic foods.
10. Present scope of food technology, setting up of food processing units, selection of processing technology, marketing concept.
11. Food safety and regulations: FDA, Codex Alimentarius, BIS, ISO, Agmark, HACCP, overview of Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006.
12. Food plant sanitation: Personal hygiene, plant sanitation; Food industry waste-types, disposal and management.
Recommended Readings:
1. Food Canning Technology by J. Larousse and B.E. Brown, John Wiley and Sons, USA (1997).
2. Food Preservation Process Design by D.R. Heldman, Elsevier Publs., UK (2011). 10

3. Food Processing by J.M. Conor and W.A. Shieps, John Wiley and Sons, USA (1997).


4. Food Processing Technology-Principles and Practice by P.J. Fellows, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., UK (2005).
5. Food Safety by J.M. Jones, Eagen Press, USA (1995).
6. Handbook of Food Process Design, Volume 1 and 2 by M.S. Rahman, J. Ahmed, John Wiley & Sons, USA (2012).

7. Handbook of Frozen Food Processing and Packaging by D.-W. Sun, CRC Press, USA (2012).


8. Principles and Practices for the Safe Processing of Food by D.A. Shapton and N.E. Shapton, Butter worth, Heinmann Ltd., UK (1997).
9. Principles of Food Processing by D.R. Heldman and R.W. Hartel, Chapman and Hall, USA (1997).
10. Progress in Food Preservation by R. Bhat and G. Paliyath, John Wiley & Sons, USA (2012).

PRACTICAL PAPER-I

Pertaining to:

Theory Paper I: Principles of Biochemistry

Theory Paper II: Microbial Genetics & R-DNA Technology

M. Marks: 100 Total practical hours: 60

Time: 4 hours
1. Isolation of casein from milk.
2. Determination of starch content of wheat flour.
3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of reducing and total sugars by biochemical and biophysical techniques.
4. Determination of acid value of a fat/oil.
5. Determination of cholesterol-total, free and esterified.
6. Isolation, qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids.
7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of protein by biochemical and biophysical techniques.
8. Isolation and estimation of DNA of E. coli and RNA from yeast.
9. Determination of Tm of DNA.
10. Determination of phosphate content of DNA and RNA.
11. Separation of nucleotides by electrophoresis.
12. Demonstration of Hill reaction.

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13. Applications of Henderson-Hasselbalch equation for the preparation of buffer solutions.
14. To determine vitamin C content in a citrus fruit.
15. To evaluate enzyme activity, Km and Vmax of α-amylase/invertase.
16. Determination of nucleic acid (DNA & RNA) by biophysical techniques.
17. Demonstration of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
18. Isolation of m-RNA from eukaryotic cells.
19. Isolation of DNA, RNA and plasmids and staining with ethidium bromide.
20. Electrophoretic separation of DNA fragments and their recovery from gel slabs.
21. Transformation of E. coli with plasmids by chemical methods.
22. Purification of mRNA by using immobilized technique.
23. Mapping of restriction sites on a plasmid.
24. Cloning using restriction enzyme generated cohesive/blunt ends.
PRACTICAL PAPER-II

Pertaining to:

Theory Paper III: Introductory Microbiology

Theory Paper IV: Principles of Food Processing Technology

M. Marks: 100 Total practical hours: 60

Time: 4 hours
1. Staining techniques in Microbiology-simple, negative and differential staining.
2. Isolation, purification, maintenance and preservation techniques of aerobic and anaerobic cultures.
3. Morphological, cultural and biochemical characterization of microorganisms.
4. Isolation of bacteria by pure culture techniques.
5. Strain improvement by physical and chemical mutagenesis.
6. Presumptive and confirmation test for the determination of coliform bacteria.
7. Determination of viability of microorganisms by microscopic technique.
8. Measurement of size of microorganism by microscopic technique.
9. Hanging drop preparation to check motility of microorganisms.
10. Microbial growth measurements by different techniques and determination of factors affecting growth of microorganisms.
11. Quality evaluation of various raw materials for food processing.
12. Organoleptic, nutritional and sensory evaluation of processed food.
13. Roasting of food items.

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14. Effects of low temperature storage on various foods.
15. Preservation of food by drying, chemical and radiation.
16. Shelf life evaluation of various food products.
17. To study blanching as a means of preservation of food.
18. Demonstration and prevention of browning reactions.
19. Moisture content comparison of fresh and intermediate moisture foods.
20. Ambient temperature processing of the given food material.
21. High temperature processing of the given food material by blanching and evaporation.
22. To study the effect of processing on the keeping quality of food.
23. To study the types of packages.
24. To determine the continuity of tin coating on the can by ferricyanide paper test.

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Semester II



PAPER-V

FUNDAMENTALS OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY

M. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 60

Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 35% (Theory and Practical separately)

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTERS

The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will have four questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and carry I5 marks each. Section- C will consist of 10 short answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all.



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
1 Candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B and the entire Section C.
2 The use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION-A
1. Introduction: Historical developments in food microbiology.
2. Microbial sources: Primary and secondary sources of microorganisms in food; Biochemical changes brought by microorganisms.
3. Microbial growth: Factors affecting the growth of microorganisms in food.
4. Microbiology of food products: Basic microbiology of fruits & vegetables, meat & meat products, milk & milk products, eggs, canned foods, and cereal & cereal products.
5. Indicators of food safety: An introduction to indicators of food safety.
6. Food intoxication: Overview of natural intoxication of food.
SECTION-B
7. Bacterial pathogens in food: Role of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Clostrodium botulinum, Clostridium perfringenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae and Campylobacter jejuni in food borne pathogenesis.
8. Protozoal pathogens in food: Role of Giardia, Entamoeba, Toxoplasma, Taenia and Trichinella in food borne pathogenesis.
9. Food borne pathogenesis: Role of Hepatitis virus in food borne pathogenesis, overview of food intoxication by mycotoxins.

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10. Fermented foods: Bread, sauerkraut, soy sauce, miso, tempeh; Introduction to probiotics.
11. Food analysis: Conventional methods of microbial food analysis and their applications.
12. Modern food analytical techniques: Overview of modern methods of microbial food analysis and their applications.
Recommended Readings:
1. Emerging Food Borne Pathogens by Y. Motarjemi and M. Adams, Woodhead Publishing Limited, UK (2006).
2. Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology by K.R. Aneja, New Age International Publications, India (2009).
3. Food Borne Diseases by D.O. Cliver and H.P. Riemann, Academic Press, UK (2002).
4. Food Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual by A.E. Yousef and C. Carlstrom, Wiley Publication, USA (2003).
5. Food Microbiology and Laboratory Practice by C. Bell, P. Neaves and A.P. Williams, Blackwell Publishing, UK (2005).
6. Food Microbiology by M.P. Doyle and L.R. Beuchat, ASM Press, USA (2007).
7. Food Microbiology by M.R. Adams and M.O. Moss, Royal Society of Chemistry, UK (2008).
8. Food Microbiology by W.C. Frazier and D.C. Westhoff, Tata McGraw-Hill Publication, India (2003).
9. Fundamental Food Microbiology by B. Ray and A.K. Bhunia, CRC Press, UK (2008).
10. Modern Food Microbiology by J.M. Jay, M.J. Loessner and D.A. Golden, Springer Publication, USA (2005).
PAPER-VI

FUNDAMENTALS OF FOOD CHEMISTRY

M. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 60

Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 35% (Theory and Practical separately)

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTERS

The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will have four questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and carry I5 marks each. Section- C will consist of 10 short answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all. 15


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
1 Candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B and the entire Section C.
2 The use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION-A
1. Proteins: Sources of proteins; Enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning, kinetics and control; Texturization-spin and extrusion process.
2. Food enzymes: Enzymatic modification, criteria for purity of enzyme and application of enzymes in food technology.
3. Lipid peroxidation: Mechanism and inhibition-enzymatic and non-enzymatic, antioxidants in foods; Types and function.
4. Food additives: Flavor enhancers (monosodium glutamate, 5-nucleotides and maltol).
5. Aroma substances: Isolation, individual aroma substances-food aromatization.
6. Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins and tannins.
SECTION-B
7. Milk and dairy products: Composition of milk, whey, coagulation of milk, biochemistry of butter, cheese and other milk products.
8. Egg and egg products: Composition of hen egg, functional properties of egg products (coagulation, anti-crystallization), foaming and emulsifying capacity; Egg products.
9. Meat and meat products: Structure, composition and function of muscle, post-mortem changes in muscle; Meat products-canned meat, sausages; Meat aroma.
10. Sweeteners and sugar substitutes: Types-natural, synthetic and artificial; Saccharin, aspartame, cyclamates, thaumatin.
11. Bread: Cereal grain composition, reserve proteins, wheat gliadins, glutelins, biochemical polymorphism of cereal proteins; Biochemical changes during baking.
12. Non-alcoholic beverages: Composition and changes during processing of tea and coffee.
Recommended Readings:
1. Enzymes in Food Processing by G.A. Tucker and L.F.J. Woods, Blackie Academic & Professional, USA (1995).
2. Food Chemistry by H.D. Belitz, W. Grosch and P. Schieberle, Springer Verlag, Berlin (2004).
3. Food Chemistry: A Laboratory Manual by D.D. Miller, Wiley-Blackwell, USA (2014).

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4. Food Composition and Analysis by L.W. Aurand, A.E. Woods and M.R. Wells, AVI Publishers, USA (1987).
5. Food Enzymes: Structure & Mechanism by D.W.S. Wong, Chapman & Hall, UK (1995).
6. Food Science by N.N. Potter and J.H. Hotchkiss, Springer, Netherlands (1999).
7. Lipid Biochemistry: An Introduction, M.I. Gurr, J.L. Harwood and K.N. Frayn, Blackwell Science Ltd., UK (2002).
8. Principles of Food Chemistry by J.M. de Man, AN ASPEAN Publication, USA (1999).
PAPER-VII

FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOPROCESS DEVELOPMENT

M. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 60

Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 35% (Theory and Practical separately)

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTERS

The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will have four questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and carry I5 marks each. Section- C will consist of 10 short answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all.



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
1 Candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B and the entire Section C.
2 The use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION-A
1. Introduction: Principles of bioprocess development; Unit operations involved in bioprocesses.
2. Fermentation types: Surface, submerged and solid state fermentation; Factors influencing liquid and solid state fermentations; Merits and demerits of different types of fermentations.
3. Bioreactors: Designing and development of a bioreactor; Aeration and agitation systems for bioreactors; Bioreactor configurations; Mode of operation-batch, fed batch and continuous; Inline and online monitoring of bioreactors.
4. Fluid flow: Classification of fluids; Fluid in motion; Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids; Bernoulli’s equation; Viscosity.

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5. Heat transfer: Fourier’s law; Conduction; Convention; Individual and overall heat transfer coefficient; General equipments for heat transfer.
6. Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion; Analogy between heat, mass and momentum transfer; Role of diffusion in mass transfer; Convective mass transfer; Liquid-solid mass transfer; Liquid-liquid mass transfer; Liquid-gas mass transfer; Oxygen uptake in cell culture; Factors affecting cellular oxygen demand; Mass transfer coefficient.
SECTION-B
7. Sterilization: Principles and practices; Thermal death kinetics of batch and continuous sterilization of media; Air sterilization in lab scale and industrial fermenters; Kinetics of fibrous air filters.
8. Media for microbial fermentations: Nutritional requirements-carbon, nitrogen, minerals, oxygen & specific nutrients; Conventional and non-conventional substrates; Statistical-mathematical approaches for medium optimization.
9. Microbial growth kinetics: Growth kinetics of batch, fed batch and continuous system of fermentation.
10. Scale-up of bioprocesses and computer control: Steps in scale-up and basic considerations; Major challenges and alternate strategies to overcome the problems; Computer applications in bioprocesses.
11. Downstream processing: Cell separation techniques; Cell disruption-physical, chemical and mechanical methods; chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques; Finishing techniques in bioprocesses.
12. Bioprocess economics: Capital investment for equipments, raw materials, consumables, manpower and other costs, etc.
Recommended Readings:
1. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by J.E. Bailley and D.F. Ollis, Tata McGraw-Hill, USA (2010).
2. Bioprocess Engineering Principles by P.M. Doran, Academic Press, USA (2012).
3. Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts by M.L. Schuler and F. Kargi, Prentice Hall, USA (2002).
4. Biotechnology by H.-J. Rehm and G. Reed, VCH, Germany (2001).
5. Comprehensive Biotechnology, Volume 1 and 2 by M. Moo Young, Pergamon Press, UK (2011).
6. Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, R.H. Baltz, Julian E. Davies and Arnold L. Demain, ASM Press, USA (2010). 18
7. Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology by N. Okafor, Science Publishers, USA (2007).
8. Principles of Fermentation Technology by P.F. Stanbury, A. Whitaker and S. Hall, Aditya Publishers, India (1997).
PAPER-VIII

MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY

M. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 60

Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 35% (Theory and Practical separately)

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTERS

The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will have four questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and carry I5 marks each. Section- C will consist of 10 short answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all.



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
1 Candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B and the entire Section C.
2 The use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION-A

1. Microbial transformation: Types of transformation, application in food technology industry.

2. Microbial biomass for food and feed (SCP): Algal, bacterial, fungal and yeast biomass; Technologies for the production of SCP.

3. Biofuels: Fermentative production and recovery of liquid fuels-ethanol, acetone and butanol.

4. Production of alcoholic beverages: Raw materials, culture, fermentation technology and post-fermentation processing of distilled and non-distilled alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whiskey and rum).

5. Organic Acids: Fermentative production of citric acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid.

6. Production of food additives and ingredients: Fermentative production of amino acids-L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid. 19
SECTION-B

7. Pharmaceutical products: Fermentative production of antibiotics, penicillins, cephalosporins, erythromycins, vancomycins.

8. Vaccines: Fermentative production of vaccines, recombinant vaccines and steroid transformations.

9. Vitamins: Fermentative production of thiamin (B-1), riboflavin (B-2), cobalamin (B-12).

10. Microbial polysaccharides: Fermentative production of xanthan gums, dextran, pullulan.

11. Agriculture related products: Biofertilizers-industrial production of Rhizobium inoculants, Azotobacter and blue green algae; Biopesticides.

12. Commercial status of immobilized cells: Current status of applications of immobilized/co-immobilized cells in fermentation industry.

Recommended Readings:
1. Basic Biotechnology by C. Ratledge and B. Kristiansen, Cambridge University Press, UK (2006).
2. Biotechnology by H.-J. Rehm and G. Reed, VCH, Germany (2001).
3. Biotechnology, Principles and Applications by J. Higgins, D.J. Best and J. Jones Blackwell Scientific Publishers, UK (1985).
4. Comprehensive Biotechnology, Volume 1 and 2 by M. Moo Young, Pergamon Press, UK (2011).
5. Essays in Applied Microbiology by J.R. Norris and M.H. Richmond, John Wiley & Sons, USA (1981).
6. Fundamantals of Biotechnology by P. Praive, B. Faust, W. Sitting and D.A. Sukatesh, VCH, Germany (1987).
7. Microbial Biotechnology, Fundamentals of Applied Microbiology by A.N. Glazer and H. Nikaido, Cambridge University Press, UK (2007).
8. Microbial Biotechnology: Principles and Applications by Y.K. Lee, World Scientific Publs, India (2006).
9. Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology by N. Okafor, Science Publishers, India (2007).
10. Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology by G. Reed, CBS Publishers and Distributors, India (2004).

20
PRACTICAL PAPER-III



Pertaining to:

Theory Paper V: Fundamentals of Food Microbiology

Theory Paper VI: Fundamentals of Food Chemistry

M. Marks: 100 Total practical hours: 60

Time: 4 hours
1. Introduction to safety in a food microbiology lab.
2. Qualitative study of microflora in primary sources of microorganisms in food.
3. Effect of extrinsic factors (pH, water activity) on growth of microorganisms in food sample.
4. Effect of preservation methods on growth of microorganisms in food sample.
5. Detection of coliforms in water sample by MPN method.
6. Study of microflora associated with fresh and spoiled fruits and vegetables.
7. Study of microflora associated with spoiled canned food.
8. Study of microflora associated with fresh, processed and spoiled meat.
9. Study of microflora associated with egg.
10. Study of microflora associated with cereals and cereals products.
11. Study of microflora associated with milk and milk products.
12. Effect of sanitizers on microbial load.
13. Laboratory preparation of a fermented food.
14. Detection of food borne pathogens in a given food sample.
15. To extract casein from milk.
16. To study functionality of a protein at different pH conditions.
17. To determine the non enzymatic browning of different sugars.
18. To determine the peroxide value of oil samples.
19. To study the effect of heat processing on chlorophyll.

21
PRACTICAL PAPER-IV



Pertaining to:

Theory Paper VII: Principles of Fermentation Technology



Theory Paper VIII: Microbial Technology

M. Marks: 100 Total practical hours: 60

Time: 4 hours
1. Demonstration and operation of a laboratory scale bioreactor.
2. Production and estimation of single cell protein.
3. Standardization and optimization of ethanol production from S. cerevisiae.
4. Production of citric acid from A. niger.
5. Production and estimation of penicillin form P. chrysogenum.
6. Immobilization of cells for the production of ethanol, citric acid and aspartic acid.
7. Optimization of cells disruption for the release of intracellular enzyme.
8. Comparison of kinetics of soluble and immobilized enzyme.
9. Demonstration of purification techniques.
10. Factors affecting submerged fermentation.
11. Demonstration of processing of proteins, amino acids and carbohydrates.
12. Fermentative production of food enzymes.
13. Laboratory preparation of wine.
14. Organoleptics and chemical evaluation of wine from various raw materials.
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