Swiss ephemeris 4 Computer ephemeris for developers of astrological software 4



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SWISS EPHEMERIS 4

Computer ephemeris for developers of astrological software 4

Introduction 6

1. Licensing 6

2. Descripition of the ephemerides 6

2.1 Planetary and lunar ephemerides 6

2.1.1 Three ephemerides 6

2.1.1.1 The Swiss Ephemeris 6

2.1.1.2 The Moshier Ephemeris 9

2.1.1.3 The full JPL Ephemeris 9

2.1.2.1 Swiss Ephemeris and the Astronomical Almanac 11

2.1.2.2 Swiss Ephemeris and JPL Horizons System of NASA 11

2.1.2.3 Differences between Swiss Ephemeris 1.70 and older versions 12

2.1.2.4 Differences between Swiss Ephemeris 1.78 and 1.77 14

2.1.2.5 Differences between Swiss Ephemeris 2.00 and 1.80 15

2.1.2.6 Differences between Swiss Ephemeris 2.05.01 and 2.06 15

2.1.3 The details of coordinate transformation 15

2.1.4 The Swiss Ephemeris compression mechanism 16

2.1.5 The extension of the time range to 10'800 years 16

2.2 Lunar and Planetary Nodes and Apsides 17

2.2.1 Mean Lunar Node and Mean Lunar Apogee ('Lilith', 'Black Moon' in astrology) 17

2.2.2 The 'True' Node 18

2.2.3 The Osculating Apogee (astrological 'True Lilith' or 'True Dark Moon') 19

2.2.4 The Interpolated or Natural Apogee and Perigee (astrological Lilith and Priapus) 20

2.2.5 Planetary Nodes and Apsides 20

2.3. Asteroids 23

Asteroid ephemeris files 23

How the asteroids were computed 24

Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta 24

Chiron 24

Pholus 25

”Ceres” - an application program for asteroid astrology 25

2.4 Comets 25

2.5 Fixed stars and Galactic Center 25

2.6 ‚Hypothetical' bodies 25

Uranian Planets (Hamburg Planets: Cupido, Hades, Zeus, Kronos, Apollon, Admetos, Vulkanus, Poseidon) 25

Transpluto (Isis) 26

Harrington 26

Nibiru 26

Vulcan 27

Selena/White Moon 27

Dr. Waldemath’s Black Moon 27

The Planets X of Leverrier, Adams, Lowell and Pickering 27

2.7 Sidereal Ephemerides 27

Sidereal Calculations 27

The problem of defining the zodiac 28

The Babylonian tradition and the Fagan/Bradley ayanamsha 28

The Hipparchan tradition 29

Suryasiddhanta and Aryabhata 31

The Spica/Citra tradition and the Lahiri ayanamsha 32

The sidereal zodiac and the Galactic Center 34

The sidereal zodiac and the Galactic Equator 35

Other ayanamshas 36

Conclusions 37

In search of correct algorithms 38

More benefits from our new sidereal algorithms: standard equinoxes and precession-corrected transits 41

3. Apparent versus true planetary positions 41

4. Geocentric versus topocentric and heliocentric positions 42

5. Heliacal Events, Eclipses, Occultations, and Other Planetary Phenomena 42

5.1. Heliacal Events of the Moon, Planets and Stars 42

5.1.1. Introduction 42

5.1.2. Aspect determining visibility 43

5.1.2.1. Position of celestial objects 43

5.1.2.2. Geographic location 43

5.1.2.3. Optical properties of observer 43

5.1.2.4. Meteorological circumstances 43

5.1.2.5. Contrast between object and sky background 44

5.1.3. Functions to determine the heliacal events 44

5.1.3.1. Determining the contrast threshold (swe_vis_limit_magn)  44

5.1.3.2. Iterations to determine when the studied object is really visible (swe_heliacal_ut)  44

5.1.3.3. Geographic limitations of swe_heliacal_ut() and strange behavior of planets in high geographic latitudes 44

5.1.3.4. Visibility of Venus and the Moon during day 44

5.1.4. Future developments 44

5.1.5. References 45

5.2. Eclipses, occultations, risings, settings, and other planetary phenomena 45

6. Sidereal Time, Ascendant, MC, Houses, Vertex 45

6.0. Sidereal Time 45

6.1. Astrological House Systems 46

6.1.1. Placidus 46

6.1.2. Koch/GOH 46

6.1.3. Regiomontanus 46

6.1.4. Campanus 46

6.1.5. Equal Systems 46

6.1.5.1. Equal houses from Ascendant 46

6.1.5.2. Equal houses from Midheaven 46

6.1.5.3. Vehlow-equal System 46

6.1.5.4. Whole Sign houses 47

6.1.5.5. Whole Sign houses starting at 0° Aries 47

6.1.6. Porphyry Houses and Related House Systems 47

6.1.5.1. Porphyry Houses 47

6.1.5.2. Sripati Houses 47

6.1.5.3. Pullen SD (Sinusoidal Delta, also known as “Neo-Porphyry”) 47

6.1.5.4. Pullen SR (Sinusoidal Ratio) 47

6.1.7. Axial Rotation Systems 48

6.1.7.1. Meridian System 48

6.1.7.2. Carter’s poli-equatorial houses 48

6.1.8. The Morinus System 48

6.1.9. Horizontal system 48

6.1.10. The Polich-Page (“topocentric”) system 48

6.1.11. Alcabitus system 49

6.1.12. Gauquelin sectors 49

6.1.13. Krusinski/Pisa/Goelzer system 49

6.1.14. APC house system 50

6.1.15. Sunshine house system 50

6.2. Vertex, Antivertex, East Point and Equatorial Ascendant, etc. 50

6.3. House cusps beyond the polar circle 51

6.3.1. Implementation in other calculation modules: 51

6.4. House position of a planet 51

6.5. Gauquelin sector position of a planet 52

7. T (Delta T) 52

8. Programming Environment 55

9. Swiss Ephemeris Functions 56

9.1 Swiss Ephemeris API 56

Calculation of planets and stars 56

Date and time conversion 56

Initialization, setup, and closing functions 57

House calculation 57

Auxiliary functions 57

Other functions that may be useful 57

9.2 Placalc API 58

Appendix 59

A. The gravity deflection for a planet passing behind the Sun 59

B. A list of asteroids 60

C. How to Compare the Swiss Ephemeris with Ephemerides of the JPL Horizons System 65

Test 1: Astrometric Positions ICRF/J2000 65

Test 2: Apparent positions, True Equinox of Date, RA, DE, Ecliptic Longitude and Latitude 67

Test 3: Ephemerides before 1962 68

Test 4: Jupiter versus Jupiter Barycentre 69

Test 5: Topocentric Position of a Planet 70

Test 6: Heliocentric Positions 72

D. How to compare the Swiss Ephemeris with Ephemerides of the Astronomical Almanac (apparent positions) 74

Test 7: Astronomical Almanac online 74



Test 8: Astronomical Almanac printed 74





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