Suelette dreyfus julian assange



Download 6.15 Mb.
Page42/43
Date03.05.2017
Size6.15 Mb.
1   ...   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43

else on-line. If caught, the law, as interpreted by the AFP and the

DPP, says he faces up to ten years in prison. The reason? He has

inserted or deleted data.

Although the spy hacker might also face other charges--such as

treason--this exercise illustrates some of the problems with the

current computer crime legislation.

The letter of the law says that our look-see hacker might face a

prison term five times greater than the bank fraud criminal or the

military spy, and twenty times greater than the anti-Liberal Party

subversive, if he inserts or deletes any data. The law, as interpreted

by the AFP, says that the look-see hacking described above should have

the same maximum ten-year prison penalty as judicial corruption. It's

a weird mental image--the corrupt judge and the look-see hacker

sharing a prison cell.

Although the law-makers may not have fully understood the

technological aspects of hacking when they introduced the computer

crimes legislation, their intent seems clear. They were trying to

differentiate between a malicious hacker and a look-see hacker, but

they could have worded it better.

As it's worded, the legislation puts malicious, destructive hacking on

a par with look-see hacking by saying that anyone who destroys,

erases, alters or inserts data via a carrier faces a prison term,

regardless of the person's intent. There is no gradation in the law

between mere deletion of data and `aggravated deletion'--the maximum

penalty is ten years for both. The AFP has taken advantage of this

lack of distinction, and the result has been a steady stream of

look-see hackers being charged with the most serious computer crime

offences.

Parliament makes the laws. Government institutions such as the AFP,

the DPP and the courts interpret and apply those laws. The AFP and to

some extent the DPP have applied the strict letter of the law

correctly in most of the hacking cases described in this book. They

have, however, missed the intention of the law. Change the law and

they may behave differently. Make look-see hacking a minor offence and

the institutions will stop going after the soft targets and hopefully

spend more time on the real criminals.

I have seen some of these hackers up close, studied them for two years

and learned a bit about what makes them tick. In many ways, they are

quintessentially Australian, always questioning authority and

rebelling against `the establishment'. They're smart--in some cases

very smart. A few might even be classified as technical geniuses.

They're mischievous, but also very enterprising. They're rebels,

public nuisances and dreamers.

Most of all, they know how to think outside the box.

This is not a flaw. Often, it is a very valuable trait--and one which

pushes society forward into new frontiers. The question shouldn't be

whether we want to crush it but how we should steer it in a different

direction.
If you would like to comment on this book, please write to

feedback@underground-book.com. All comments are passed onto

Dreyfus & Assange.
_________________________________________________________________
Underground -- Glossary and Abbreviations

_________________________________________________________________

AARNET Australian Academic Research Network

ACARB Australian Computer Abuse Research Bureau, once called CITCARB

AFP Australian Federal Police

Altos West German chat system and hacker hang-out, connected to X.25

network and run by Altos Computer Systems, Hamburg

ANU Australian National University

ASIO Australian Security Intelligence Organisation

Backdoor A program or modification providing secret access to a

computer system, installed by a hacker to bypass normal security. Also

used as a verb

BBS Bulletin Board System

BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory (US)

BRL Ballistics Research Laboratory (US)

BT British Telecom

CCITT Committee Consultatif Internationale Telegraph et Telephonie:

Swiss telecommunications standards body (now defunct; see ITU)

CCS Computer Crime Squad

CCU Computer Crimes Unit (Australian Federal Police)

CERT Computer Emergency Response Team

CIAC Computer Incident Advisory Capability: DOE's computer security

team

CITCARB Chisholm Institute of Technology Computer Abuse Research



Bureau (now defunct. See ACARB)

COBE Cosmic Background Explorer project: a NASA research project

DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US)

DCL Digital Command Language, a computer programming language used on

VMS computers

DDN Defense Data Network

DEC Digital Equipment Corporation

DECNET A network protocol used to convey information between

(primarily) VAX/VMS machines

DEFCON (a) Defense Readiness Conditions, a system of progressive alert

postures in the US; (b) the name of Force's computer program which

automatically mapped out computer networks and scanned for accounts

DES Data Encryption Standard, an encryption algorithm developed by

IBM, NSA and NIST

Deszip Fast DES Unix password-cracking system developed by Matthew

Bishop


Dial-up Modem access point into a computer or computer network

DMS-100 Computerised telephone switch (exchange) made by NorTel

DOD Department of Defense (US)

DOE Department of Energy (US)

DPP Director of Public Prosecutions

DST Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire-- French secret service

agency

EASYNET Digital Equipment Corporation's internal communication network



(DECNET)

GTN Global Telecommunications Network: Citibank's international data

network

HEPNET High Energy Physics Network: DECNET-based network, primarily



controlled by DOE, connected to NASA's SPAN

IID Internal Investigations Division. Both the Victoria Police and the

AFP have an IID

IP Internet Protocol (RFC791): a data communications protocol, used to

transmit packets of data between computers on the Internet

IS International Subversive (electronic magazine)

ISU Internal Security Unit: anti-corruption unit of the Victoria

Police


ITU International Telecommunications Union, the international

telecommunications standards body

JANET Joint Academic Network (UK), a network of computers

JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory--a California-based NASA research centre

affiliated with CalTech

LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (US)

LOD Legion of Doom

Lutzifer West German computer, connected to the X.25 network, which

had a chat facility

MFC Multi Frequency Code (Group III): inter-exchange

telecommunications system used by Telstra (Telecom)

MILNET Military Network: TCP/IP unclassified US DOD computer network

MOD Masters of Deception (or Destruction)

Modem Modulator De-modulator: a device used to transmit computer data

over a regular telephone line

NCA National Crime Authority

Netlink A Primos/Dialcom command used to initiate a connection over an

X.25 network

NIST National Institute of Standards (US)

NIC Network Information Center (US), run by DOD: a computer which

assigned domain names for the Internet.

NRL Naval Research Laboratory (US)

NSA National Security Agency (US)

NUA Network User Address: the `telephone' number of a computer on an

X.25 network

NUI Network User Identifier (or Identification): combined

username/password used on X.25 networks for billing purposes

NorTel Northern Telecom, Canadian manufacturer of telecommunications

equipment

PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange

PAD Packet Assembler Disassembler--ASCII gateway to X.25 networks

PAR `PAR?'--command on PAD to display PAD

parameters

RMIT Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology

RTG Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, space probe Galileo's

plutonium-based power system

RTM Robert Tappan Morris (Jr), the Cornell University student who

wrote the Internet worm, also known as the RTM worm

Scanner A program which scans and compiles information, such as a list

of NUAs


SPAN Space Physics Analysis Network: global DECNET- based network,

primarily controlled by NASA

Sprint US telecommunications company, an X.25 network provider

Sprinter Word used by some Australian and English hackers to denote

scanner. Derived from scanning attacks on Sprint communications

Sprintnet X.25 network controlled by Sprint communications

Sun Sun Microsystems--a major producer of Unix workstations

TCP Transmission Control Protocol (RFC793): a standard for data

connection between two computers on the Internet

TELENET An X.25 network, DNIC 3110

Telnet A method of connection between two computers on the Internet or

other TCP/IP networks

Trojan A program installed by hackers to secretly gather information,

such as passwords. Can also be a backdoor

Tymnet An X.25 network controlled by MCI, DNIC 3106

Unix Multi-user computer operating system developed by AT&T and

Berkeley CSRG

VAX Virtual Address Extension: series of mini/mainframe computer

systems produced by DEC

VMS Virtual Memory System: computer operating system produced by DEC

and used on its VAX machines

WANK Worms Against Nuclear Killers: the title of DECNET/VMS-based worm

released into SPAN/DEC/HEPNET in 1989

X.25 International data communications network, using the X.25

communications protocol. Network is run primarily by major

telecommunications companies. Based on CCITT standard # X.25

Zardoz A restricted computer security mailing list

_________________________________________________________________


NOTES

_________________________________________________________________

Chapter 1

1. Words And Music by Rob Hirst/Martin Rotsey/James Moginie/Peter

Garrett/Peter Gifford. (c) Copyright 1982 Sprint Music. Administered

for the World--Warner/ Chappell Music Australia Pty Ltd. Used By

Permission.

2. I have relied on numerous wire service reports, particularly those

of UPI Science Reporter William Harwood, for many of my descriptions

of Galileo and the launch.

3. William Harwood, `NASA Awaits Court Ruling on Shuttle Launch

Plans', UPI, 10 October 1989.

4. William Harwood, `Atlantis "Go" for Tuesday Launch', UPI, 16

October 1989.

5. Ibid.

6. From NASA's World Wide Web site.

7. Thomas A. Longstaff and E. Eugene Schulz, `Analysis of the WANK and

OILZ Worms', Computer and Security, vol. 12, no. 1, February 1993, p.

64.

8. Katie Haffner and John Markoff, Cyberpunk, Corgi, London 1994, p.



363.

9. The Age, 22 April 1996, reprinted from The New York Times.

10. DEC, Annual Report, 1989, listed in `SEC Online'.

11. GEMTOP was corrected to GEMPAK in a later advisory by CIAC.

12. `Officially' was spelled incorrectly in the original banner.

13. This advisory is printed with the permission of CIAC and Kevin

Oberman. CIAC requires the publication of the following disclaimer:

This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an

agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States

Government, nor the University of California, nor any of their

employees makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process

disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial products,

process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or

otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

recommendation or favouring by the United States Government or the

University of California. The views and opinions of authors expressed

herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States

Government or the University of California, and shall not be used for

advertising or product endorsement purposes.

14. Michael Alexander and Maryfran Johnson, `Worm Eats Holes in NASA's

Decnet', Computer World, 23 October 1989, p. 4.

15. Ibid.

16. William Harwood, `Shuttle Launch Rained Out', UPI, 17 October

1989.

17. Vincent Del Guidice, `Atlantis Set for Another Launch Try', UPI,



18 October 1989.

18. William Harwood, `Astronauts Fire Galileo on Flight to Jupiter',

UPI, 18 October 1989.

Chapter 2

1. Words And Music by Rob Hirst/James Moginie. (c) Copyright 1985

Sprint Music. Administered for the World--Warner/Chappell Music

Australia Pty Ltd. Used By Permission.

2. FIRST was initially called CERT System. It was an international

version of CERT, the Computer Emergency Response Team, funded by the

US Department of Defense and run out of Carnegie Mellon University.

3. OTC was later merged with Telecom to become Telstra.

4. Stuart Gill is described in some detail in Operation Iceberg;

Investigation of Leaked Confidential Police Information and Related

Matters, Ordered to be printed by the Legislative Assembly of

Victoria, October 1993.

Chapter 3

1. Words And Music by Peter Garrett/James Moginie.

(c) Copyright 1982 Sprint Music. Administered for the

World--Warner/Chappell Music Australia Pty Ltd. Used By Permission.

Chapter 4

1. Words And Music by Peter Garrett/James Moginie/Martin Rotsey. (c)

Copyright 1980 Sprint Music. Administered for the

World--Warner/Chappell Music Australia Pty Ltd. Used By Permission.

Chapter 5

1. Words And Music by Rob Hirst/James Moginie. (c) Copyright 1989

Sprint Music. Administered for the World--Warner/ Chappell Music

Australia Pty Ltd. Used By Permission.

2. The full text of the articles, used by permission News Ltd and

Helen Meredith, is:

3. From Operation Iceberg; Investigations and Recommendations into

Allegations of Leaked Confidential Police Information, included as

Appendix 1 in the report of the Deputy Ombudsman, Operation Iceberg;

Investigation of Leaked Confidential Police Information and Related

Matters.


4. Ibid., pp. 26-7.

5. Michael Alexander, `International Hacker "Dave" Arrested', Computer

World, 9 April 1990, p. 8.

6. Matthew May, `Hacker Tip-Off', The Times, 5 April 1990; Lou

Dolinar, `Australia Arrests Three in Computer Break-Ins', Newsday, 3

April 1990.

Chapter 6

1. Words And Music by Rob Hirst/James Moginie/Peter Garrett. (c)

Copyright 1978 Sprint Music. Administered for the

World--Warner/Chappell Music Australia Pty Ltd. Used By Permission.

Chapter 7

1. Words And Music by Peter Garrett/James Moginie/Rob Hirst. (c)

Copyright 1988 Sprint Music. Administered for the

World--Warner/Chappell Music Australia Pty Ltd. Used By Permission.

2. Rupert Battcock, `The Computer Misuse Act Five years on--the Record

since 1990', paper, Strathclyde University, Glasgow, UK.

3. For the British material in this chapter, I have relied on personal

interviews, media reports (particularly for the Wandii case), journal

articles, academic papers and commission reports.

4. Colin Randall, `Teenage Computer Hacker "Caused Worldwide Chaos"',

Daily Telegraph, 23 February 1993.

5. The local phone company agreed to reduce the bill to

[sterling]3000, EORTIC information systems manager Vincent Piedboeuf

told the court.

6. Susan Watts, `Trial Haunted by Images of Life in the Twilight

Zone', The Independent, 18 March 1993.

7. Toby Wolpe, `Hacker Worked on Barclay's Software', Computer Weekly,

4 March 1993.

8. David Millward, `Computer Hackers Will be Pursued, Vow Police',

Daily Telegraph, 19 March 1993.

9. Chester Stern, `Hackers' Threat to Gulf War Triumph', Mail on

Sunday, 21 March 1993.

10. `Crimes of the Intellect--Computer Hacking', editorial, The Times,

20 March 1993.

11. `Owners Must Act to Put End to Computer Hacker "Insanity"', South

China Morning Post, 30 March 1993.

12. Nick Nuttall, `Hackers Stay Silent on Court Acquittal', The Times,

19 March 1993.

13. Melvyn Howe, Press Association Newsfile, Home News section, 21 May

1993.


Chapter 8

1. Words And Music by James Moginie/Peter Garrett. (c) Copyright 1982

Sprint Music. Administered for the World--Warner/Chappell Music

Australia Pty Ltd. Used By Permission.

2. This is an edited version.

Chapter 9

1. Words And Music by Rob Hirst. (c) Copyright 1993 Sprint Music.

Administered for the World--Warner/Chappell Music Australia Pty Ltd.

Used By Permission.

Chapter 10

1. Words And Music by Rob Hirst/James Moginie/Martin Rotsey/Andrew

James. (c) Copyright 1978 Sprint Music. Administered for the

World--Warner/Chappell Music Australia Pty Ltd and Andrew James. Used

By Permission.

Chapter 11

1. Words And Music by James Moginie (lyrics adapted from the book The

Great Prawn War And Other Stories by Dennis Kevans). (c) Copyright

1984 Sprint Music. Administered for the World--Warner/Chappell Music

Australia Pty Ltd. Used By Permission.

Afterword

1. Victorian Ombudsman, Operation Iceberg; Investigation of Leaked

Confidential Police Information and Related Matters.

2. The police report was printed as an appendix in the Ombudsman's

report. See Chapter 5, note 1, above.

3. Australian Federal Police, Annual Report, 1995-1996, p. 7.

_________________________________________________________________


BIBLIOGRAPHY

_________________________________________________________________

Australian Federal Police (AFP), Annual Report 1995-1996, Canberra,

1996.


----, Annual Report 1994-1995, Canberra, 1995.

----, Annual Report 1993-1994, Canberra, 1994.

Bourne, Philip E., `Internet security; System Security', DEC

Professional, vol. 11, June 1992.

Cerf, Vinton G., `Networks', Scientific American, vol. 265, September

1991.


Clyde, Robert A., `DECnet security', DEC Professional, vol. 10, April

1991.


Commonwealth Attorney-General's Department, Interim Report on Computer

Crime (The Gibbs Report), Canberra, 1988.

Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions (DDP), Annual Report

1993-1994, Canberra, 1994.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO),

Annual Report 1994-1995, Canberra, 1995.

Davis, Andrew W., `DEC Pathworks the mainstay in Mac-to-VAX

connectivity', MacWeek, vol. 6, 3 August 1992.

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australian Treaty Series

1993, no. 40, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra,

1993.

Digital Equipment Corporation, Annual Report 1989, Securities and



Exchange Commission (SEC) Online (USA) Inc., 1989.

----, Quarterly Report for period ending 12.31.89, SEC Online (USA).

Gezelter, Robert, `The DECnet TASK object; Tutorial', Digital Systems

Journal, vol. 16, July 1994.

Gianatasio, David, `Worm infestation hits 300 VAX/VMS systems

worldwide via DECnet', Digital Review, vol. 6, 20 November 1989.

Haffner, Katie & Markoff, John, Cyberpunk, Corgi Books (Transworld),

Moorebank NSW, 1994.

Halbert, Debora, `The Potential for Modern Communication Technology to

Challenge Legal Discourses of Authorship and Property', Murdoch

University E-Law Journal, vol. 1, no. 2.

Kelman, Alistair, `Computer Crime in the 1990s: A Barrister's View',

Paper for the Twelfth International Symposium on Economic Crime,

September 1994.

Law Commission (UK) Working Paper, no. 110, 1988.

Lloyd, J. Ian & Simpson, Moira, Law on the Electronic Frontier, David

Hume Institute, Edinburgh, 1996.

Longstaff, Thomas A., & Schultz, E. Eugene, `Beyond preliminary

analysis of the WANK and OILZ worms: a case study of malicious code',

Computers & Security, vol. 12, February 1993.

Loundy, David J., `Information Systems Law and Operator Liability

Revisited', Murdoch University E-Law Journal, vol. 1, no. 3, September

1994.

McMahon, John, `Practical DECnet security', Digital Systems Journal,



vol. 14, November 1992.

Melford, Robert J., `Network security; computer networks', Internal

Auditor, Institute of Internal Auditors, vol. 50, February 1993.

Natalie, D. & Ball, W, EIS Coordinator, North Carolina Emergency

Management, `How North Carolina Managed Hurricane Hugo', EIS News,

vol. 3, no. 11, 1988.

NorTel Australia Pty Ltd, Discovering Tomorrow's Telecommunications

Solutions, Chatswood, NSW (n.d.).

Northern Telecom, Annual Report 1993, Ontario, 1993.

Slatalla, Michelle & Quittner, Joshua, Masters of Deception,

HarperCollins, New York, 1995.

Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, Report of the

Inquiry into the Death of the Woman Who Died at Ceduna, Australian

Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1990.

Scottish Law Commission's Report on Computer Crime, no. 174, 1987.

SPAN Management Office, `Security guidelines to be followed in the

latest worm attack', an Intranetwork Memorandum released by the SPAN

Management Office, NASA, 30 October 1989.

Sterling, Bruce, The Hacker Crackdown, Penguin Books, Melbourne, 1994.

Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg, Pan Books, London, 1991.

Tencati, Ron, `Information regarding the DECNET worm and protection

measures', an Intranetwork Memorandum released by the SPAN Management

Office, NASA, 19 October 1989.

----, `Network Security Suplemental Information--Protecting the DECNET

Account', security advisory, released by SPAN, NASA/Goddard Space

Flight Center, 1989.

The Victorian Ombudsman, Operation Iceberg: Investigation of Leaked

Confidential Police Information and Related Matters, Report of the

Deputy Ombudsman (Police Complaints), L.V. North Government Printer,

Melbourne, 1993.

`USA proposes international virus team', Computer Fraud & Security

Bulletin (Elsevier Advanced Technology Publications), August 1991.

Victoria Police, Operation Iceberg--Investigation and Recommendations

into Allegations of Leaked Confidential Police Information, 1 June,

Memorandum from Victoria Police Commander Bowles to Chief Commissioner

Comrie (also available as Appendix 1 in the Victorian Ombudsman's

Operation Iceberg Report, tabled in Victorian Parliament, October

1993), 1993.

Vietor, Richard, Contrived Competition: Regulation and Deregulation in


Directory: ~suelette -> underground

Download 6.15 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   ...   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page