Subject : education


Ashok Prajapati Project Co-ordinator,Children’s University , Gandhinagar 382020



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Ashok Prajapati

Project Co-ordinator,Children’s University , Gandhinagar 382020


KEYWORDS:

SUBJECT : PSYCHOLOGY



ABSTRACT

The relationship which parents establish with their children, have a powerful influence upon the development of the personality of the child. Parental involvement may be described as the allocation of resources to the child’s school endeavor. The word parental involvement has been used as a general term which may encompass several activities. The prime aim of the study was to identify and compare parental involvement in their children among parents of north Gujarat. Total 200 people were randomly selected from various districts of north Gujarat offering below and above graduation, out of which 100 were from urban and 100 were from rural area. Parental Involvement was measured with the help of the Parental Involvement Scale (PIS) developed by Dr. (Mrs.) Rita Chopra and Dr. Surabala Sahoo. Mean scores were computed and‘t’ test was applied to find out the differences between the groups. The results reveal that the above graduate parents are more involved in their children than below graduate parents and differences between the groups find statistically significant at 0.01 level (t=3.05). Simultaneously the parents from urban and rural area reported same involved in their children (t=1.11, NS) and furthermore the above graduate urban parents are more involved than all (M=83.54). And below graduate urban parents are less involved in their children than all (M=76.44).


RELATION OF PARENTS EDUCATION AND HABITAT WITH PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT

Parental involvement has been recognized as the most important factor to influence the childhood and adulthood. Any enrichment programme for maximizing the potentials of all children has to have active parent child interaction. The role of parents in bringing up their children is quite important both in terms of their devotion with respect to time spent with them, money and other considerations. Parental involvement implies how the parents involve themselves in developing overall personality of the child. All the parents have expectation, likes and dislikes and preferences regarding how children should be handled, brought up and educated.


Many researchers and theorist pointed out that the operational use of parental involvement has been somewhat vague and at times inconsistent, despite the intuitive meaning of concept (Christenson, Rounds& Gorney, 1992; Fan & Chen, 2001; Hong and Ho, 2005).According to Brito & Waller, (1994) parent involvement is a term that can include many different activities. It can range from an impersonal visit to school once a year, to frequent parent-teacher consultations to active school governorship. It can refer to parental expectations (Hess et al, 1984) or to the ways parents help their children develop positive attitudes or to homework supervision (Bloom, 1984). Regarding of these difficulties in operationally defining the term, most researchers would agree with the typology suggested by Epstein, Coates, Salinas, Sanders & Simon,(1997) according to which parental involvement has five dimensions: Parenting, helping with homework, communicating with school, volunteering at school and participating in school decision making.
The focus on parental involvement has its roots in research pointing out the positive correlation it has with children’s school achievement (Englund et al; 2004). Indeed, a substantial body of literature documents the existence of such a relationship (Christenson, Rounds & Gorney, 2002; Epstein, 1992) .Kim’s (2002) research findings indicate that parental involvement makes a positive contribution to children’s educational achievement. Epstein(1992) argues that “students at all grade levels to better academic work and have more positive school attitudes, higher aspiration and other positive behaviors if they have a parents who are aware, knowledgeable, encouraging and involved’’

Baker & Linda (2003) have done research on “The role of parents in motivating struggling readers.” This research has shown that supportive home environment is a great motivation for reading which leads to more frequent voluntary reading which improves reading achievement. Many collaborative interactions involving home and school have enhanced the reading motivation of struggling readers as they enhanced comprehension.
Becker and Epstein (1982) Reported that the parent’s involvement in their children’s educational experiences, by home instruction, volunteering in the classroom or participation’s in school governance, has been linked to the quality of children’s learning and motivation in school.

The prime aim of the present investigation is to identify the parental involvement of parents in their children among north Gujarat. As I know that the parents are taken from urban and rural area. And also they are offering below and above graduation.


OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The present investigation was carried out to accomplish following objectives.



  1. To identify and compare the parental involvement on education among people of north Gujarat.

  2. To identify and compare the parental involvement on area among people reside in north Gujarat.

  3. To identify and compare the parental involvement on interaction of education and area among people who lives in north Gujarat.


NULL-HYPOTHESES

  1. There is no significant difference among parental involvement on area.

  2. There is no significant difference among parental involvement on education.

  3. There is no significant difference between parental involvement of urban below graduate parents and urban above graduate parents.

  4. There is no significant difference between parental involvement of urban above graduate parents and rural above graduate parents.

  5. There is no significant difference between parental involvement of rural below graduate parents and rural above graduate parents.

  6. There is no significant difference between parental involvement of urban below graduate parents and rural below graduate parents.

METHOD

Participant:

Total 200 people were randomly selected from north Gujarat, out of which 100 were from below graduation and 100 were from above graduation. The sample was equally divided in regard to area (urban & rural) also.



Instruments:

To identify the parental involvement among the participants the Parental Involvement Scale (PIS) developed Dr. (Mrs.) Rita Chopra and Dr. Surabala Sahoo was used. The scale consists 35 statements; each statement has three option for choice like frequently, occasionally and never. The Split- Half reliability of the inventory is 0.91 and the validation of the scale was based on its content outlined. It was established by discussing the statements of the scale with some experts in the field of education. On the basis of their unanimous suggestion and agreements the validity was constructed.



Procedure:

The permission for data collection was taken from the concerned people of the north Gujarat. The entire participant was approached at their place. They were told that the purpose of the data collection is only for a research and their responses would be used for research purposes only. The collected data was analyzed by Mean, SD and‘t’ test.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As I pointed out previously that the prime aim of the study is to identify and compare the parental involvement of parents offering below graduation and above graduation in their children at different area. I also tried to find out differences separately between the group of rural as well as urban of below graduation and above graduation. Here further I would like to mention that the score obtained on Parental Involvement Scale (PIS) have its special meaning to generally interpretation option choice system. In PIS the option ‘frequently’ given against the statement would get the score3 and who answer ‘occasionally’ and ‘never’ given against the statements would get score 2 and 1 score respectively. The highest score for the scale will be 102 and lowest score will be 34.

I can state that the result in general reveals that the‘t’ value of the area is found to be significant at 0.05 level and education is found to be significant at 0.01 level.

Table: (1)

Showing Result of ‘t’ test on Parental Involvement with regard to Urban V/s Rural.


Variables

N

Mean

SD

t’

Significant


Urban

100

79.99

9.33


1.11


NS



Rural

100

81.69

10.01


*Significant level of ‘t’ value: 0.05 level 1.97 (df=198), 0.01 level 2.60 (df=198)

As reported in Table: 1 urban parents exhibits lower mean score (M=79.99) then the rural parents (M=81.69) but have not more different and ‘t’ value of 1.11 clearly indicate that the differences between the two groups in parental involvement is find to be not statistically significant, it means first null hypothesis is accept. Hence I can state that the rural parents and urban parents have no difference to involvement in their children.



Table: (2)

Showing Result of ‘t’ test on Parental Involvement with regard to Below Graduation V/s Above Graduation.

Variables

N

Mean

SD

t’

Significant

Below Graduation

100

78.91

9.51


3.05


0.01


Above Graduation

100

82.77

9.53


*Significant level of ‘t’ value: 0.05 level 1.97 (df=198), 0.01 level 2.60 (df=198)

Table: 2 reveals results obtained by the group of below graduation and above graduation. As reported in table: 2 below graduate parents shows lower mean score (M=78.91) then the above graduate parents (M=82.77) and ‘t’ value of 3.05 indicate that the differences between the two groups in parental involvement is find to be statistically significant at 0.01 level, it means second null hypothesis is reject. Therefore I can say that the above graduate parents have great involved in their children than below graduate parents among north Gujarat.



Table: (3)

Showing Result of ‘t’ test on Parental Involvement with regard to Below Graduate Urban V/s Above Graduate Urban.

Variables

N

Mean

SD

t’

Significant

Below Graduate Urban

50

76.44

7.65


4.16


0.01


Above Graduate Urban

50

83.54

9.57


*Significant level of ‘t’ value: 0.05 level 1.98 (df=98), 0.01 level 2.63 (df=98)

I can observe in Table: 3 that urban below graduate parents shows lower mean score (M=76.44) then the urban above graduate parents (M=83.54) and ‘t’ value of 4.16 indicate that the differences between the two groups in parental involvement is find to be statistically significant at 0.01 level, it means third null hypothesis is reject. That's why I can say that the urban above graduate parents have great involved in their children than urban below graduate parents reside in north Gujarat.



Table: (4)

Showing Result of ‘t’ test on Parental Involvement with regard to Above Graduate Urban V/s Above Graduate Rural.

Variables

N

Mean

SD

t’

Significant

Above Graduate Urban

50

83.54

9.57


0.78


NS


Above Graduate Rural

50

82.00

9.52


*Significant level of ‘t’ value: 0.05 level 1.98 (df=98), 0.01 level 2.63 (df=98)

It could be seen from Table: 4 that the urban above graduate parents (M=83.54)and the rural above graduate parents (M=82.00) have not more difference in parental involvement and ‘t’ value of 0.78 indicate that the differences between the two groups in parental involvement is find to be no statistically significant, it means forth null hypothesis is accept. Thus I can say that the urban above graduate parents and rural above graduate parents have equaled to involve in their children. That means area has not effects to parental involvement than education.



Table: (5)

Showing Result of ‘t’ test on Parental Involvement with regard to Below Graduate Rural V/s Above Graduate Rural.

Variables

N

Mean

SD

t’

Significant

Below

Graduate Urban

50

81.38

10.57


0.35


NS


Above Graduate Rural

50

82.00

9.52


*Significant level of ‘t’ value: 0.05 level 1.98 (df=98), 0.01 level 2.63 (df=98)

Table: 4 reveals that the urban below graduate parents (M=81.38)and the rural above graduate parents (M=82.00) have not more difference in parental involvement and ‘t’ value of 0.35 indicate that the differences between the two groups in parental involvement is find to be no statistically significant, it means fifth null hypothesis is accept. Hence I can say that the urban below graduate parents and rural above graduate parents have equaled to involve in their children.



Table: (6)

Showing Result of ‘t’ test on Parental Involvement with regard to Below Graduate Urban V/s Below Graduate Rural.

Variables

N

Mean

SD

t’

Significant

Below

Graduate Urban

50

76.44

7.65


2.88


0.01


Below

Graduate Rural

50

81.38

10.57


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