Higher education has a pivoted role in development of nation anywhere and anytime Indian higher education system is faces various challenges in all areas of development. We had a dream of strong dynamic and self-reliant India but today the dream is far reaching because of many draw back in our higher education system. India is a country of vast population and our education system is wise spread. The higher education in India has witnessed many fold increase in its institutional capacity since independence while the number of graduates across castes, communities and economic group has undeniably gone up. Day to day higher educational colleges much rooming as a “degree shop”. Due to wide expatiation quality has been decaling at alarming rate. Venerable institution of higher education across the country is not maintaining their quality. Modern education system is unable to provide sustainable levels of skills, research knowledge, technology and productivity at far with world class standards.
We have a vast higher education system which is one of the largest in world. There are at present more than 350 universities, 122 deemed universities. Total enrolment in higher education is about 1 corer. It is estimated that the total student enrolment in higher education system at the end of 2020 will be around 2 corers. There is vast net work of technical medical, information, engineering management and pharmacology institutions. Higher education faces following challenges.
Financial crisis - Government funding agencies do not have enough funds for higher education grew in size so fund allocation decreased day by day. Government pays for salary and maintenance but development need for grant. Due to government dependence higher education system is facing the crunch of more economical aid.
Privatization - For meeting the increasing demand for higher education privatization is inevitable. Privatization is very costly and creates a social gulf between rich and poor. We have dual higher education system also, one for poor and other for rich. There should be adequate state policy for the safe guard of poor people’s interest.
Poor Technology - Our higher education institution do not have adequate ICT facilities. Still we do our classroom instruction with chalk and talk. Many technical institutions do not have adequate ICT lab. We have no enough computers in computer lab. Internet connection is not available in many institutions.
Poor faculty and student mass-State universities, colleges and deemed universities have stored to temporary and ad-hoc faculty due to restriction on recruitment and mode of privatization present science suggests that many position is still lying vacant. Mostly faculty work as a part time or ad-hoc bases and there are appointed without any adequate knowledge of their subject or expensive shortage of qualified and talented faculty is the most important reason for deterioration in higher education.
We have been following an open door policy for enrollment of student. Our mostly students come from rural areas. They have lack of proper learning, knowledge, social behavior, language skill and attitudes. These resulted in deterioration of quality of higher education. They come for higher education only for social prestige not for qualifies in education. All these do not deserve it because they have on requisite levels of intelligence ability and motivation.
Corrupt Recruitment Policy - There is a need to perfect the recruitment placement and promotion criteria for higher education teacher. Mostly appointment made in universities and colleges are not on merit base but way of political influence or corruption. There seem to be continuous quarrel between subjectivity and objectivity.
Poor Evaluation System- We have adopted annual evaluation system in our universities. Our curricula, transaction and evaluation are not perfect and update. There is need to revise the curricula as per societal need. Evaluation should be continuous and comprehensive, valid and reliable. In this matter we are at where we were in past fifty years ago.
Self Faineance Colleges – In higher education system we have introduce self finance courses need of students is met without any financial burden by government. This has facilitated the management to appoint member of staff, who are mostly under qualified on ad hoc basis. They all are working on minimum salary. Faculties remain significantly insecure and under paid. Private Player are coming into this sector in the context of the market economy, they have no care for educational values. Self finance institutions do no perform their role to meet the market demand. They are producing unemployable subtend and graduates. Series of stamps are needed to revamp the self finance sector of higher education.
Come other Problems and Weaknesses -
Examination reforms are slow paced.
Curriculum is not coping with the requirement of market.
No provision to check excellence in universities or colleges.
No any involvement of teacher’s administrators in system.
Admission of undeserved students.
Corruption in appointment on the base caste, community’s money and political influences.
Negative approach and attires towards research among teachers.
Widespread indiscipline among students and teachers.