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ABSTRACT

Drug addiction and drug abuse, chronic or habitual use of any chemical substance alter states of body or mind for other than medically warranted purposes. Traditional definitions of addiction with their criteria of physical dependence and withdrawal (and often and underlying tenor of depravity and sin) have been modified with increases and understanding Addiction is more often now defined by the counting, compulsive nature of the drug use despite physical and or psychological harm to the user and society and includes both licit drugs and the term “SUBSTANCE ABUSE” is now frequently used because of the broad range of substances subjective feeling that the user needs the drug to maintain a feeling of well being; physical dependence is characterized by tolerance (the need for increasing larger doses in order to achieve the initial effect) and withdrawal symptoms when the user is abstinent. Drug addiction is becoming a major health problem in India with some estimates indicating that as many as 15 million people in India could become addicts by the end of 2004. Link between drug abuse and crime is well established but recently the association between drug addiction and HIV/AIDS has been a prime concern for health authorities in India. A significant recent shift in drug use patterns in India is th move from smoking to injecting drug use Heroin Buprenorphine (tidigesic/tamgesic) and dextropropowy-phene (spasms- proxy van) are the most commonly injected drugs in India. In a study of Indian opiod addicts, researchers found 8. 3% of ingestible drug users were HIV positive.


INTRODUCTION

Drug addiction and drug abuse, chronic or habitual use of any chemical substance alter states of body or mind for other than medically warranted purposes. Traditional definitions of addiction with their criteria of physical dependence and withdrawal (and often and underlying tenor of depravity and sin) have been modified with increases and understanding Addiction is more often now defined by the counting, compulsive nature of the drug use despite physical and or psychological harm to the user and society and includes both licit drugs and the term “SUBSTANCE ABUSE” is now frequently used because of the broad range of substances subjective feeling that the user needs the drug to maintain a feeling of well being; physical dependence is characterized by tolerance (the need for increasing larger doses in order to achieve the initial effect) and withdrawal symptoms when the user is abstinent. Drug addiction is becoming a major health problem in India with some estimates indicating that as many as 15 million people in India could become addicts by the end of 2004. Link between drug abuse and crime is well established but recently the association between drug addiction and HIV/AIDS has been a prime concern for health authorities in India. A significant recent shift in drug use patterns in India is th move from smoking to injecting drug use Heroin Buprenorphine (tidigesic/tamgesic) and dextropropowy-phene (spasms- proxy van) are the most commonly injected drugs in India. In a study of Indian opiod addicts, researchers found 8. 3% of ingestible drug users were HIV positive.


CASE STUDIES

Name :


Age : 36 years;

Education : BA with Economics;

Occupation : Unemployed ;

Next of kin : wife;

Marital Status : married

Date of Admission : 09/06/2004

Date of Discharge : 07/08/20014

Motivation : well motivated and desires to be a fine person and to do something for himself. He does not concentrate on the ill effects of drugs but on euphoric experiences derived from drugs.

Patient’s history : First started using alcohol at the age of 16years used brown sugar/ charas. Also started smoking. He also started crack in Nigeria in 1990. He has been hospitalized 47-48 times. He has a police record of armed robbery, theft, as pocket money did not suffice to fulfill drug want.

Symptoms of withdrawal : Insomnia, body ache, restlessness, loose motions, muscular spasms in lege, cold, sweat, running nose and watering eyes.

Causes of Addiction : Family problems, over protection and then suddenly leaving home for job in Nigeria, repeated temptation, inferiority complex makes me fell smarter, loss of father to whom he was not close as father was unable to project his love as away most of the time due to work premorbid personality and lack of father figure in life.
DRINKING / USING BEHAVIOR

Sneak drugs, preoccupied with drugs, builds unreasonable resentments, devalues personal relationships partially, considers geographic escapes, has increased drug tolerance, uses before and after social occasions, begins relief drinking, he is uncomfortable in situations without drugs, experiences loss of control, is dishonest about drug use, rationalize drug usage, experiences flashes of aggressiveness, exhibits grandiose behavior, has guilt about drug usage, neglects eating, sexual drive decreases, quits jobs, exhibits unreasonable jealousy, drinks secretly, tries to control drug use, experiences early morning drug usage, lengthy drug binges occur, thinking is impaired, uses with inferiors, loses tolerance for drugs, has indefinable fears, unable to work, physical health deteriorate, moral standards deteriorate, is admitted to hospitals, feels persistent remorse, loses family and friends and exhausts all alibis.


TREATMENT

  • Group therapy

  • Interpersonal therapy (one-to-one)

  • Meditation

  • Attend AA (Alcoholic Anonymous) meetings

NA (Narcotics Anonymous) meetings attended, but did not help too much as done half heartedly and than repeatedly given into mental obsession.
CONSOLATION

“ I count him braver who overcomes his desire than him who conquers his enemies; for the hardest victory is over self.”


REFERENCE

Case obtained from Masina Hospital, Byculla. Mumbai






Human Rights A Global Scenario



Dr M. P. Maheta

(H.O.D in Psychology)Arts & Commerce college – Mendarda.


KEYWORDS:

SUBJECT : PSYCHOLOGY



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