Strategic Management Communication for Leaders 4e Chapter 6 – Communicating in Writing



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Strategic Management Communication for Leaders 4e

Chapter 6 – Communicating in Writing

  1. As a writer, you should be consistently telling your readers where they are going, where they are at, and where they have been, so they don't become confused or have to expend a lot of their own energy trying to figure out your message.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Informative Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. It isn’t necessary to provide introductions in written messages written for business audiences since they don't have time to read them.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic | Technology – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Informative Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. In e-mails, it is important to get your audience’s attention by providing an informative subject line.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-2

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Ethics – BUSPROG: Technology – BUSPROG: Ethics –
BUSPROG: Technology

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Communication Evolution

TOPICS: Visual Impression in Written Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. Forecasting refers to the logical flow of ideas both throughout the message and within its subsections or paragraphs.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-3

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Revising for Organization, Coherence, and Flow

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Even when writing short, routine e-mail messages, it is a good idea to include a goodwill close.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Ethics – BUSPROG: Technology – BUSPROG: Ethics –
BUSPROG: Technology

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Informative Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. When planning the delivery of a “bad news” message, you should first consider whether you can reframe the message by focusing on a positive aspect of the situation.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Informative Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Even for very simple, routine messages, a little thought to organization, structure, and content can go a long way to ensure that a message is clear.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Informative Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Generally, the type of benefit that is most persuasive to a business audience has to do with money: making it or saving it in some way.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. When communicating with a resistant or even hostile audience, you should state your proposed idea clearly and immediately.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Audience

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. One of the easiest ways to make a logical appeal is to cite authorities on a particular subject.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Failure to use conventional business formats for written messages may indicate to your reader that you are not aware of professional expectations and practices, thus damaging your credibility.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Reports and Proposals

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. It is important for an e-mail message to be as grammatically correct as any other type of written message and to use correct punctuation and spelling, since errors can negatively affect the clarity of the message as well as the credibility of the sender.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-5

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Standard English

TOPICS: Proofreading for Mechanical Correctness

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. Business communication typically should use business style, which is less formal than traditional academic writing and the same level of formality as a conversation.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Revising for Style and Tone

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. In business writing, the "chunking" of information should be avoided since it makes a message more difficult to read.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-2

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Visual Impression in Written Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Business writing has not really changed much with the increased use of technology.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Communication Evolution

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Informative Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Written business messages generally should use all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. Standard English

b. Short yet complete sentences and short paragraphs



c. First- and second-person pronouns

d. Big words so that you will sound intelligent

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Standard English

TOPICS: Revising for Style and Tone

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. When creating a persuasive message, you should consider all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. How your audience will initially react to your proposed idea

b. How your audience feels about you, your company, or your product or service



c. How you feel about your audience

d. What obstacles or objections you must overcome

ANS: c PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Audience

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. The tactical elements that can be deployed for messages using the written channel of communication include all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. Planning and developing the message

b. Selecting and incorporating visual elements



c. Revising for appeal

d. Revising for coherence and flow

ANS: c PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Communicating in Writing

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. All of the following are examples of claims, EXCEPT:

a. Thirty-three percent of Americans approve of the President’s performance this term.

b. Americans are concerned about the ethics of CEOs.



c. You could have performed this task better.

d. I am well qualified for this position.

ANS: a PTS: 1 DIFF: Challenging QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Purpose

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Application


  1. An appeal that uses facts and statistics is called

a. Ethos or an ethical appeal

b. Logos or a logical appeal



c. Pathos or an emotional appeal

d. Telos or an existential appeal

ANS: b PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. A television commercial that shows young people enjoying a day at the beach in their SUV is an example of the use of the _________ appeal.

a. ethical

b. logical



c. emotional

d. existential

ANS: c PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Application


  1. Tests of the validity of evidence include all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. Statistics

b. Testimony



c. Comparisons and analogies

d. Emotions

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Truthfulness

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. A _________ is often general or more abstract, while _________ is more specific.

a. proposal, a message

b. claim, evidence



c. letter, an e-mail

d. report, a proposal

ANS: c PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. Three common types of conclusions are

a. Goodwill, summary, and sales or call to action

b. Informative, persuasive, and bad news



c. Informative, summary, and persuasive

d. Summary, persuasive, and bad news

ANS: a PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Communication – BUSPROG: Communication

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Informative Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. The AIDA approach is an acronym for

a. Action, Interest, Desire, and Attention

b. Attraction, Interest, Desire, and Action



c. Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action

d. Attraction, Invitation, Desire, and Attention

ANS: c PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge


  1. Using graphics appropriately in written messages provides all of the following benefits, EXCEPT:

a. Information is more easily understood than with the use of words alone

b. Visuals help to make the information conveyed more memorable



c. Visuals take less time to create

d. Visuals enhance your professionalism and credibility

ANS: c PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-2

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Data Conversion

TOPICS: Visual Impression in Written Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge


  1. When writing e-mail messages, you should

a. Worry little about grammatical correctness since they are expected in routine messages.

b. Use all capital letters since these are faster to type.



c. Pay little attention to tone, since e-mail is conversational.

d. Provide a specific and informative subject line intended to gain the attention of your audience.

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Ethics – BUSPROG: Technology – BUSPROG: Ethics –


BUSPROG: Technology

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Communication Evolution

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Informative Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. When making decisions about the use of space in business message, you should

a. Double space throughout.

b. Leave a one-inch margin on all sides of the page.



c. Create paragraphs 12-14 lines in length.

d. Provide plenty of space—three or four blank lines—between paragraphs.

ANS: b PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-2

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Visual Impression in Written Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. An appeal based on the perceived credibility of the speaker is called

a. Ethos or an ethical appeal

b. Logos or a logical appeal



c. Pathos or an emotional appeal

d. Telos or an existential appeal

ANS: a PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. Bulleted lists should be used

a. As a forecasting device for information that will be further elaborated upon in subsequent paragraphs.

b. To provide as much of a business message as possible since they are easy to skim.



c. For information that is to be used sequentially as in a series of steps or instructions.

d. To deliver a persuasive message.

ANS: a PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-2

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Visual Impression in Written Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. List the techniques you can use to make a written message easier for its reader to skim. Provide an example of a claim as well as evidence to support it.

ANS: Student responses should include a general claim and specific evidence in support of that claim.

PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Subjective Short Answer

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-2

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Visual Impression in Written Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. Provide an example of a claim as well as evidence to support it.

ANS: 1) Provide adequate white space; 2) Begin each paragraph with an accurate topic sentence; and 3) Use headings, if appropriate.

PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Subjective Short Answer

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Rhetorical Considerations

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Application


  1. List the four types of mechanical errors in the order of their significance and give examples of each.

ANS: 1. Disruptive errors may interfere with communication, preventing the reader from comprehending what the writer means. These include unintelligible sentences, unclear pronoun references, incorrect verbs, run-on sentences, fragments, and the use of wrong words.

2. Credibility errors don't usually disrupt communication, but tend to reflect negatively on the writer's credibility, reducing the reader's confidence in what a writer has to say. These include faulty subject/verb agreement, passive voice, and punctuation and spelling errors.

3. Etiquette errors are errors that many readers-but not all-hardly notice, especially if reading quickly for meaning. These include pronoun usage, false subjects, and misplaced apostrophes.

4. Accent errors commonly characterize the writing of nonnative speakers or the use of local idioms and dialects. These generally entail missing or wrong articles or prepositions.

PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Subjective Short Answer

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-5

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Standard English

TOPICS: Proofreading for Mechanical Correctness

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Discuss how a report is similar to, or different from, a proposal. Provide an example of situations in which you might use each type of document.

ANS: Students might discuss differences in preparation or format as well as differences in the purpose of each type of document.

Reports (feasibility, research, progress, incident)

Preparing to write a report

1. Define the problem

2. Gather information and data

3. Develop recommendations

Select the report type



  • Informal

  • Formal

Report format (formal vs. informal)

  • Introduction

  • Body

  • Close

Proposals (sales documents intended to recommend changes or purchases)

Proposed idea/purpose



  • Scope

  • Methods/procedures to be used

  • Materials and equipment needed

  • Qualifications of personnel who will be working on the project

  • Follow-up or evaluation of the project

  • Budget or costs of the project

  • Summary of proposal

  • Appendices, if appropriate

PTS: 1 DIFF: Challenging QT: Essay

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Reports and Proposals

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Analysis



  1. List the steps in the AIDA approach and explain how you might use them to persuade an audience. Identify the audience and specific purpose of your message.

ANS: Student responses should list the steps of the AIDA approach—Attention, Desire, Interest, and Action—and provide an explanation of how they would use these steps to persuade a specific audience.

PTS: 1 DIFF: Challenging QT: Essay

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 6-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Audience

TOPICS: Planning and Developing Persuasive Messages

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Analysis



© 2019 Wessex Press, Inc.




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