Strategic Management Communication for Leaders 4e Chapter 2 – Foundations of Communication



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Strategic Management Communication for Leaders 4e

Chapter 2 – Foundations of Communication

  1. The communication as information transfer model ignores the effects of distortion on information transfer or the multiple possible interpretations that a receiver might make of a message.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. The primary weakness of the communication as transactional process model is the assumption of the possibility of reaching shared meaning.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. The major criticism of the communication as strategic control approach is that it recognizes that people should not be expected to communicate in any objectively rational way.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. Communication as monologue is characterized by such attributes as trust, lack of pretense, humility, respect, directness, open-mindedness, honesty, concern for others, non-manipulative intent, equality, and acceptance of others as individuals with intrinsic worth, regardless of differences of opinion or belief.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Patterns

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. Dialogue means that there are always multiple interpretations of any situation and that no one person can control those interpretations, try as he or she might.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Stakeholders

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Self-awareness is the idea that you behave and see yourself in ways that are consistent with how others see you.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-3

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Consequences

TOPICS: Self-Awareness and Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Intrapersonal intelligence is the capacity to form an accurate model of oneself and to be able to use that model to operate effectively in life.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-3

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Consequences

TOPICS: Self-Awareness and Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. Making inferential errors is a tendency to distort information that contradicts our currently held beliefs and attitudes.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: False PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Conclusion

TOPICS: Needed Skills for Strategic and Ethical Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. The more common way of processing information is absorbing it, which is a passive process that requires little thinking.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic Reflective Thinking – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Purpose

TOPICS: Needed Skills for Strategic and Ethical Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. Critical thinkers actively seek alternative hypotheses, explanations, conclusions and sources and are open to them.

❏ True

❏ False


ANS: True PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: True/False

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic Reflective Thinking – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Analysis

TOPICS: Needed Skills for Strategic and Ethical Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. The _________ model assumes that one person can transmit the information in his or her head without distortion or personal interpretation to another.

a. communication as information transfer

b. communication as transactional process

c. communication as strategic control

d. communication as dialogic process

ANS: a PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Stakeholders

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. The _________ model acknowledges that both senders and receivers are active and simultaneous interpreters of messages as well as recognizes the importance of feedback, particularly of the nonverbal type, in meaning making.

a. communication as information transfer

b. communication as transactional process

c. communication as strategic control

d. communication as dialogic process

ANS: b PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Audience

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. The major criticism of the communication as strategic control model includes all of the following EXCEPT:

a. It recognizes that people should not be expected to communicate in any objectively rational way.

b. It lacks recognition that communication choices are socially, politically, and ethically motivated.

c. It assumes that communication is a tool that individuals use to control their environment.

d. It can lead to communicative practices that ignore the goals of clarity and honesty when it is in the communicator's best individual interests to do so.

ANS: c PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Audience


U.S. – CA – Stakeholders

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. Because of its focus on relationships and ethics, the best model of communication for the modern workplace is

a. communication as information transfer

b. communication as transactional process

c. communication as strategic control

d. communication as dialogic process

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic
U.S. – Diversity

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Theory Application

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. The dialogic model of communication

a. assumes that one person can transmit the information in his or her head without distortion or personal interpretation to another.

b. acknowledges that both senders and receivers are active and simultaneous interpreters of messages.

c. assumes that communication is a tool used for controlling their environment.

d. attempts to deal with the contested nature of communication as well as recognizes that we live in groups and communities and that our actions affect others.

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic
U.S. – Diversity

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Stakeholders


U.S. – CA – Receiver Reactions

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge


  1. Barnlund offers three types of communication to differentiate between monologic and dialogic communication, including all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. messages whose intent is to coerce others.

b. messages of an exploitative sort in which words are arranged to filter the information, narrow the choices, and obscure the consequences, so that only one meaning becomes attractive or appropriate.

c. messages that are completely off the topic of conversation.

d. facilitative communication in which words are used to inform, to enlarge perspective, to deepen sensitivity, to remove external threat and to encourage independence of meaning.

ANS: c PTS: 1 DIFF: Challenging QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Stakeholders

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Application



  1. _________ means that there are always multiple interpretations of any situation and that no one person can control those interpretations, try as he or she might.

a. Ethnocentrism

b. Plurality

c. Authentic dialog

d. Universality

ANS: b PTS: 1 DIFF: Easy QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-2

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Diversity

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Consequences

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. _________ is an honest understanding of the self, including your attitudes, values, beliefs, strengths, and weaknesses.

a. Self-esteem

b. Confidence

c. Egocentrism

d. Self-awareness

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-3

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Consequences

TOPICS: Self-Awareness and Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge



  1. Challenges to our ability to make ethical and logical decisions when faced with a persuasive situation include all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. our self-awareness

b. our thinking style

c. our perceptual mindsets

d. confirmation bias

ANS: a PTS: 1 DIFF: Challenging QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Consequences

TOPICS: Needed Skills for Strategic and Ethical Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. Sources of inferential errors include all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. a faulty information base or misinformation

b. a seriously limited information base

c. vividness

d. causation

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic Reflective Thinking – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Conclusion

TOPICS: Needed Skills for Strategic and Ethical Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension



  1. List the dimensions of emotional intelligence and briefly explain each one.

ANS: 1) Self-awareness is the ability to be aware of what you are feeling; 2) Self-management is the ability to manage one’s emotions and impulses; 3) Self-motivation is the ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures; 4) Empathy is the ability to sense how others are feeling, and 5) Social skills is the ability to handle the emotions of others.

PTS: 1 DIFF: Challenging QT: Subjective Short Answer

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-3

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Consequences

TOPICS: Self-Awareness and Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Application


  1. List three of the five types of inferential errors.

ANS: The two general sources of inferential errors are a faulty information base or misinformation, and a seriously limited information base. More specific sources of inferential errors are vividness, unrepresentativeness, and correlation.

PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Subjective Short Answer

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic Reflective Thinking – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Conclusion

TOPICS: Needed Skills for Strategic and Ethical Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Knowledge


  1. List the three practices that can erroneously support our perceptual mindsets.

ANS: Our perceptual mindsets are affected by several practices that limit our ability to consider information thoroughly and objectively. These include confirmation bias, false dichotomies, and inferential errors.

PTS: 1 DIFF: Moderate QT: Subjective Short Answer

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Consequences

TOPICS: Needed Skills for Strategic and Ethical Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Comprehension


  1. List the four models of communication and indicate which is best for today's workplace and briefly explain why.

ANS: 1) Communication as information transfer; 2) Communication as transactional process; 3) Communication as strategic control; and 4) Communication as dialogic process. Communication as dialogic process is best because of its focus on relationship and its inherent consideration of communication ethics. Students might also elaborate on the alignment between the characteristics of the dialogic model and the changing workplace environment, including flattening hierarchies, mergers, and increasing diversity. In addition, they may discuss how the dialogic model allows individuals across the organization to be leaders regardless of their position within the organization.

PTS: 1 DIFF: Challenging QT: Essay

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-1

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Stakeholders

TOPICS: Models of Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Analysis


  1. What are the challenges to implementing a dialogic model of communication in today's workplace?

ANS: 1) An overly rigid view of one's identity or self-perception may lead to unwillingness to engage in dialog with others who have differing perspectives; 2) assumptions of the superiority of our own culture or ethnocentrism; and 3) assumptions about the universality of our own cultural beliefs.

Students might also discuss difficulties including inaccurate perceptions of the purpose of communication based on the transactional model, strategic control model, etc.

PTS: 1 DIFF: Challenging QT: Essay

HAS VARIABLES: False LO: 2-2; 2-4

NATIONAL STANDARDS: U.S. – BUSPROG: Analytic – BUSPROG: Analytic
U.S. – Diversity

STATE STANDARDS: U.S. – CA – DISC: Conclusions


U.S. – CA – DISC: Stakeholders

TOPICS: Needed Skills for Strategic and Ethical Communication

KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Evaluation



© 2019 Wessex Press, Inc.




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