Standar Kompetensi



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A.3.1. Modals

No

Modals

Function

Examples

1.

Can

  1. Menyatakan kemampuan (ability)

  2. Menyatakan ijin (permission)

2.

Could

  1. Menyatakan kemampuan (ability)

Di waktu lampau

b. Menyatakan ijin (permission)



  • My father could dive deeply when he was a boy.

  • Could you stop now!

3.

May

  1. Menyatakan ijin (permission)

  2. Menyatakan kemungkinan (possibility)

  • May I take this flower. It looks good

  • It may rain this afternoon

4.

Might

  1. Menyatakan kemungkinan besar

  • She might be at home today

5.

Shall

a. Menyatakan rencana/Janji/Sumpah

  • I shall return to Indonesia

6.

Should

  1. Menyatakan kewajiban (obligation)

  2. Menyatakan saran (advice)

  • You should kill the criminals

  • You should take a rest for a while

7.

Will

a. Menyatakan rencana

  • We will marry next week

8.

Would

a. Menyatakan ijin (permission)

  • Would you please lend me your pen?

9.

must

a. Menyatakan keharusan (necessity)

  • I must leave now.

Activity 11

Fill in the blank with ‘ Can’, ‘may’, ‘shall’, ‘will’, ‘could’, ‘might’, ’should’, ‘would’, or ‘must”.


  1. The boys ………not fulfill all requirements to be swimmer. They arrived at home from yesterday

  2. The dentist …….operate the man’s teeth , if not he will be lame.

  3. ……..you open the window, please? I need some fresh air

  4. I promise I……..return here as soon as possible.

  5. …….the manager go to the business meeting tomorrow?

  6. You ………….read some books if you want to be clever students

  7. The boxer………keep his stamina until the end of the fight.

  8. Shinta lives in Sydney for five years. She……….speak English fluently.

  9. ………..you mind closing the cupboard, please?

  10. My aunt …………..cook 100 kg of rice when she was young.

  11. The internet ………send the news quicker through e-mail.

  12. You ……….wear a jacket to keep your body warm. It is cold outside

  13. Tell the police that they ……….arrest the criminals.

  14. Next month, the manufacture ….release new products.

  15. You got stomached . You……….check it to the doctor.



A.3.2. Question Tag

Question Tags

Question tags adalah pertanyaan yang ditambahkan di belakang pernyataan (statement). Fungsi dari question tag biasanya adalah untuk konfirmasi.



Tenses dari Question tag bergantung dari tenses kalimat pernyataannya (statement).

  1. Question tag dalam kalimat pernyataan positif (+)

- Budi always studies hard, doesn’t he?

  • Andi made the toy himself, didn’t he?

  • You like coffee, don’t you?

  • Diana was here yesterday, wasn’t she?

  • She is too young to die, isn’t she?

  • You can go there, can’t you?

  1. Question tag dalam kalimat pernyataan negatif (-)

  • Budi doesn’t always study hard, does he?

  • Andi didn’t make the toy himself, did he?

  • You don’t like coffee, do you?

  • Diana wasn’t here yesterday, was she?

  • She isn’t to young to die, is she?

  • You can’t go there, can he?

  1. Untuk “ everybody, everyone, somebody, someone” , dipakai “they” sebagai subyek pada Question tag.

  • Every one warned you , didn’t they?

  • Someone hits you, don’t they ?

  1. Pernyataan yang mengandung kata “ neither, none, nobody, nothing, scarcely, barely, hardly, hardly ever, seldom” dianggap sebagai kalimat negatif sehingga question tag-nya berbentuk positif.

  • Nothing was said, was it?

  • He seldom comes to parties, does he?

  • None of my friends liked the film, did they?

  1. I am “ biasanya mempunyai tag dengan “ aren’t I

  • I am very late, aren’t I ?

  • I am happy man, aren’t I?

  1. Let’s “ biasanya mempunyai tag dengan “ shall”

  • Let’s go , shall we?

  • Let’s read aloud, shall we?

  1. Kalimat perintah (command), biasanya mempunyai tag “ will you”

  • Open the door, will you?

  • Close the window, will you?




  1. Your sister always gets up late on Sunday, ……………..?

  2. The dishes we had lunch were all delicious , ……………?

  3. You seldom have your hair cut short, …………………….?

  4. There was never any talk of such a thing, ……………….?

  5. It could be done, ………………?

  6. We will have been waiting for Gunung Kerinci, ………..?

  7. Let’s go to the theatre now, …………….?

  8. I am intelligent, ………..?

  9. Study hard students, ……………?

  10. Don’t touch me, ………………….?

  11. Everything is all right, …………..?

  12. Everyone laughed at me, ……………….?

  13. Let’s go to the movie,…………….?

  14. Shut the door,…………………?

  15. Mr. Soeharto never dies, ………..?

  16. It could be done, ………………?

  17. The two boys should not complain so much, ……………….?

  18. You don’t know that John is ill, …………………….?

  19. Every body works hard every day, ……………….?

  20. You will go to Jakarta, ………………..?


B. Modelling of Text.

Activity 12

Read the dialogue carefully

Andi : Hi. Where have you been?

Budi : Hi. I’ve been to Ujung Kulon.

Andi : That’s great! What did you do there?

Budi : I observed some animals, especially rhino.

Andi : Can you tell me more about it?

Budi : Well …rhinoceroses are wild animals which live in the forest.

They have large heavy bodies, … I mean they have big bodies. And… their skins are very thick. And one more important thing is that … that they have horns on their noses. And a rhinoceros can be more than 2.250 kilograms.

As you know … rhinos eat grass. And they have very good muscle structures. That is why they can run and change directions very fast. Yeah… they can sprint at 56 km an hour. Rhinos have been reported to enter campsites at night, yeah… they scatter smoldering logs of fire, and then peacefully walk away. But… you know that rhinos don’t have very good eyesight for distance. The oxpeckers always accompany them. They give them warning system.

Rhinos are hunted for their horns. You know… they are used to make traditional medicine. The rhinos are listed as endangered on the Red List of Threatened species.

Andi : Oh… I’m sorry to hear that.

Budi : Yeah… we must protect them.

(Taken from Materials for teacher training in English, Central Java)

Answer the questions orally



  1. What animals are they?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Are they tame or wild animals?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Where can we find them?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Are they big animals?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. How heavy do you think the big one?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Are their skins thick or thin?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. What do they have on their noses?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. What do they eat?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Can they run fast?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. How fast can they run?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. What do they often do in the campsites?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Do they have good eyesight?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. What/who give them warning system?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. What do people hunt them for?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. What is used to make medicine from them?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Are they listed as endangered species?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. What should we do for them?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Activity 13

Let’s analyze the text above

The Generic Structure of Report Text



Description

They have large big bodies. Their skins are very thick. And one more important thing is that they have horns on their noses. And a rhinoceros can be more than 2.250 kilograms

Parts

Quantities



Rhinos eat grass. And they have very good muscle structures. That is why they can run and change directions very fast. Yeah… they can sprint at 56 km an hour

Habits or Behaviour (for living-things)

Rhinos have been reported to enter campsites at night, yeah… They scatter smoldering logs of fire, and then peacefully walk away. But… you know that rhinos don’t have very good eyesight for distance. The oxpeckers always accompany them. They give them warning system.

Activity 14

Let’s study the summary about report text.


A Report has the following characteristics.


  • Generic structure

  1. General classification :Tell what the phenomenon under discussion is.

  2. Description tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms.

  1. parts,

  2. qualities

  3. habit or behaviour, if living uses, if non – natural

  • Significant Lexicogrammatical features.

  1. Focus on Generic participants.

  2. Use of relational processes to state what it is and which it is.

  3. Use simple present (unless extinct)

  4. No Temporal sequence





C. Joint Construction of the text.

Activity 15

There are two text in this paragraph, but they are mixed. You have to separate them so that they can be two good and meaningful paragraph.

A sea-lions the white pelican are sea-mammals and are warm blooded is one of the most successful fish eating birds they breathe air with their lungs the success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour the scientific name for the family they belong to is Neophoca Cineriea (Nee-o-fo-ka-Sin-er-ee-a) A group, perhaps two dozens birds, will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them Australian sea-lions are about 250 cms long. Adult males (called bulls) grow to about 3 metres and are the largest Australian mammal (they no longer breed in Australia)


Text. 1

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Text. 2

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
D. Independent construction of text.

Activity 16

Bring to the class a picture of animals or things that you know well

Activity 17.

Tell your friends using the picture you bring. Remember the “generic structure “ of report text when

Y



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