Sri krsna-sandarbha by srila jiva goswami



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SRI KRSNA-SANDARBHA
BY SRILA JIVA GOSWAMI

VOLUME ONE


Anuccheda 1

TEXT 1
In the previous three sandarbhas the conception of God as the Supreme Person full of all powers and opulences is proved to be the ultimate phase of the Absolute Truth, superior to every other conception of God. This essay is written to give a specific description of that Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Sarva-samvadini Commemt
By the word nirdharana it is intended that Bhagavan is the ultimate feature of the Absolute Truth.
TEXT 2
"Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this non-dual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan."

Srimad Bhagavatam (1.2.11)
TEXT 3
These three features of the Absolute are described in the Third Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam. The following verse (1.3.33) describes the Lord's Brahman feature:
"Whenever a person experience, by self-realization, that both the gross and subtle bodies have nothing to do with the pure self, at that time he sees himself as well as the Lord in His Brahman feature."
TEXT 4
According to this verse and other descriptions in the Vedic literatures, the Brahman feature of the Absolute has only one unvariegated aspect, and therefore, without any doubt, it does not require an elaborate description in many words.
TEXT 5
However, the Paramatma and Bhagavan features of the Absolute manifest a great variety of qualities, and therefore they require an elaborate description.
TEXT 6
Here we many note that in the final conclusion the Supreme Controller is not without form and qualities. This has been proved in the earlier portion of this book (the previous Sandarbhas).
TEXT 7
The Paramatma, or all-pervading expansion of the Supreme Person present in everyone's heart and in every atom, I have already described in the Third Chapter (Paramatma-sandarbha) of this book.
TEXT 8
" Formerly you said that although the Absolute Truth is one, It is manifestated in three features. What are the qualities of these three features: Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan ? " Thinking that this question might arise in the minds of Saunaka and the other sages, Suta Goswami said ( S.B. 1.3.1)
TEXT 9
" In the beginning of the creation, the Lord (Bhagavan) first expanded Himself in the universal form of the purusa incarnation and manifested all the ingredients for the material creation. And thus at first there was the creation of the sixteen principles of material action. This was for the purpose of creating the material universe."
TEXT 10
This verse says that Sri Bhagavan, who was described in the preivous chapter as the possessor of six opulences in full perfection, accepts the personal form of the purusa incarnation at the beginning of the material creation. At the time of annihilation, the material world enters again within the purusa incarnation and only the eternal spiritual reality is manifest.
TEXT 11
The question may be raised : "Why does Bhagavan accept the form of the purusa-incarnation?" To answer this question, Suta Goswami uses the word lokasisrksaya (for the purpose of creating the material universe). Along with the material universes, the eternally individual living entities entered the Lord's body at the time of devastation and appeared to have become one with Him, although their individuality actually remained intact. In order to again manifest the living entities and universes, Bhagavan expands Himself as the purusa incarnation.
TEXT 12
One may ask what form the material universes took when they became merged within the body of the purusa-incarnation. To answer this question, Suta Goswami used the word "mahad-adibhih" (with the ingredients of the material world). The mahat-tattva and other ingredients of the material world were thus contained within the body of the purusa-incarnation.
TEXT 13
The merging of the creation into the Supreme is described in the Vedic literatures: "The creation enters the Supreme as rivers flow from the mountains and enters the ocean." In this way the mahat-tattva and other ingredients of the material world enter the form of the purusa-incarnation.
TEXT 14
The first purusa-incarnation is described as the original creator of the ingredients of the material world. This in confirmed in the Satvata Tantra:
"Visnu has three forms called purusas. The first, Maha-Vishnu, is the creator of the total material energy (mahat), the second is Garbhodakasayi, who is situated within each universe and the third is Ksirodakasayi, who lives in the heart of every living being."
That first purusa-incarnation, Lord Sankarsana, who lies down on the casual ocean is described in the Brahma-samhita and other Vedic literatures, as well as the verse beginning with the word "jagrhe" which was quoted in Text 9.
TEXT 15
To further explain the nature of the Lord, Suta Goswami uses the word "sodasa-kalam" (with the 16 elements of creation). This word shows that the Lord possesses all potencies required to manifest the material cosmos.
TEXT 16
In conclusion, it is Bhagavan who accepts the form of the first purusa-incarnation (Karanodakasayi Visnu) described in this verse (Text 9). When the Lord enters the universes He assumes the feature known as Paramatma.


Anuccheda 2
TEXT 1
To describe how the second purusa-incarnation arranges the activities of the secondary phase of creation within each universe, (Suta Goswami) speaks the next one and a half verses. (S.B. 1.3.2-3):
TEXT 2
" A part of the purusa lies down within the water of the universe. From the navel lake of His body sprouts a lotus stem, and from the lotus flower atop this stem, Brahma, the master of all engineers in the universe, becomes manifest. It is believed that all the universal planetary systems are situated on the extensive body of the purusa."
TEXT 3
This verse describes how the second purusa-incarnation (Garbhodakasayi Visnu) enters the universes and lies down (sayanasya) on the Garbhodaka ocean (ambhasi).
TEXT 4
In these verses the words "sayanasya" (resting) and "avayava-samsthanaih" (situated on the limbs of His transcendental form) show that the transcendental feet and other limbs of the Lord were spread throughout the material universe. Because of this entrance of the Lord into the universe it is sometimes considered that the entire universe is the body of the Lord (virat-rupa).
TEXT 5
The entrance of the transcendental form of the Lord within the material universe is the cause of the conception of the universe as the Lord's form. This conception of the universal form of the Lord is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. (2.1.26) :
"Persons who have studied it have realized that the planets known as Patala constitute the bottoms of the feet of the Universal Lord, and the heels and the toes are the Rasatala planets. The ankles are the Mahatala planets and His shanks constitute the Talatala planets."
This conception of the Lord's Universal form is meant to help the neophyte devotees fix their minds on the Lord's form. The Universal Form is not actually real. It is only an imagination.
TEXT 6
The conception of the Lord's Universal Form may also be understood in the following way: Because the different varieties of the material manifestation have emanated from the different limbs of the Lord's form, the universe may be considered a form of the Lord. This is confirmed in the Vedic hymns:
"the moon is born from the mind of the Supreme Personality of Godhead." - Rg Veda 10.90.13


"The Supreme Personality of Godhead created the earth from His two lotus feet. He created the different directions from His sense of hearing. He created the different parts of the material world from the parts of His transcendental body."

-Rg Veda 10.90.14

TEXT 7
In the Mahabharata's Moksa-dharma Narayaniya (Santi-parva 339.12-14), Lord Garbhodakasayi Visnu, in His form as the master of Svetadvipa, confirms this explanation in the following verses:
TEXT 8
"From My fourth expansion the eternal form of Lord Sesa is manifest. Then Lord Sankarsana is manifest and from Him Lord Pradyumna appears. From My appearance as Lord Pradyumna I again appear as Lord Aniruddha. From the lotus flower of Lord Aniruddha's navel, Brahma is born, and from Brahma all the material elements as well as the moving and non-moving living entities appear."
TEXT 9
Vedavyasa also explains:
" They who are learned in sankhya-yoga declare that Lord Aniruddha is the all-pervading Supersoul. Lord Sankarsana's transcendental deeds have expanded His reputation as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The wise know that the unmanifest origins (pradhana) of material creation have emanated from Lord Sankarsana, and because of Him this original form of matter evolves into the manifest material world. Lord Aniruddha, the all-pervading Supersoul present in each universe, appears from Lord Sankarsana and He creates Brahma, the grandfather of all living entities."
TEXT 10
The first part of this passage describes the glories of Lord Sankarsana, and the second part, beginning with the words "aniruddho hi", describes the glories of Lord Aniruddha. The word "lokesu", means "in each universe" and the word "mahatma" means the all pervading Supersoul (paramatma). The word "vyaktatvam" means "manifested from Lord Pradyumna." The rest of the verse is clear and requires no comment.
TEXT 11
Because Suta Goswami wanted to emphasize that all Visnu-forms are actually the same single Personality of Godhead, he did not place Lord Pradyumna's name in this verse. The same reason prompted the author of Satvata Tantra to avoid specifically naming the various purusa-incarnations when he spoke the verse beginning "visnos tu trini rupani" (which has been quoted in Anuccheda 1, Text 14).
TEXT 12
The same description of the Supreme Personality of Godhead's creation of the material world is found in the following verse of Srimad Bhagavatam (2.6.39):
"The Supreme original Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna, expanding His plenary portion as Maha-Visnu, the first incarnation, creates this manifested cosmos, but He is unborn. The creation, however, takes place in Him and the material substance and manifestations are all Himself. He maintains them for some time and absorbs them into Himself again."
TEXT 13
In his commentary on the first line of this verse, Sridhara Svami explains :
" The phrase "sa esa adyah refers to Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appears as the purusa-incarnation, and thus creates, maintains and annihilates the material worlds."
TEXT 14
The first purusa-incarnation is also described in Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.6.42):
"Karanarnavasayi Visnu is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord and He is the master of eternal time, space, cause and effects, mind, the elements, the material ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal form of the Lord, Garbhodakasayi Visnu, and the sum total of all living beings, both moving and non-moving."
TEXT 15
Sridhara Swami explains in his commentary:
" In this verse the word 'parasya' means of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the word 'purusah' means the purusa-incarnation, who creates the material world.
" This first purusa-incarnation (Karanodakasayi Visnu) is described in the Rg Veda 10.90.1 : The Supreme Personality of Godhead then appeared as the first purusa-incarnation, who had thousands of faces, eyes and feet. Expanding in all directions, the purusa-incarnation exceeded the dimensions of the universe by the measurement of ten fingers.
" We may also note in the connection that the Lord accepts the form of the purusa-incarnation (adyo vatarah) in order to enjoy transcendental pastimes."
TEXT 16
In the same way, in Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.20.12) it is said :
" When the equilibrium of the three modes of nature was agitated by the unseen activity of the living entity, by Maha-Visnu and by the force of time, the total material elements were produced."
TEXT 17
The next verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.20.27) along with Sridhara Svami's commentary, should be carefully studied.
Note : The verse and commentary are given below.
Srimad-Bhagavatam: "When that Supreme Personality of Godhead who is lying on the Garbhodaka ocean entered the heart of Brahma, Brahma brought his intelligence to bear and with the intelligence invoked he began to create the universe as it was before."
Sridhara Svami's Commentary: " This verse explains that the Lord lies down on the waters (salilasaye) of the Garbhodaka ocean (garbhodakasyantah) and enters (adhisthita) the heart of Brahma. By his own intelligence the seemingly independent Brahma then created all the forms and names of the material universe."
TEXT 18
From the study of this verse and commentary it will become clear that the Universal Form is not actually a form of the Lord.
TEXT 19
From the careful study of this verse it will also become clear that the Lord's Bhagavan feature, who is also known as Vasudeva, is separately manifested from His appearance as the purusa-incarnations.

Anuccheda 3

TEXT 1
These two forms (Bhagavan-Vasudeva and the purusa-incarnation) possess the same spiritual quality. This is described (by Suta Goswami in Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.3):
" The body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is eternally in spiritual existence par excellence and has nothing to do with the created material ingredients."
TEXT 2
In this verse the phrase "tad vai bhagavato rupam" describes the form of the purusa-incarnation. This verse describes the Lord' supremely pure spiritual form, which in one sense, is not different from His transcendental potency.
TEXT 3
The transcendental nature of the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is described in the following prayer offered by Brahma to Garbhodakasayi Visnu (Srimad-Bhagavatam 3.9.3):
" O my Lord, I do not see a form superior to Your present form of eternal bliss and knowledge."
TEXT 4
In the Srimad Bhagavatam verse (1.3.3) quoted in Text 1, the word "visuddham" (pure) means that because the Supreme Personality of Godhead has all transcendental potencies, He can therefore remain always pure and free from even the slightest trace of material contamination. The word "urjitam" (powerful and glorious) means that because the Lord's form is full of supreme spiritual bliss, He remains always powerful and glorious and His spiritual prowess never becomes diminished under any circumstance.
TEXT 5
The Taittiriya Upanisad (2.7.1) says:
"The Personality of Godhead must be full of transcendental bliss, for if He were not, then how would it be possible for anyone to find any kind of spiritual or even material happiness ? "

Anuccheda 4
TEXT 1
" In the first three verses of the First Canto, Third Chapter of Srimad-Bhagavatam (quoted in Anuccheda 1 Text 9, Anuccheda 2 Text 2 and Anuccheda 3 Text 1), the place of residence and the activities of the purusa-incarnation were described by Suta Goswami. Then, in Verse 4, he described the Lord's transcendental form in the following way:
TEXT 2
" The devotees, with their perfect eyes, see the transcendental form of the purusa who has thousands of legs, thighs, arms and faces - all extraordinary. In that body there are thousands of heads, ears, eyes and noses. They are decorated with thousands of helmets and glowing earrings and are adorned with garlands."
TEXT 3
In this verse the words "ado rupam" indicate the form of the purusa-incarnation, and the words "adabhra-caksusa" mean eyes made perfect by pure devotional service."
That one is able to see and understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the process of devotional service is confirmed by the following quotes :
" The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is greater that all, is attainable by unalloyed devotion." Bhagavad-gita 8.22
" Pure devotional service leads the worshiper to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and makes the Lord visible to His devotee." Sruti-sastra
TEXT 4
The Lord's Universal Form, manifested from the first purusa-incarnation and displaying thousands of faces, eyes and feet, has already been described in the Paramatma-sandarbha.
TEXT 5
In the following verses from the Third Canto, Eighth Chapter of Srimad Bhagavatam, Maitreya Muni describes the form of the second purusa-incarnation (Garbhodakasyai Visnu).
TEXT 6
" The luster of the transcendental body of the Lord mocked the beauty of the coral mountain. The coral mountain is very beautifully dressed by the evening sky, but the yellow dress of the Lord mocked its beauty. There is gold on the summit of the mountain but the Lord's helmet, bedecked with jewels, mocked it. The mountain's waterfalls, herbs, etc, with a panorama of flowers, seem like garlands, but the Lord's gigantic body and His hands and legs, decorated with jewels, pearls, tulasi leaves and flower garlands, mocked the scene on the mountain."
TEXT 7
" As a sandalwood tree is decorated with fragrant flowers and branches, the Lord's body was decorated with valuable jewels and pearls. He was the self-situated tree, the Lord of all others in the universe. And as a sandalwood tree is covered with many snakes, so the Lord's body was also covered by the hoods of Ananta."
TEXT 8
" Like a great mountain, the Lord stands as the abode for all moving and non-moving living entities. He is the friend of the snakes because Lord Ananta is His friend. As a mountain has thousands of golden peaks, so the Lord was seen with the thousands of golden-helmeted hoods of Ananta-naga; and as a mountain is sometimes filled with jewels, so also His transcendental body was fully decorated with valuable jewels. As a mountain is sometimes submerged in the ocean water, so the Lord is sometimes submerged in the water of devastation.

- 3.8.30
TEXT 9
In Srimad-Bhagavatam (9.14.2) Sukadeva Goswami says:
" Lord Visnu (Garbhodakasayi Visnu) is also known as Sahasra-sirsa Purusa. From the lake of His navel sprang a lotus, on which Lord Brahma was generated. Atri, the son of Lord Brahma, was as qualified as his father."
TEXT 10
In order to clarify the exact nature of Sri Bhagavan, Suta Goswami says that the second purusa-incarnation (Garbhodakasayi Visnu) is the origin from whom the other incarnations of Godhead emanate. He says (Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.35):

Anuccheda 5
" This form (the second manifestation of the purusa) is the source and indestructible seed of multifarious incarnations within the universe. From the particles and portions of this form, different living entities, like demigods, men and others are created."
TEXT 2
In the verse the word "etat" means that form which is situated within the material universe. The word "nidhanam" indicates that Garbhodakasayi Visnu is the source of all other incarnations of the Supreme Lord just as the ocean is the large reservoir of water, which is the original source of the other smaller bodies of water. The word "avyayam" means indestructible and the word "bijam" means origin.
The second purusa-incarnation is not only the source of the visnu-tattva forms of the Supreme Lord, but is also the source of the individual living entities (jivas). This is confirmed by the phrase "yasyamsamsena".
Sarva-samvadini Comment
TEXT 1
That the Supreme Lord is the creator of the individual living entities (jivas) is confirmed by the following statement of Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.31):
" The living entities are created by the contact of the Supreme Controller with His material energy, just as bubbles and foam are produced on the surface of the water."
Anuccheda 6
TEXT 1
Although desiring to elaborately describe the innumerable incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (visnu-tattva), and His potencies (jiva-tattva), Suta Goswami briefly summarizes the list of these incarnations and only describes twenty incarnations in this chapter of Srimad-Bhagavatam

(Canto one, Chapter three)
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