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PARTS OF SPEECH

Noun-WORD USED TO NAME PERSON, PLACE, THING, OR IDEA

Pronoun-WORD USED IN PLACE OF A NOUN OR MORE THAN ONE NOUN

Adjective-WORD USED TO MODIFY A NOUN OR PRONOUN

Article- GIVES SOME INFORMATION ABOUT A NOUN (A, AN, THE)

Verb- WORD THAT EXPRESSES ACTION OR OTHERWISE HELPS TO MAKE A STATEMENT

Linking Verbs-express state or condition (to be verbs-am, is, are, was etc)



Appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell (YOU CAN

SUBSTITUTE SOME FORM OF SEEM TO LOCATE A LINKING VERB

Helping Verbs/Verb Phrase- a verb that is added to the main verb to create a



verb phrase

Adverb- WORD USED TO MODIFY A VERB, AN ADJECTIVE, OR ANOTHER ADVERB

Preposition- WORD USED TO SHOW THE RELATION OF A NOUN OR PRONOUN TO SOME OTHER WORD IN THE SENTENCE

Conjunction- WORD THAT JOINS WORDS OR GROUPS OF WORDS

Interjection- A WORD THAT EXPRESSES EMOTION AND HAS NOT GRAMMATICAL RELATION TO OTHER WORDS IN THE SENTENCE

PARTS OF A SENTENCE

1.SUBJECT-the part about which something is said

a. SIMPLE SUBJECT-the principal word or group of words in the subject

b. COMPOUND SUBJECT- consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a

conjunction



2.PREDICATE-the part that says something about the subject

a. SIMPLE PREDICATE or Verb- principle word or group or words in the predicate is called the simple predicate

b. COMPOUND PREDICATE- two or more verbs combined with a conjunction

3. COMPLEMENTS-words that complete the meaning of the sentence (one word or more in the predicate)

a. DIRECT OBJECT- receives the action of the verb-what or whom after verb

b. INDIRECT OBJECT- precedes the direct object-to whom or for whom the action was

of verb was done

c. OBJECTIVE COMPLIMENT- gives more information about the object

4. PREDICATE NOMINATIVES (NOUN)- a noun or pronoun complement that refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the verb. IT FOLLOWS A LINKING VERB.

5. PREDICATE ADJECTIVE-an adjective complement that modifies the subject of the verb. IT FOLLOWS A LINKING VERB.

PHRASES-group of words not containing a verb and its subject-it is used as a single part of speech

1. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES-group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun

-ADJECTIVE PHRASE-modifies noun or pronoun

-ADVERB PHRASE-modifies a verb or another adverb

2. PARTICIPLE –verb form that can be used as an adjective

-PARTICIPIAL PHRASE- contains a participle and any compliments or modifiers

3. GERUND- verb ending in ”ing” that is used as a noun

-GERUND PHRASE- gerund plus any complements

4. INFINITIVES- verb form, usually preceded by “to” that can be used as a noun or modifier

5. APPOSITIVES- noun or pronoun-often with modifiers-set beside another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it.

-APPOSITIVE PHRASES-phrase which explains noun or pronoun

CLAUSES-A group of words containing a subject and predicate and is used as part of a sentence.

1. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE-Clause that can stand alone- expresses a complete thought

2. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE (DEPENDENT CLAUSE)- does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone


  1. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE- dependent clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun

I. Relative Pronoun-who, whom, whose, which, that, where, when

b. NOUN CLAUSE- subordinate clause used as a noun (can be the subject of the sentence)

c. ADVERB CLAUSE- clause that modifies a verb

SENTENCES-STRUCTURE OF A SENTENCE

1.SIMPLE SENTENCE- 1 independent clause

2. COMPOUND SENTENCE- 2 or more independent clauses (2 subjects and 2 verbs)

3. COMPLEX SENTENCE- 1 independent clause and at least 1 dependent clause

4. COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE- 2 independent clauses and at least 1 dependent clause
FANTASTIC 5 RULE FOR PUNCTUATING MOST COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES.

IC;IC


IC;conjunctive adverb,IC

IC, fanboys IC

IC DC

DC, IC


PREPOSITIONS

ABOUT

ABOVE

ACROSS

AFTER*

AGAINST

ALONG

AMID

AMONG

AROUND

AT

BEFORE*

BEHIND

BELOW

BENEATH

BESIDE

BESIDES

*Also SubordinateConjunctions.

BETWEEN

BEYOND

BUT (EXCEPT)

BY

CONCERNING

DOWN

DURING

EXCEPT

FOR

FROM

IN

INTO

LIKE

OF

OFF

ON

OVER

PAST

SINCE*

THROUGH

THROUGHOUT

TO

TOWARD

UNDER

UNDERNEATH

UNTIL*

UNTO

UP

UPON

WITH

WITHIN

WITHOUT


The plane flew ____________________the clouds.


Coordinating Conjunctions-

Correlative Conjunctions-

COMMON Subordinating Conjunctions (Dependent Clause Openers)

FANBOYS

For


And

Nor


But

Or

Yet



So

either…or

not only…but (also)

neither…nor

whether…or

both…and


AFTER*

ALTHOUGH


AS

AS MUCH AS

BECAUSE

BEFORE*


HOW **

*some words may be used as prepositions



IF

IN ORDER THAT

PROVIDED

SINCE*


THAN

THAT


THOUGH

**can be used as adverbs



UNLESS

UNTIL*


WHEN**

WHERE**


WHILE

*** That is often a relative pronoun






COMMON CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
COMMON CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

accordingly, again, also, besides consequently, finally, furthermore, however, indeed, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, then, therefore, thus



Run-ons /Comma Splices / Fused Sentences & Fragments

Run-ons, comma splices, and fused sentences are all names given to compound sentences that are not punctuated correctly. The best way to avoid such errors is to punctuate compound sentences correctly by using one or the other of these rules.

1. Join the two independent clauses with one of the coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet), and use a comma before the connecting word.

_________________________, and _________________________.

He enjoys walking through the country, and he often goes backpacking on his vacations.

2. When you do not have a connecting word (or when you use a connecting word other than and, but, for, or nor, so, or yet between the two independent clauses) use a semicolon (;).

__________________________;_____________________________.

He often watched TV when there were only reruns; she preferred to read instead.

or

__________________________; however,____________________.



He often watched TV when there were only reruns; however, she preferred to read instead.

So, run-ons and fused sentences are terms describing two independent clauses which are joined together with no connecting word or punctuation to separate the clauses.



Incorrect: They weren't dangerous criminals they were detectives in disguise.

Correct: They weren't dangerous criminals; they were detectives in disguise.

Incorrect: I didn't know which job I wanted I was too confused to decide.

Correct: I didn't know which job I wanted, and I was too confused to decide.
Sentence Fragments

Fragments are incomplete sentences. Usually, fragments are pieces of sentences that have become disconnected from the main clause. One of the easiest ways to correct them is to remove the period between the fragment and the main clause. Other kinds of punctuation may be needed for the newly combined sentence.

Below are some examples with the fragments shown in bold. Punctuation and/or words added to make corrections are underlined. Notice that the fragment is frequently a dependent clause or long phrase that follows the main clause.

PROBLEM=DEPENDENT CLAUSE OR PHRASE STANDING ALONE

Fragment:Purdue offers many majors in engineering. Such as electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering.

Possible Revision: Purdue offers many majors in engineering, such as electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering.

Fragment: I need to find a new roommate. Because the one I have now isn't working out too well.

Possible Revision: I need to find a new roommate because the one I have now isn't working out too well.

Fragment: The current city policy on housing is incomplete as it stands. Which is why we believe the proposed amendments should be passed.

Possible Revision: Because the current city policy on housing is incomplete as it stands, we believe the proposed amendments should be passed.

You may have noticed that newspaper and magazine journalists often use a dependent clause as a separate sentence when it follows clearly from the preceding main clause, as in the last example above. This is a conventional journalistic practice, often used for emphasis. For academic writing and other more formal writing situations, however, you should avoid such journalistic fragment sentences.

Some fragments are not clearly pieces of sentences that have been left unattached to the main clause; they are written as main clauses but lack a subject or main verb.

PROBLEM=NO MAIN VERB
Fragment: A story with deep thoughts and emotions.
Possible Revisions: Direct Object: She told a story with deep thoughts and

emotions.



Fragment: Toys of all kinds thrown everywhere.
Possible Revisions: Complete verb: Toys of all kinds were thrown everywhere.

Fragment: A record of accomplishment beginning when you were first hired.
Possible Revisions: Direct object: I've noticed a record of accomplishment beginning when you were first hired

PROBLEM=NO SUBJECT

Fragment: For doing freelance work for a competitor got Phil fired.
Possible Revisions: Remove preposition: Doing freelance work for a competitor got Phil fired. OR Rearrange: Phil got fired for doing freelance work for a competitor.

COMMAS

The comma is a valuable, useful punctuation device because it separates the structural elements of sentences into manageable segments. The rules provided here are those found in traditional handbooks; however, in certain rhetorical contexts and for specific purposes, these rules may be broken.



  1. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.

The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave.


The student explained her question, yet the instructor still didn't seem to understand.
Yesterday was her brother's birthday, so she took him out to dinner.
2. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause.

a. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be followed by a comma include after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while.



While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door.
Because her alarm clock was broken, she was late for class.
If you are ill, you ought to see a doctor.
When the snow stops falling, we'll shovel the driveway.
However, don't put a comma after the main clause when a dependent (subordinate) clause follows it (except for cases of extreme contrast).
1. She was late for class, because her alarm clock was broken. (incorrect)
2. The cat scratched at the door, while I was eating. (incorrect)
3. She was still quite upset, although she had won the Oscar. (correct: extreme contrast)
b. Common introductory phrases that should be followed by a comma include participial and infinitive phrases, absolute phrases, nonessential appositive phrases, and long prepositional phrases (over four words).

Having finished the test, he left the room.
To get a seat, you'd better come early.
After the test but before lunch, I went jogging.
The sun radiating intense heat, we sought shelter in the cafe.
c. Common introductory words that should be followed by a comma include yes, however, well.

Well, perhaps he meant no harm.
Yes, the package should arrive tomorrow morning.
However, you may not be satisfied with the results.
3. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use one comma before to indicate the beginning of the pause and one at the end to indicate the end of the pause.

Here are some clues to help you decide whether the sentence element is essential:



  • If you leave out the clause, phrase, or word, does the sentence still make sense?

  • Does the clause, phrase, or word interrupt the flow of words in the original sentence?

  • If you move the element to a different position in the sentence, does the sentence still make sense?

If you answer "yes" to one or more of these questions, then the element in question is nonessential and should be set off with commas. Here are some example sentences with nonessential elements:

Clause: That Tuesday, which happens to be my birthday, is the only day when I am available to meet.
Phrase: This restaurant has an exciting atmosphere. The food, on the other hand, is rather bland.
Word: I appreciate your hard work. In this case, however, you seem to have over-exerted yourself.

4. Do not use commas to set off essential elements of the sentence, such as clauses beginning with that (relative clauses). That clauses after nouns are always essential. That clauses following a verb expressing mental action are always essential.

That clauses after nouns:

The book that I borrowed from you is excellent.


The apples that fell out of the basket are bruised.
That clauses following a verb expressing mental action:

She believes that she will be able to earn an A.


He is dreaming that he can fly.
I contend that it was wrong to mislead her.
They wished that warm weather would finally arrive.
Examples of other essential elements (no commas):

Students who cheat only harm themselves.


The baby wearing a yellow jumpsuit is my niece.
The candidate who had the least money lost the election.
Examples of nonessential elements (set off by commas):

Fred, who often cheats, is just harming himself.


My niece, wearing a yellow jumpsuit, is playing in the living room.
The Green party candidate, who had the least money, lost the election.
Apples, which are my favorite fruit, are the main ingredient in this recipe.
Tom, the captain of the team, was injured in the game.
She was, however, too tired to make the trip.
Two hundred dollars, I think, is sufficient.
5. Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series.

The Constitution establishes the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.


The candidate promised to lower taxes, protect the environment, reduce crime, and end unemployment.
The prosecutor argued that the defendant, who was at the scene of the crime, who had a strong revenge motive, and who had access to the murder weapon, was guilty of homicide.
6. Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. Be sure never to add an extra comma between the final adjective and the noun itself or to use commas with non-coordinate adjectives.

Coordinate adjectives are adjectives with equal ("co"-ordinate) status in describing the noun; neither adjective is subordinate to the other. You can decide if two adjectives in a row are coordinate by asking the following questions:



  • Does the sentence make sense if the adjectives are written in reverse order?

  • Does the sentence make sense if the adjectives are written with and between them?

If you answer yes to these questions, then the adjectives are coordinate and should be separated by a comma. Here are some examples of coordinate and non-coordinate adjectives:

He was a difficult, stubborn child. (coordinate)


They lived in a white frame house. (non-coordinate)
She often wore a gray wool shawl. (non-coordinate)
Your cousin has an easy, happy smile. (coordinate) The 1) relentless, 2) powerful 3) summer sun beat down on them. (1-2 are coordinate; 2-3 are non-coordinate.)

7. Use a comma near the end of a sentence to separate contrasted coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct pause or shift.

He was merely ignorant, not stupid.


The chimpanzee seemed reflective, almost human.
You're one of the senator's close friends, aren't you?
The speaker seemed innocent, even gullible.

8. Use commas to set off phrases at the end of the sentence that refer back to the beginning or middle of the sentence. Such phrases are free modifiers that can be placed anywhere in the sentence without causing confusion. (If the placement of the modifier causes confusion, then it is not "free" and must remain "bound" to the word it modifies.)

1. Nancy waved enthusiastically at the docking ship, laughing joyously. (correct)


2a. Lisa waved at Nancy, laughing joyously. (incorrect: Who is laughing, Lisa or Nancy?)
2b. Laughing joyously, Lisa waved at Nancy. (correct)
2c. Lisa waved at Nancy, who was laughing joyously. (correct)

9. Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and name), and titles in names.

Birmingham, Alabama, gets its name from Birmingham, England.


July 22, 1959, was a momentous day in his life.
Who lives at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC?
Rachel B. Lake, MD, will be the principal speaker.

(When you use just the month and the year, no comma is necessary after the month or year: "The average temperatures for July 1998 are the highest on record for that month.")



10. Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation.

John said without emotion, "I'll see you tomorrow."


"I was able," she answered, "to complete the assignment."
In 1848, Marx wrote, "Workers of the world, unite!"

11. Use commas wherever necessary to prevent possible confusion or misreading.

To George, Harrison had been a sort of idol.

Comma Abuse

Commas in the wrong places can break a sentence into illogical segments or confuse readers with unnecessary and unexpected pauses.

12. Don't use a comma to separate the subject from the verb.

An eighteen-year old in California, is now considered an adult. (incorrect)
The most important attribute of a ball player, is quick reflex actions. (incorrect)

13. Don't put a comma between the two verbs or verb phrases in a compound predicate.



We laid out our music and snacks, and began to study. (incorrect)
I turned the corner, and ran smack into a patrol car. (incorrect)

14. Don't put a comma between the two nouns, noun phrases, or noun clauses in a compound subject or compound object.



The music teacher from your high school, and the football coach from mine are married. (incorrect: compound subject)
Jeff told me that the job was still available, and that the manager wanted to interview me. (incorrect: compound object)

Semicolon, Colon, Parenthesis, Dash, and Italics

Punctuation marks are signals to your readers. In speaking, we can pause, stop, or change our tone of voice. In writing, we use the following marks of punctuation to emphasize and clarify what we mean.



Semicolon ; In addition to using a semicolon to join related independent clauses in compound sentences, you can use a semicolon to separate items in a series if the elements of the series already include commas.

Members of the band include Harold Rostein, clarinetist; Tony Aluppo, tuba player; and Lee Jefferson, trumpeter.



Colon : Use a colon . . .

in the following situations:

for example:

after a complete statement in order to introduce one or more directly related ideas, such as a series of directions, a list, or a quotation or other comment illustrating or explaining the statement. Colons always introduce a complete sentence or a list.

The daily newspaper contains four sections: news, sports, entertainment, and classified ads.

The strategies of corporatist industrial unionism have proven ineffective: compromises and concessions have left labor in a weakened position in the new "flexible" economy.



in a business letter greeting.

Dear Ms. Winstead:

Parentheses () Parentheses are occasionally and sparingly used for extra, nonessential material included in a sentence. For example, dates, sources, or ideas that are subordinate or tangential to the rest of the sentence are set apart in parentheses. Parentheses always appear in pairs. EX: Before arriving at the station, the old train (someone said it was a relic of frontier days) caught fire.

Dash -- Use a dash (should be typed or handwritten with two hyphens connected with no spaces)

As you can see, dashes function in some ways like parentheses (used in pairs to set off a comment within a larger sentence) and in some ways like colons (used to introduce material illustrating or emphasizing the immediately preceding statement). But comments set off with a pair of dashes appear less subordinate to the main sentence than do comments in parentheses. And material introduced after a single dash may be more emphatic and may serve a greater variety of rhetorical purposes than material introduced with a colon.



in the following situations:

for example:

to emphasize a point or to set off an explanatory comment; but don't overuse dashes, or they will lose their impact.

To some of you, my proposals may seem radical--even revolutionary.

In terms of public legitimation--that is, in terms of garnering support from state legislators, parents, donors, and university administrators--English departments are primarily places where advanced literacy is taught.



To signal an abrupt break in thought

He might—if I have anything to do with it—change his mind.

for an appositive phrase that already includes commas.

The boys--Jim, John, and Jeff--left the party early.

Quotation Marks " “

in the following situations:

for example:

to enclose direct quotations. Note that commas and periods go inside the closing quotation mark in conventional American usage; colons and semicolons go outside; and placement of question and exclamation marks depends on the situation

He asked, "Will you be there?" "Yes," I answered, "I'll look for you in the foyer."

to indicate words used ironically, with reservations, or in some unusual way; but don't overuse quotation marks in this sense, or they will lose their impact.

History is stained with blood spilled in the name of "civilization."

Underlining and Italics

Underlining and italics are not really punctuation, but they are significant textual effects used conventionally in a variety of situations. Before computerized word-processing was widely available, writers would underline certain terms in handwritten or manually typed pages, and the underlining would be replaced by italics in the published version. Since word processing today allows many options for font faces and textual effects, it is generally recommended that you choose either underlining or italics and use it consistently throughout a given document as needed. Because academic papers are manuscripts and not final publications and because italics are not always easily recognized with some fonts, many instructors prefer underlining over italics for course papers. Whichever you choose, italics or underlining should be used . . .



in the following situations:

for example:

to indicate titles of complete or major works such as magazines, books, newspapers, academic journals, films, television programs, long poems, plays of three or more acts

Faulkner's last novel was The Reivers.

The Simpsons offers hilarious parodies of American culture and family life.

foreign words that are not commonly used in English

Wearing blue jeans is de rigueur for most college students.

words or phrases that you wish to emphasize

The very founding principles of our nation are at stake!







QUOTE INTEGRATION

Summarize, Paraphrase, or Quote? That is the question.

A summary is a relatively brief, objective account, in your own words, of the main ideas in a source passage.



Summarize to:

To condense the material. You may have to condense or to reduce the source material to draw out the points that relate to your paper.

To omit extras from the material. You may have to omit extra information from the source material to focus on the author’s main points.

To simplify the material. You may have to simplify the most important complex arguments, sentences, or vocabulary in the source material.


A paraphrase is a restatement, in your own words, of a passage of text. Its structure reflects the structure of the source passage. Paraphrases are sometimes the same length as the source passage, sometimes shorter. In certain cases-- particularly if the source passage is difficult to read--the paraphrase may be even longer than the original. . . . Keep in mind that only an occasional word (but not whole phrases) from the original source appears in the paraphrase, and that a paraphrase's sentence structure does not reflect that of the source.

Paraphrase to:

To change the organization of ideas for emphasis. You may have to change the organization of ideas in source material so that you can emphasize the points that are most related to your paper. You should remember to be faithful to the meaning of the source.

To simplify the material. You may have to simplify complex arguments, sentences, or vocabulary.

To clarify the material. You may have to clarify technical passages or specialized information into language that is appropriate for your audience.


A quotation uses the exact words of the original.

Use Quotes to:

1. Accuracy: You are unable to paraphrase or summarize the source material without changing the author’s intent.

2. Authority: You may want to use a quote to lend expert authority for your assertion or to provide source material for analysis.

3. Conciseness: Your attempts to paraphrase or summarize are awkward or much longer than the source material.

4. Unforgettable language: You believe that the words of the author are memorable or remarkable because of their effectiveness or historical flavor. Additionally, the author may have used a unique phrase or sentence, and you want to comment on words or phrases themselves.


Bell, Jim. Summarize, Paraphrase, or Quote. 2000. Learning Skills Center, UNBC. 12 Apr. 2004

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