Slide 1 elc 200 Day 6



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  • Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 1-
  • ELC 200
  • Day 6

Agenda

  • Questions?
  • Assignment 1 Not corrected yet, will be corrected, and feedback provided, later today
  • Assignment 2 posted in BlackBoard
    • Due Tuesday, February 14 @ 9:35 AM
    • assignment2.pdf
  • Quiz 1 Feb 17
    • Chap 1-4, Open Book, Open Notes
    • 20 M/C  @ 4 points each
    • 4 short essays @ 5 points each
    • 1 extra credit question worth 5 points
  • Finish Discussion on The Internet and the World Wide Web

Possible Bonus Points Questions

  • Name and origin of 
    • What does his name mean?
    • What does he look like all
    • “grown up”?
  • Name and origin of
    • Hic Sunt Dracones
  • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 1-

Chapter 3: The Internet and World Wide Web: E-commerce Infrastructure

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 1-
  • Chapter 3
  • The Internet and
  • World Wide Web:
  • E-commerce Infrastructure
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Client/Server Computing

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Powerful personal computers (clients) connected in network with one or more servers
  • Servers perform common functions for the clients
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Client Server

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  • © 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc

The New Client: The Emerging Mobile Platform

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Within a few years, primary Internet access will be through:
    • Netbooks & Tablets
      • Designed to connect to wireless Internet
      • Under 2 lb, solid state memory, 8” displays
      • $200-400 $200 for Kindle Fire, $500-800 for iPad2
    • Smartphones
      • Disruptive technology: Processors, operating systems
  • Slide 3-

Cloud Computing

  • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Firms and individuals obtain computing power and software over Internet
    • E.g., Google Apps
  • Fastest growing form of computing
  • Radically reduces costs of:
    • Building and operating Web sites
    • Infrastructure, IT support
    • Hardware, software
  • Slide 3-
  • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 3-

The Internet Today

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Internet growth has boomed without disruption because of:
    • Client/server computing model
    • Hourglass, layered architecture
      • Network Technology Substrate
      • Transport Services and Representation Standards
      • Middleware Services
      • Applications
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The Hourglass Model of the Internet

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Figure 3.11, Page 144
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  • SOURCE: Adapted from Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), 2000.

Internet Network Architecture

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Backbone:
    • High-bandwidth fiber-optic cable networks
    • Private networks owned by a variety of NSPs
    • Bandwidth: 155 Mbps – 2.5 Gbps
    • Built-in redundancy
  • IXPs: Hubs where backbones intersect with regional and local networks, and backbone owners connect with one another
  • CANs: LANs operating within a single organization that leases Internet access directly from regional or national carrier
  • Slide 3-

http://www.nthelp.com/maps.htm

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  • © 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc

Internet Network Architecture

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Figure 3.12, Page 145
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Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Provide lowest level of service to individuals, small businesses, some institutions
  • Types of service
    • Narrowband (dial-up)
    • Broadband
      • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
      • Cable modem
      • T1 and T3
      • Satellite
  • Slide 3-

Intranets and Extranets

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Intranet
    • TCP/IP network located within a single organization for communications and processing
  • Extranet
    • Formed when firms permit outsiders to access their internal TCP/IP networks
  • Slide 3-

Who Governs the Internet?

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Organizations that influence the Internet and monitor its operations include:
    • Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
    • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
    • Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
    • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
    • Internet Society (ISOC)
    • World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
    • International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
    • More information @ http://www.isoc.org/standards/
  • Slide 3-

Insight on Society Government Regulation and Surveillance of the Internet Class Discussion

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • How is it possible for any government to “control” or censor the Web?
  • Does the Chinese government, or the U.S. government, have the right to censor content on the Web?
  • How should U.S. companies deal with governments that want to censor content?
  • What would happen to e-commerce if the existing Web split into a different Web for each country?
  • Slide 3-

Internet II: The Future Infrastructure

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Limitations of current Internet
    • Bandwidth limitations
    • Quality of service limitations
      • Latency
      • “Best effort” QOS
    • Network architecture limitations
    • Language development limitations
      • HTML
    • Wired Internet limitations
  • Slide 3-

The Internet2® Project

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Consortium of 200+ universities, government agencies, and private businesses collaborating to find ways to make the Internet more efficient, faster
  • http://www.umaine.edu/it/internet2/
  • Primary goals:
    • Create leading edge very-high speed network for national research community
    • Enable revolutionary Internet applications
    • Ensure rapid transfer of new network services and applications to broader Internet community
  • Slide 3-
  • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 1-
  • http://atlas.grnoc.iu.edu/atlas.cgi?map_name=Internet2%20IP%20Layer

The Larger Internet II Technology Environment: The First Mile and the Last Mile

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • GENI Initiative http://www.geni.net/
    • Proposed by NSF to develop new core functionality for Internet
  • Most significant private initiatives
    • Fiber optics
    • Mobile wireless Internet services
  • Slide 3-

Fiber Optics and the Bandwidth Explosion in the First Mile

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • “First mile”: Backbone Internet services that carry bulk traffic over long distances
  • Older transmission lines being replaced with fiber-optic cable
  • Much of fiber-optic cable laid in United States is “dark”, but represents a vast digital highway that can be utilized in the future
    • Technology improvement has expanded capacity of existing fiber lines
  • Slide 3-

Optical Fiber

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  • Source: Adapted from Panko, Raymond, Business Data Communications and Networking (3rd ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001, p. 278.

Optical Fiber

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The Last Mile: Mobile Wireless Internet Access

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • “Last mile”: From Internet backbone to user’s computer, cell phone, PDA, etc.
  • Two different basic types of wireless Internet access:
    • Telephone-based (mobile phones, smartphones)
    • Computer network-based
  • Slide 3-

Telephone-based Wireless Internet Access

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Competing 3G standards
    • GSM: Used world-wide, AT&T, T-Mobile
    • CDMA: Used primarily in U.S.
  • Evolution:
    • 2G cellular networks: relatively slow, circuit-switched
    • 2.5G cellular networks: interim networks
    • 3G cellular networks: next generation, packet-switched
    • 3.5G (3G+)
    • 4G (WiMax, LTE)
  • Slide 3-

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Wi-Fi
    • High-speed, fixed broadband wireless LAN. Different versions for home and business market. Limited range.
  • WiMax
    • High-speed, medium range broadband wireless metropolitan area network
  • Bluetooth
    • Low-speed, short range connection
  • Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
    • Low power, short-range high bandwidth network
  • Zigbee  Bonus question?
    • Short-range, low-power wireless network technology for remotely controlling digital devices
  • Slide 3-

Wi-Fi Networks

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Figure 3.16, Page 163
  • Slide 3-

Benefits of Internet II Technologies

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • IP multicasting:
    • Enables efficient delivery of data to many locations on a network
  • Latency solutions:
    • diffserv (differentiated quality of service)
      • Assigns different levels of priority to packets depending on type of data being transmitted
  • Guaranteed service levels and lower error rates
    • Ability to purchase the right to move data through network at guaranteed speed in return for higher fee
  • Declining costs
  • Slide 3-
  • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 1-

Hypertext

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Text formatted with embedded links
    • Links connect documents to one another, and to other objects such as sound, video, or animation files
  • Uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and URLs to locate resources on the Web
    • Example URL
    • http://megacorp.com/content/features/082602.html
  • Slide 3-

Markup Languages

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Generalized Markup Language (GML) – 1960s
  • Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) –GML variation, 1986
  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
    • Fixed set of pre-defined markup “tags” used to format text
    • Controls look and feel of Web pages
  • eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
    • New markup language specification developed by W3C
    • Designed to describe data and information
    • Tags used are defined by user
  • Slide 3-

Web Servers and Web Clients

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Web server software:
    • Enables a computer to deliver Web pages to clients on a network that request this service by sending an HTTP request
    • Apache and Microsoft IIS
    • Basic capabilities: Security services, FTP, search engine, data capture
  • Web server
  • Web client:
    • Any computing device attached to the Internet that is capable of making HTTP requests and displaying HTML pages
  • Slide 3-

Web Browsers

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Primary purpose to display Web pages
  • Internet Explorer and Firefox dominate the market
  • Other browsers include:
    • Netscape
    • Opera
    • Safari (for Apple)
    • Google Chrome
  • Slide 3-

Development of the Web

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 1989–1991: Web invented
    • Tim Berners-Lee at CERN
    • HTML, HTTP, Web server, Web browser
  • 1993: Mosaic Web browser w/ GUI
    • Andreesen and others at NCSA
    • Runs on Windows, Macintosh, or Unix
  • 1994: Netscape Navigator, first commercial Web browser
    • Andreessen, Jim Clark
  • 1995: Microsoft Internet Explorer
  • The Browser wars begin!
  • Slide 3-

The Internet and Web: Features

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Internet and Web features on which the foundations of e-commerce are built include:
    • E-mail
    • Instant messaging
    • Search engines
    • Intelligent agents (bots)
    • Online forums and chat
    • Streaming media
    • Cookies
  • Slide 3-

E-mail

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Most used application of the Internet
  • Uses series of protocols for transferring messages with text and attachments (images, sound, video clips, etc.,) from one Internet user to another
  • Instant Messaging
  • Displays words typed on a computer almost instantly, and recipients can then respond immediately in the same way
  • Slide 3-

Search Engines

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Identify Web pages that match queries based on one or more techniques
    • Keyword indexes, page ranking
  • Also serve as:
    • Shopping tools
    • Advertising vehicles (search engine marketing)
    • Tool within e-commerce sites
  • Outside of e-mail, most commonly used Internet activity
  • Slide 3-

How Google Works

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 3-
  • Figure 3.22, Page 179

Intelligent Agents (Bots)

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Software programs that gather and/or filter information on a specific topic and then provide a list of results
    • Search bot
    • Shopping bot
    • Web monitoring bot
    • News bot
    • Chatter bot
  • Slide 3-

Online Forums and Chat

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Online forum:
    • AKA message board, bulletin board, discussion board, discussion group, board or forum
    • Web application that enables Internet users to communicate with each other, although not in real time
    • Members visit online forum to check for new posts
  • Online chat:
  • Slide 3-

Streaming Media

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Enables music, video and other large files to be sent to users in chunks so that when received and played, file comes through uninterrupted
  • Allows users to begin playing media files before file is fully downloaded
  • Slide 3-

Cookies

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Small text files deposited by Web site on user’s computer to store information about user, accessed when user next visits Web site
  • Can help personalize Web site experience
  • Can pose privacy threat
  • Slide 3-

Web 2.0 Features and Services

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Online Social Networks
    • Services that support communication among networks of friends, peers
  • Blogs
    • Personal Web page of chronological entries
  • Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
    • Program that allows users to have digital content automatically sent to their computers over the Internet
  • Slide 3-

Web 2.0 Features and Services

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Podcasting
    • Audio presentation stored as an audio file and available for download from Web
  • Wikis
    • Allows user to easily add and edit content on Web page
  • Music and video services
    • Online video viewing
    • Digital video on demand
  • Slide 3-

Web 2.0 Features and Services

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Internet telephony (VOIP)
    • Uses Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) and Internet’s packet-switched network to transmit voice and other forms of audio communication over the Internet
  • Internet television (IPTV)
  • Telepresence and video conferencing
  • Slide 3-

Web 2.0 Features and Services

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Online software and Web services
    • Web apps, widgets and gadgets
    • Digital software libraries, ASPs, distributed storage
  • M-commerce applications
    • Beginning to take off
  • Slide 3-

Insight on Technology Apps for Everything: The App Ecosystem Class Discussion

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • What are apps and why are they so popular?
  • Do you use any apps regularly? Which ones, and what are their functions?
  • What are the benefits of apps? The weaknesses?
  • Are there any benefits/disadvantages to the proprietary nature of the Apple platform?
  • Slide 3-
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.  
  • Publishing as Prentice Hall


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