Servant-Leadership



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Servant-Leadership

  • About This Presentation
  • There have been many great texts authored on the subject of Servant-Leadership. Herein, I attempted to compile the insights of some of these experts, extract the most relevant material for this audience and present it all in a thorough, yet efficient manner. I do this for the sole purpose of servant-leadership education, in the hopes of expanding the adoption of true authority and leadership.
  • Where examples are provided, all data is generic and not representative of any particular organization. Please feel free to reuse this presentation, but maintain the references to assure the original authors receive appropriate credit. I would also appreciate a note (via www.lichtenwalner.net/contact ) so I know the information was useful and may learn something from your feedback.
  • Thank you,
  • - Benjamin Lichtenwalner
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Topics

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Characteristics
  • Paradoxes
  • Practice
  • Examples
  • More Information
  • An overview of the topics we will cover
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Introduction

  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice >Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

About Ben

  • Education
  • Penn State University BS Management Science & Information Systems (Go Nittany Lions!)
  • Lehigh University MBA Concentrated in Corporate Entrepreneurship (Go Mountain Hawks!)
  • Hard Knocks Lessons through Experience
  • Experience: Organizations
  • NPO: Scaled IT for 100% Growth in 18 Months
  • INC 500: ERP Supporting Highest Growth Phase
  • Fortune 500: E-Business Division Start-up
  • Experience: Positions
  • Support Analyst, Programming Roles, Technical Lead (Software Design / Architecture),
  • Project Manager Roles, Vice President of Technology (CIO responsibilities).
  • Personal
  • Married with a young son
  • Reading (The Good Book, Business and Trade Publications)
  • Motorcycle Rider, Hiker and Occasional Paintballer
  • A quick background on this guy Benjamin Lichtenwalner (Lick-ten-wäl-nur)
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice >Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Why Servant-Leadership?

  • Experience With Servant-Led Organizations
  • One organization supported Servant-Leadership
  • One organization indifferent to Servant-Leadership
  • One organization opposed Servant-Leadership
  • Very different results
  • Personal Practice
  • Thought it was soft and “touchy-feely”
  • Learned it was the most difficult, most rewarding challenge
  • Did it right myself, did it wrong myself
  • Been through the pain, trying to spare others
  • Adoption
  • Recognition and support is rapidly growing
  • Gap of awareness and understanding remains in Technology Management
  • Seeking to close this gap
  • Why I am so interested in and passionate about Servant-Leadership
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice >Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Validating Audience

  • If You Seek:
  • Personal Fame and Fortune
  • Ego-stroking
  • Management style(book)-of-the-month
  • Leadership shortcuts
  • Quick, easy fix
  • This is not for you. Let’s not waste each other’s time.
  • But If You Seek:
  • Best way to serve your organization
  • Optimal leadership for your organization
  • Source of authentic leadership
  • Greatest challenge of your career
  • Most rewarding effort of your career
  • Sustainable results
  • Humble, relentless and committed leadership
  • Then welcome to the club. Let’s begin.
  • Time to separate the adults from the children…
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice >Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Background

  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • Defining Servant-Leadership and a brief overview of it’s history…
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Origins

  • The concept of servant-leadership is thousands of years old.
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • 375 B.C. Chanakya’s Arthashastra:
  • The [leader] shall consider as good, not what pleases himself but what pleases his subjects.
  • 600 B.C. Lao Tzu:
  • The greatest leader forgets himself and attends to the development of others.
  • First Century A.D., Jesus of Nazareth:
  • But the greatest among you shall be your servant (Matthew 23:11); The one who is the greatest among you must become like the youngest, and the leader like the servant. (Luke 22:26)
  • 1970’s Robert K. Greenleaf:
  • The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first.
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Robert K. Greenleaf

  • Career:
  • 38 Years at AT&T, largely in management training and development
  • 25 Years consulting on Servant Leadership thereafter
  • Coined the term Servant-Leader in 1970’s
  • Founded Center for Applied Ethics (now Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership)
  • Inspiration:
  • Hermann Hesse’s short novel Journey to the East in 1960’s
    • Account of a mythical journey by a group of people on a spiritual quest
  • True leadership stems first from a desire to serve
  • Essays:
  • The Servant as Leader (1970)
  • The Institution as Servant (1972)
  • Trustees as Servants (1972)
  • Largely considered the father of modern Servant-Leadership
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Post-Greenleaf

  • Larry Spears:
  • President / CEO of Greenleaf center for 25 years
  • Author of hundreds of publications on Servant-Leadership
  • Founded the Spears Center
  • James Autry:
  • President of magazine group for Meredith Corporation
  • Author of 8 Books
  • Focus on implementation
  • James C. Hunter:
  • 25 Years in Servant-Leadership
  • 2 of the most popular books on Servant-Leadership
  • Consulted many of the world’s most admired companies
  • Others: Ken Blanchard, Stephen Covey, Peter M. Senge, Jim Collins….
  • Following Greenleaf, a wealth of Servant-Leadership experts emerged
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Servant / Service

  • Definitions of Servant:
  • one who serves, or does services, voluntarily or on compulsion; a person who is employed by another for menial offices, or for other labor, and is subject to his command; a person who labors or exerts himself for the benefit of another, his master or employer; a subordinate helper…
  • a person in the service of another.
  • one who expresses submission, recognizance, or debt to another:
  • a person working in the service of another
  • in a subordinate position…
  • a person who is hired to work for another
  • Definitions of Service:
  • An act of assistance or benefit; a favor
  • an act of helpful activity; help; aid.
  • work done by one person or group that benefits another
  • The performance of work or duties for a superior or as a servant
  • be of service, to be helpful or useful
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Leadership

  • Definitions of Leader:
  • a person or thing that leads.
  • a guiding or directing head, as of an army, movement, or political group.
  • One that leads or guides.
  • One who is in charge or in command of others.
  • One who heads a political party or organization.
  • One who has influence or power, especially of a political nature.
  • a person who rules or guides or inspires others
  • a person who is in front or goes first
  • a person who is the head of, organizes or is in charge (of something)
  • The head …of any body… as of a tribe, clan, or family; a person in authority who directs the work of others
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Word Cloud

  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Greenleaf’s Definition

  • Adapted from “The Servant as Leader”:
  • The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first…
  • …The best test, and difficult to administer, is: Do those served grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in society? Will they benefit or at least not be further deprived?"
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Characteristics

  • Adapted from Larry Spears
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Ten Characteristics

  • Listening
  • Empathy
  • Healing
  • Awareness
  • Persuasion
  • Conceptualization
  • Foresight
  • Stewardship
  • Commitment to the Growth of People
  • Building Community
  • Spears extracted 10 characteristics from Greenleaf’s work
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Characteristic Breakout

  • Awareness
  • Persuasion
  • Conceptualization
  • Foresight
  • Listening
  • Empathy
  • Healing
  • Stewardship
  • Commitment to People
  • Building Community
  • Breaking out Spears’ characteristics into 3 dimensions…
  • SERVANT-LEADER
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Characteristic Breakout

  • Awareness
  • Persuasion
  • Conceptualization
  • Foresight
  • Listening
  • Empathy
  • Healing
  • Stewardship
  • Commitment to People
  • Building Community
  • Breaking out Spears’ characteristics into 3 dimensions…
  • SERVANT-LEADER
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Servant Characteristics

  • Listening
  • Active, not just passive
  • 360°, top to bottom
  • Listen completely before deciding
  • Empathy
  • Separate person from their work
  • Walk a mile in their shoes
  • Personable with appropriate individuals
  • Healing
  • Help your staff become whole
  • Consider their history
  • Build a future together
  • Focusing on serving others through these characteristics…
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Characteristic Breakout

  • Breaking out Spears’ characteristics into 3 dimensions
  • Awareness
  • Persuasion
  • Conceptualization
  • Foresight
  • Listening
  • Empathy
  • Healing
  • Stewardship
  • Commitment to People
  • Building Community
  • SERVANT-LEADER
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Leader Characteristics

  • Awareness
  • Self & Organization
  • “Sharply awake and reasonably disturbed” (Greenleaf)
  • Persuasion
  • Opposite of positional authority
  • Convince and build consensus – quickly
  • Conceptualization
  • B.H.A.G. but S.M.A.R.T.
  • Make time for strategy
  • Foresight
  • Consequences of present decisions on future outcomes
  • Focusing on Leading others through these characteristics
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Characteristic Breakout

  • Breaking out Spears characteristics into 3 dimensions
  • Awareness
  • Persuasion
  • Conceptualization
  • Foresight
  • Listening
  • Empathy
  • Healing
  • Stewardship
  • Commitment to People
  • Building Community
  • SERVANT-LEADER
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Combined Characteristics

  • Stewardship
  • Entrusted with resources of others
  • Return on investments
  • Commitment to the Growth of People
  • “Green and growing or ripe and dying” (Hunter)
  • Not just your favorites
  • Building Community
  • Effectiveness
  • Camaraderie
  • Characteristics emerging from the combined Servant & Leader dimensions
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Characteristic Breakout

  • Breaking out Spears characteristics into 3 dimensions
  • Awareness
  • Persuasion
  • Conceptualization
  • Foresight
  • Listening
  • Empathy
  • Healing
  • Stewardship
  • Commitment to People
  • Building Community
  • SERVANT-LEADER
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Paradoxes

  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Paradoxes

  • Servant-Leadership, itself a paradox, requires a constant balance…
  • Strong
  • Be Open To Change
  • Busy
  • Listen
  • Admit You Don’t Know
  • Wise
  • Serious
  • Laugh
  • Right
  • Say, “I’m Wrong”
  • Compassionate
  • Discipline
  • Planned
  • Be Spontaneous
  • Great
  • Be Without Pride
  • Leading
  • Serve
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • Enough To
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Examples of Balance

  • Great Enough to be Without Pride
  • Team gets the credit, you get the blame
  • Compassionate Enough to Discipline
  • Must not be soft – set high expectations and follow through
  • Right Enough to Say, “I’m Wrong”
  • Leaders make mistakes too, admit you are human
  • Wise Enough to Admit You Don’t Know
  • Find out quickly, but do not mislead
  • Busy Enough to Listen
  • Beware the busy manager – they do not lead
  • Paradoxes are not easy to balance. Here are a few examples…
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Greatest Paradox

  • Leading Enough to Serve
  • Focus on the Organization
  • Humble, no ego or pride
  • Emphasize the role of others in success
  • Accept responsibility in failures
  • Constantly seek opportunities for improvement
  • Roll up your sleeves
  • Stress what is best for the organization, not the few
  • 360° Support
  • Listen to Stakeholders
  • No job too big, no job too small
  • Participate, listen and build consensus to lead, not manage
  • Far more…
  • Just a few of the underlying paradoxes inherent in service and leadership…
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

In Practice

  • Translating the concepts into real-world practice
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Organization Hierarchy

  • Changing the perspective on the structure…
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • Traditional
  • “Primus Inter Pares”
  • (First Among Equals)
  • Flipped Pyramid
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Team Performance

  • Job Description – Non Servant-Leader Approach
  • Objective: Command and control
  • Created once, revised only during turnover
  • Written by hiring manager each time
  • Job Description – Servant-Leader Approach
  • Objective: mutual understanding
  • Dynamic, reviewed annually
  • Initial draft by employee
  • Performance Standards – Servant-Leader Approach
  • To meet my performance objectives this quarter, I must…
  • Employee initiates, manager reviews
  • Servant-Leader must ensure staff does not take on too much
  • Aligning corporate HR practices with Servant-Leadership…
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Developing SL Muscles

  • James C. Hunter Recommends the “Three F’s” to Support Your Servant-Leadership Development, Including:
  • Step 1: Foundation
  • Training, research, mentoring – understanding what is expected
  • Step 2: Feedback
  • 360° Feedback on Servant-Leadership Gaps
  • Paired with measurable action plans to close gaps
  • Step 3: Friction
  • Require S.M.A.R.T. objectives
  • Answer to a panel or advisor on performance against objectives
  • For more on Hunter’s approach and services: http://www.jameshunter.com
  • Honing servant-leadership skills requires tracking progress and feedback…
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Examples

  • Servant-Leadership practitioners
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Organizations

  • Fortune’s 100 Best Companies to Work For: 1/3 of Top 35
  • 10 of America’s Most Admired Companies
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • Some of the most well respected companies practice Servant-Leadership…
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Individuals

  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • Some examples of historic Servant-Leaders…
  • Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Mother Theresa
  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • Jesus of Nazareth
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Individuals

  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • Some examples of modern Servant-Leaders…
  • Herb Kelleher
  • Howard Behar
  • Sam Walton
  • Jimmy Carter
  • The Dalai Lama
  • Nelson Mandela
  • Countless Unknown
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

More Information

  • Suggestions for further reading.
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Additional Resources

  • Websites
  • Compilation: www.lichtenwalner.net/servantleader
  • Greenleaf Center: www.greenleaf.org
  • Spears Center: www.spearscenter.org
  • Consulting / Development: www.JamesHunter.com
  • Books
  • Servant Leader (Greenleaf, 1977)
  • The Servant (Hunter, 1998)
  • The Servant Leader (Autry, 2001)
  • Practicing Servant Leadership (Spears & Lawrence, 2004)
  • World’s Most Powerful Leadership Principle (Hunter, 2004)
  • Recommended texts…
  • Introduction > Background > Characteristics > Paradoxes > Practice > Examples > More
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

Thank You!

  • Questions, Concerns, Feedback?
  • http://www.lichtenwalner.net/contact
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner

References

  • Autry, James A.; The Servant Leader: How to Build a Creative Team, Develop Great Morale, And Improve Bottom-Line Performance. Three Rivers Press, New York, NY 2001.
  • DeGraaf, Don; Tilley, Colin; Neal, Larry; Servant-Leadership Characteristics in Organizational Life. Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership. Westfield, Indiana. 2001.
  • Greenleaf, Robert K.; Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power & Greatness. Paulist Press, Mawah, NJ. 1977, 1991, 2002.
  • Hansel, T. ; Holy Sweat. Word. Dallas, TX. 1987.
  • Hunter, James C.; The World’s Most Powerful Leadership Principle: How to Become a Servant Leader. Crown Business, New York, NY. 2004.
  • Spears, Larry C., Lawrence, Michelle (et al); Practicing Servant Leadership: Succeeding Through Trust, Bravery, And Forgiveness. Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco, CA . 2004
  • Spears, Larry C.; Diary of Alpha Kappa Psi (article: Servant-Leadership). Gary L. Epperson, CAE. Spring 2008.
  • Publications referenced, paraphrased or extracted from include the following:
  • References
  • © 2008 Benjamin Lichtenwalner


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