Semester-vi elective II a apparel marketing



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Limit pricing


A limit price is the price set by a monopolist to discourage economic entry into a market, and is illegal in many countries. The limit price is the price that the entrant would face upon entering as long as the incumbent firm did not decrease output. The limit price is often lower than the average cost of production or just low enough to make entering not profitable. The quantity produced by the incumbent firm to act as a deterrent to entry is usually larger than would be optimal for a monopolist, but might still produce higher economic profits than would be earned under perfect competition. The problem with limit pricing as strategic behavior is that once the entrant has entered the market, the quantity used as a threat to deter entry is no longer the incumbent firm's best response. This means that for limit pricing to be an effective deterrent to entry, the threat must in some way be made credible. A way to achieve this is for the incumbent firm to constrain itself to produce a certain quantity whether entry occurs or not. An example of this would be if the firm signed a union contract to employ a certain (high) level of labor for a long period of time.

Loss leader


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In the majority of cases, this pricing strategy is illegal under EU and US Competition rules. No market leader would wish to sell below cost unless this is part of its overall strategy. The idea of selling at a loss may appear to be in the public interest and therefore not often challenged. Only when the leader pushes up prices, it then becomes suspicious. Loss leadership can be similar to predatory pricing or cross subsidisation; both seen as anticompetitive practices.


Market-oriented pricing


Setting a price based upon analysis and research compiled from the targeted market

Price discrimination


Setting a different price for the same product in different segments to the market. For example, this can be for different ages or for different opening times, such as cinema tickets.

Premium pricing


Premium pricing is the practice of keeping the price of a product or service artificially high in order to encourage favorable perceptions among buyers, based solely on the price. The practice is intended to exploit the (not necessarily justifiable) tendency for buyers to assume that expensive items enjoy an exceptional reputation or represent exceptional quality and distinction.

Predatory pricing


Aggressive pricing intended to drive out competitors from a market. It is illegal in some places.

Contribution margin-based pricing


Contribution margin-based pricing maximizes the profit derived from an individual product, based on the difference between the product's price and variable costs (the product's contribution margin per unit), and on one’s assumptions regarding the relationship between the product’s price and the number of units that can be sold at that price. The product's contribution to total firm profit (i.e., to operating income) is maximized when a price is chosen that maximizes the following: (contribution margin per unit) X (number of units sold).

Psychological pricing


Pricing designed to have a positive psychological impact. For example, selling a product at £3.95 rather than £4.

Dynamic pricing


A flexible pricing mechanism made possible by advances in information technology, and employed mostly by Internet based companies. By responding to market fluctuations or large amounts of data gathered from customers - ranging from where they live to what they buy to how much they have spent on past purchases - dynamic pricing allows online companies to adjust the prices of identical goods to correspond to a customer’s willingness to pay. The airline industry is often cited as a dynamic pricing success story. In fact, it employs the technique so artfully that most of the passengers on any given airplane have paid different ticket prices for the same flight.

Price leadership


An observation made of oligopic business behavior in which one company, usually the dominant competitor among several, leads the way in determining prices, the others soon following.

Target pricing


Pricing method whereby the selling price of a product is calculated to produce a particular rate of return on investment for a specific volume of production. The target pricing method is used most often by public utilities, like electric and gas companies, and companies whose capital investment is high, like automobile manufacturers, textile manufacturers, apparel manufacturers etc.

Absorption pricing


Method of pricing in which all costs are recovered. The price of the product includes the variable cost of each item plus a proportionate amount of the fixed costs.

Marginal-cost pricing


In business, the practice of setting the price of a product to equal the extra cost of producing an extra unit of output. By this policy, a producer charges, for each product unit sold, only the addition to total cost resulting from materials and direct labour. Businesses often set prices close to marginal cost during periods of poor sales. If, for example, an item has a marginal cost of $1.00 and a normal selling price is $2.00, the firm selling the item might wish to lower the price to $1.10 if demand has waned. The business would choose this approach because the incremental profit o 10 cents from the transaction is better than no sale at all.

Discount and allowance pricing

It has the effect of reducing prices to reward customer responses such as paying early or promoting the product.



Discount pricing

It is an idea of flexible pricing policy. functional or trade discounts are given to an intermediary for performing certain functions.



Cash discounts are price reductions to buyers who pay their bills promptly.

Quantity discounts are given due to economies of purchasing large quantities.

Seasonal discounts are price reductions to buyers who buy merchandise or services out of season. 

Discount Pricing




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