Science Essay-Biology 07-08 In-Text Citations: The Basics



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Science Essay-Biology 07-08

In-Text Citations: The Basics


  • The Modern Language Association (MLA) guidelines require that you cite the quotations, summaries, paraphrases, and other material used from sources within parentheses typically placed at the end of the sentence in which the quoted or paraphrased material appears.

  • These in-text parenthetical citations correspond to the full bibliographic entries found in a list of references at the end of your paper.

  • Note that the titles of works are underlined rather than placed in italics.

  • Unless otherwise indicated, on-line sources follow the same pattern as print versions.

Basic In-Text Citation Rules


In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what's known as parenthetical citation. Immediately following a quotation from a source or a paraphrase of a source's ideas, you place the author's name followed by a space and the relevant page number(s).

Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

Your in-text citation will correspond with an entry in your Works Cited page, which, for the Burke citation above, will look something like this:

Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life,



Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966.

Single author named in parentheses.


The tendency to come to terms with difficult experiences is referred to as a "purification process" whereby "threatening or painful dissonances are warded off to preserve intact a clear and articulated image of oneself and one’s place in the world" (Sennett 11).

Single author named in a signal phrase.


Social historian Richard Sennett names the tendency to come to terms with difficult experiences a "purification process" whereby "threatening or painful dissonances are warded off to preserve intact a clear and articulated image of oneself and one’s place in the world" (11).

Two or more authors.


Certain literacy theorists have gone so far as to declare that "the most significant elements of human culture are undoubtedly channeled through words, and reside in the particular range of meanings and attitudes which members of any society attach to their verbal symbols" (Goody and Watt 323).

Corporate author (organization, association, etc.).


The federal government has funded research concerning consumer protection and consumer transactions with online pharmacies (Food and Drug Administration 125).

Works with no author, in print. (non-web)


Several critics of the concept of the transparent society ask if a large society would be able to handle the complete loss of privacy ("Surveillance Society" 115). **

**This is a shortened version of the full title**


Web page.


Abraham Lincoln's birthplace was designated as a National Historical Site in 1959 (National Park Service). 

Note: Internet citations follow the style of printed works.  Personal or corporate author and page number should be given if they exist on the website. 



EXAMPLE OF BIBLIOGRAPHY OF A WEB SITE


MLA

Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site. 11 Feb. 2003. National Park
      Service. 13 Feb. 2003 .




  • NOTE: JUST BECAUSE IT IS A WEB SOURCE DOES NOT MEAN THAT THERE IS NOT AN AUTHOR, TITLE, ETC. THE ABOVE IS FOR AN “UNAUTHORED OR MULTIPLE AUTHORED WEB SITE. IF YOU CAN FIND AN AUTHOR, USE IT!




  • REMEMBER: USE CITATION MACHINE…IT WILL GUIDE THE WAY


For further information: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/02/ or http://library.duke.edu/research/citing/within/mla.html



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