The answer is A,B,C,D. (i.e. all of the examples are plagiarism.
A. If a student submits a piece of work produced by others, or copied from another source, this is plagiarism. B. If a student produces a piece of work which includes sections taken from other authors, this is plagiarism, unless the source has been given credit as outlined above. The length of the copied section is not relevant, since any act of plagiarism offends against the basic principle underlying the preparation of any piece of academic work, that the work submitted must be your own original work. When copying sections from other authors it is not sufficient simply to list the source in the reference list.
C. If a student paraphrases from another source without giving appropriate credit to the author of that source, this is plagiarism. Paraphrasing should use a student’s own words to demonstrate an understanding and accurately convey the meaning of the original work, and should not merely reorder or change a few words or phrases of the existing text.
D. If a student copies from or resubmits his or her own previous work for another assignment, this is self-plagiarism, and is not acceptable.
Penalties for Plagiarism
If an assignment that you write as part of the assessed work for your degree, when checked by the tutor manually or using Submit software, appears to contain plagiarised work, the tutor marking it will refer it to the Programme’s examination officer or course director and you will be required to attend a meeting to explore the matter further. At this meeting, you will have an opportunity either to show that the charge of plagiarism is not warranted, or to acknowledge the plagiarism or collusion. The School of Nursing and Midwifery takes plagiarism very seriously, and a range of penalties is available. These are identified in appendix 8 of the programme handbook. Please take time to read this.
With such a range of penalties it is clear that it is unwise for you to try to assess whether your particular risk of being penalised is outweighed by the unfair advantage that you might gain. A far wiser option is to anticipate the most serious possible penalty and thus take every step to ensure that you never need to face a possible charge of plagiarism.
How to Avoid a Charge of Plagiarism We have adopted an educational approach that will ensure you never get penalised for plagiarism if you follow it. Complete the exercise below and make sure you understand plagiarism and how to avoid it.
Practical Exercise Before starting this practical exercise you should note the following: (1) For the purposes of this exercise the threshold for plagiarism has been set at a very “forgiving” level of 24% or less. This is because this is a formative exercise to enable you to review your skills and amend your writing practice accordingly. For your actual assignments you will need to refer to the plagiarism action guide in appendix 8 of the programme handbook to see what is an acceptable level within the Centre for Health and Social Care Studies and Service Development. Remember: your work will also be read closely by your personal teacher who will similarly be looking for indications of plagiarism. The following short practical exercise in writing a summary of two items from the scientific literature, allows you to check your skills in using the literature appropriately for academic assignments.
Use the following two paired journal articles, which discuss arguments in favour of and against legislation for bicycle helmets. Both of these are available on line full text from the British Medical Journal website at the URLs quoted in the references:
Hagel B, Macpherson A, Rivara FP, and Pless B
Arguments against helmet legislation are flawed BMJ, Mar 2006; 332: 725 – 726.
http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/332/7543/725 Robinson DL. No clear evidence from countries that have enforced the wearing of helmets BMJ, Mar 2006; 332: 722 - 725
http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/332/7543/722 For this exercise:
1. Read both sources 2. Write a short (maximum 800 words) assignment answering the following question: Making close reference to the textof both articles, briefly summarise the arguments for and against legislation for the wearing of bicycle helmets. To what extent do you personally agree with the arguments of each of these authors? 3. Proof read your report carefully to make sure that it does not contain plagiarised text. You may use direct quotations, but make sure that your report makes it clear where text is being quoted (by using quotation marks, italic script and paragraph indentation), and that such quotations do not make up more than 24% of your final version.
Take an electronic copy of, or email your completed work, to your personal teacher. He/she will submit this to “turitin” to obtain an originality report.
The report may take up to 24 hours to be returned so book a tutorial for two days after you have sent the material. Your personal teacher can then discuss any issues arising from the report with you. If there are problems it may be advisable that you revise the work so that you are confident that similar things do not arise in your formatively assessed work
Baigent C (2005) Aspirin for everyone older than 50? Against British Medical Journal 330: 1442-3
Bulstrode C (1995) Continuity of care--sacred cow or vital necessity? British Medical Journal 310: 1144-5
Daintith J, Isaacs A (1990) Collins Reference Dictionary: Medical Quotations London: Collins
Department of Health (1998) A First Class Service: quality in the new NHS London: Department of Health
Elwood P, Morgan G, Brown G, Pickering J (2005) Aspirin for everyone older than 50? British Medical Journal 330:1440-1
Greenhalgh T, Hurwitz B (1999) Narrative based medicine: Why study narrative? British Medical Journal 318: 48-50
Kannel W, D'Agostino R, Belanger A (1987) Fibrinogen, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease: insights from the Framingham StudyAmerican Heart Journal. 113(4): 1006-10
Sackett D, Rosenberg W, Gray J, Haynes R, Richardson W (1996) Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't British Medical Journal 312: 71-2
University of Sheffield. (2005) Quality And Standards Committee Working Group On Plagiarism And Collusion In The Assessment Process. Notes of guidance to departments.Use Of Unfair Means In The Assessment Process. http://tlsu.dept.shef.ac.uk/handbook/guidance_unfair_means.pdf
Watson J, Moss F (2001) TB in Leicester: out of control, or just one of those things? British Medical Journal 322: 1133-4
Appendix A - USE OF UNFAIR MEANS IN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS PLAGIARISM AND COLLUSION – ADVICE TO STUDENTS
When preparing essays, projects or other work, you will read widely and become familiar with the work of others. You should ensure that the materials you prepare for submission would be accepted as your own original work. A lecturer or tutor who is assessing your work is interested in your understanding of an idea and you should use your own words to demonstrate your understanding. The selective quoting of material from books and articles is permissible, but the material must always be attributed to its sources by means of quotation marks. In assessed essays, a footnote or brackets naming the author and the title of the text plus the dates of publication would be required, as would a bibliography that provides full references of all the material consulted or used.
The basic principle underlying the preparation of any piece of academic work is that
the work submitted must be your own original work. Plagiarism and collusion are not allowed because they go against this principle. Please note that the rules about plagiarism and collusion apply to all assessed and non-assessed work, including essays, experimental results and computer code. Cutting and pasting from web sites would also be considered unacceptable.
Plagiarism is passing off others’ work as your own, whether intentionally or unintentionally, to your benefit. The work can include ideas, compositions, designs, images, computer code, and, of course, words. This list is not exhaustive. The benefit accrued could be, for example, an examination grade or the award of a research degree.
If a student submits a piece of work produced by others, or copied from another source, this is plagiarism
If a student produces a piece of work which includes sections taken from other authors, this is plagiarism, unless the source has been attributed as outlined above. The length of the copied section is not relevant, since any act of plagiarism offends against the general principle set out above. When copying sections from other authors it is not sufficient simply to list the source in the bibliography
If a student paraphrases from another source without the appropriate attribution, this is plagiarism. Paraphrasing should use a student’s own words to demonstrate an understanding and accurately convey the meaning of the original work, and should not merely reorder or change a few words or phrases of the existing text
If a student copies from or resubmits his or her own previous work for another assignment, this is self-plagiarism, and is not acceptable.
Collusion is a form of plagiarism where two or more people work together to produce a piece of work all or part of which is then submitted by each of them as their own individual work.
If a student copies the whole or part of someone else’s piece of work with the knowledge and consent of the latter, then this is collusion.
If a student allows another student to copy material, knowing that it will subsequently be presented as that students’ own work, then this is collusion.
If two or more students work on an assignment together, produce an agreed piece of work and then copy it up for individual submission, then this is collusion.
When producing a piece of work arising out of groupwork, students should seek the advice of the tutor setting the assigned work regarding the acceptable limits of collaboration.
Both plagiarism and collusion are strictly forbidden. Students are warned that the piece of work affected may be given a grade of zero, which in some cases will entail failure in the examination for the relevant unit or research degree.
The student may also be referred to the Discipline Committee. You should follow any guidance on the preparation of material given by the academic department setting the assignment. If in doubt, consult the member of academic staff responsible for the unit of study. There is unlikely to be any objection to you discussing the subject of an essay or project with fellow students in general terms, or to quoting from various sources in the work submitted. However, if you have any problems with an assignment you should always consult your tutor, who will give general advice and help.