O’Connell, J.F, Hawkes, K., Blurton Jones, N.G. (1999) Grandmothering and the evolution of Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution, 36: 461–85.
Brown, P., Sutikna, T., Morwood, M.J., Soejono, R.P., Jatmiko, Wayhu Saptomo, E. and Awe Due, R. (2004) A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature, 431: 1055–61.
Lewin, R. (2005) Human evolution: an illustrated introduction (fifth edition). Blackwell, Oxford.
Mithen, S.J. (2007) Did farming arise from a mis-application of social intelligence? Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological sciences, 362: 705–18.
Stringer, C. and Andrew, P. (2005) The complete world of human evolution. Thames and Hudson, London.
Creating reference lists will be covered in more detail next week, but note now that although both these references lists are organised according to the Harvard style, there are some minor (but acceptable) stylistic differences. Look closely at one of these two lists (taken from reading for GEOG1200/1290 and GEOG1210/1100), and answer the following in your skills portfolio. For each work listed, state the nature of the work, making clear the type of publication and the intended readership, e.g. edited textbook, academic journal, magazine for general readership.
Task 11: Reading an Academic Journal Paper
Read one of the journal papers in the reference list in Task 10, taking notes, and address the questions below: Provide a brief typed summary/resumé of your notes and include this in your skills portfolio. This resumé should be a maximum of 600 words and should show how the author(s): -- establish the aims/themes of the piece
-- set out the argument and sustain it to its conclusion
-- establish a clear and effective conclusion.
Week Four – Citing and Referencing
4.1 Reference Lists
A reference list contains full information on every source quoted in a particular piece of writing, be it a student essay, academic paper or report. References – both citations in a text and a list of the references at the end – must be included in all academic writing. As a university student you are expected and required to give appropriate acknowledgement to other peoples’ work and ideas (see Task 9, Tutorial #4). You must also include references for all diagrams and tables you use. Failure to include references will result in a considerable loss of marks. The School of Geography requires its students to use the Harvard Referencing System (as do most academic journals). Reference lists are placed at the end of the essay in alphabetical order. They must be comprehensive so that the reader can easily find the work without confusion. You will have already worked through the online tutorials on plagiarism and how to reference in Task 9, Tutorials #4 & #5 - so refer back to this if you need to. You should quickly get into the habit of keeping a completerecord of your sources with full bibliographic details when reading and making notes (see also Task 11). This will make referencing essays and reports simple. It is a real nuisance to have to go back to the library to re-locate a reference because you did not quote it fully in the first place. So always put the full reference in your notes. For further information about references see also Kneale 2003).
Task 12: Creating a Reference List
Using what you learnt from the library tutorials, do a literature search on a geographical topic of your choosing. Select something that interests you or use one of your tutorial essays as an example topic.
You should clearly indicate in your skills portfolio submission the topic that you have chosen followed by a reference list of at least 8 items in alphabetical order and using Harvard referencing. Your references should cover a range of different sources (e.g. books, journal articles, internet sources, etc.)
Task 13: Citations and Reference Lists
Producing a full and accurate reference list is an important part of essay writing and other academic work. It a token of honesty and professionalism to yourself, your reader (i.e., in this case, your tutor) and the writers whose works you have read.
Copy and paste the following text into your skills portfolio workbook. Spot the mistakes and inconsistencies, and produce citations and a reference list using the Harvard style in a correct and consistent way. Mark with a pencil or by highlighting the places where you have made corrections. A corrected version will be made available on the VLE after the submission deadline. Refresh your memory by looking at a few articles in some academic journals to see examples of reference lists. Look at some passages of text to see how these sources are flagged. The referencing of web sites will be tackled next semester. The following two paragraphs with their associated references are a slightly amended version of part of the final draft of a recent paper published in the academic journal Urban Studies: from: Waley, P. 2007. Tokyo-as-world-city: reassessing the role of capital and the state in urban restructuring. Urban Studies 44:8, 1465-90.
At the heart of discussion of urban change in the last few decades lies the proposition that we have moved from a managerial to an entrepreneurial urban regime and from urban government to urban governance. (David Harvey ‘89) While this analysis has become central, it has been taken in various directions with a number of different emphases. For example, Hall and Hubbard (The entrepreneurial city 1996, page 155) have argued that, ‘It is difficult to assess whether the shift to entrepreneurial modes of governance is supplanting or merely supplementing traditional “managerial” approaches’. Differing inflections exist on the nature of urban governance, but most writers agree that public-private partnerships (with the weight between the component parts differing) operate at the core of urban restructuring and undertake urban regeneration projects (Hall, 1996; MacLeod et al. 2003; Peck & Tickell 1996; Ward 2003). However, a number of qualifications are apparent. Hall and Hubbard (1996, 157) write that, ‘The power often attributed to the private sector in urban coalitions is frequently more apparent than real’, while both Harvey (1989) and McLeod and Ward have argued that the difficulties in forming coalitions of business leaders allows for the emergence of charismatic leaders from the world of business.
Central to the entrepreneurial-turn literature (Ward 2003 and Wu 2003) is the sense of a reduced role for the state, both national and local. Over the last three decades, there has been a ‘slow erosion of key institutions enshrined in the welfare state and a major crisis in the legitimacy of modernist-inspired urban planning’. (MacLeod, page 1655). Again, this pivotal insight has been subjected to a wide range of qualifications, but most of them tend towards a revision of this argument along two lines. The first, outlined by Jessop (1998, p. 90), sees a ‘complex rearticulation of different spatial scales’, with no privileging of any one spatial scale (N. Brenner and N. Theodore). The second envisages the state as reasserting its authority, still pulling the strings. In the British context, this is understood, not surprisingly perhaps, as being ‘much less about rolling back the frontiers of the state than a restructuring of the local state apparatus in the interests of the central state’ (Hall and Hubbard 1996, 157). Indeed, Peck and Tickell (2002) interpret this reassertion of the state’s authority as reflecting a chronology in the development of neo-liberalism, from roll-back to roll-out. N. Brenner and N. Theodore. 2002. Cities and the geographies of ‘actually existing neoliberalism’. Antipode 34:3, 350-379.
Peck, J., and Tickell, A.. (2002). Neoliberalizing Space. Antipode Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 380-404.
T. Hall,and P. Hubbard (1996) “The entrepreneurial city: new urban politics, new urban geographies?” Progress in Human Geography 20:2, 153-134.
Harvey, D. 1989. From managerialism to entrepreneurialism: the transformation in urban governance in late capitalism. Geografiska Annaler Series B, 71:1, 1-15.
MacLeod, G., and Ward. 2002. Spaces of utopia and dystopia: landscaping the contemporary city. Geografiska Annaler Series B 84:3, 153-170.
McLeod, G., M. Raco and K. Ward, et al. 2003. Negotiating the contemporary city: introduction. Urban Studies 40:9: 1655-71.
Tickell, A., and J. Peck. 1996. The return of the Manchester men: men’s words and men’s deeds in the reworking of the local state. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 21--4, 595-616.
Ward, Kevin. (2003). Entrepreneurial urbanism, State restructuring and civilizing ‘New’ East Manchester. Area 35:2, 116-27.
Wu, F. 2003. The (post-) socialist entrepreneurial city as a state project: Shanghai’s reglobalisation in question. Urban Studies 40:9, 1673-98.
Jessop, B. 1998. The narrative of enterprise and the enterprise of narrative: place marketing and the entrepreneurial city, chapter in Tim Hall and Phil Hubbard, Eds) The Entrpreneurial City: Geographies of Politics, Regime and Representation, Wiley, Chichester, pages 77-102. Refer back to Task 9, Tutorial #4 if you remain confused or unclear about how to reference sources using the Harvard style.
4.2 Some Definitions
Bibliography: this normally means a list of works on any particular subject, but is sometimes (confusingly) used in the more specific sense of a reference list.
Citation: a specific type of reference – appearing in brackets in a text – to a source from which material or ideas have been drawn.
Reference: in this context, the marking-out or noting-down of a different work from which material or ideas have been drawn.
Reference List: the list at the end of a work of all citations in a text.
Source: the original work to which reference is being made. Week Five – Writing Skills
Communicating your understanding, composing an argument and structuring your essays is covered in the lecture in Week 5. You may also find it useful to refer to Kneale (2003) and Northedge (1990).
Task 14: Evaluating an Essay
The essay provided below in Section 5.1 is not a particularly good answer and shows much room for improvement! It is somewhat dated now and has been adapted from an essay discussed in Northedge (1990).
Read carefully through the text and think about whether it is good or bad essay.
Attempt to mark it using a standard School of Geography mark sheet (you can collect one from reception).
Refer to marking criteria for essays that are provided on page 50 of the School of Geography Undergraduate Student Handbook.
Then type up some constructive comments about how the student should improve it (no more than 200 words).
Here is a list of things to think about when reading the essay:
What is the central question here and has it been answered?
Are aims and objectives clearly specified and is it clear whether they have been met?
Have supporting evidence and examples been included?
How effective is the argument contained in this essay?
Is there good structure, organisation and signposting of material?
How good is the referencing and the quality of resources used?
Are the presentation, style and grammar good?
Does it have a convincing conclusion that reflects on the aims and objectives?