# Table 3: Descriptive statistics

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Table 3: Descriptive statistics

Table 3 shows mean and standard deviation of various attributes. Students responded on five point likert scale which has a value of 1- strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neutral, 4 -agree, 5-strongly agree respectively. The calculation of mean and standard deviation is based on the degree of the respondent’s agreement or disagreement. The overall mean of slight more than 3 shows that the most of the responses were positive, which means that the students have marked 3, 4 and 5 on the scale.

With value of 3.8284, Assertiveness has hit the highest average mean which indicates that among the rest of the attributes, students are more able openly express views in discussion, can start a discussion and can use imagination to get new ideas after participating in various activities. The average mean value hence shows that the most students have reported their response as ‘agree’, ‘strongly agree’ or has taken a neutral stand. Although the variation in average is less, self-awareness has a lowest average mean value of 3.4773. Although it is marked the lowest average mean, it still indicates a positive response from the students. That is, like in ‘questioning’ students have reported their response as ‘agree’, ‘strongly agree’ or ‘neutral’.

Similarly, the average mean for rest of the attributes also indicates a positive answer from the students. The average mean of 3.7899 for ‘effective listening’, 3.6795 for ‘facilitating’, 3.6677 for ‘questioning’, 3.4803 for ‘oral speech’, 3.6252 for ‘facial expression’ and 3.7426 for ‘reflection’ shows that the students have reported their response as either ‘agree’, ‘strongly agree’ or has taken a ‘neutral’ stand.

Standard deviation tells us the spread of responses away from the scale along with validating the value of mean. That is, the closer the value of standard deviation to 0, more reliable is the value of mean. Standard deviation for ‘effective listening’ is .53705. This tells us that each data point in the sample under ‘effective listening’ is in average distance of .53705 from the average mean, indicating that each response are stationed extremely close to the average mean, which in case of this study- shows that most responses are stationed near ‘neutral’, ‘agree’ and ‘strongly agree’. This also depicts that the students have reported their responses in remarkably consistent order.

Similarly the values of average standard deviations for rest of the attributes are also stationed close to the average mean. The deviation for ‘self-awareness’, ‘facilitating’, ‘questioning’, ‘assertiveness’, ‘oral speech’, ‘facial expression’ and ‘reflection’ are .65442, .61590, .65292, .69486, .64641, .74132, .70359 respectively. ‘Facial expression’ with .74132 has the highest deviation away from the average mean which indicates a slight volatile order in comparison to rest of the attributes.

Table 4: Correlation between cultural activities and various attributes of interpersonal skills

 Cultural Activities Effective listening Self-awareness Facilitating Questioning Assertiveness Oral speech Facial Expression Reflection Pearson correlation -.059 -.122* -.032 .005 -.012 -.042 -.089 .059 Sig. (2-tailed) .280 .025 .562 .921 .831 .441 .104 .280 Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).** Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).*

Table 4 describes the relationship or influence of cultural activity on various interpersonal attributes which will enhance students to be socially adjusted in future. This table shows that there is no phenomenon of autocorrelation, that is, the explanatory variables are not highly correlated to cultural activity except for only one attribute ‘self awareness’. The Pearson value for ‘self awareness’ in relation to cultural activity is -.122* which depicts a negative relationship between the variables which tells, as the participation in cultural activity increases, self awareness of the students’ decreases. With the * sign, we can become more confident that there is significant influence of cultural activity on self-awareness.

Though there is a relationship between cultural activity and self-awareness which fulfils the objective of the research to determine the relationship between co-curricular activities and social adjustment of students (measured by interpersonal skill), the result does not confirm with all the literature mentioned as the literatures had positive correlation between the variables.

To the contrary cultural activity and rest of the attributes is not auto correlated, that is there is no influence of cultural activity on effective listening, facilitating, questioning, assertiveness, oral speech, facial expression and reflection with its Pearson value near to 0 which also does not agree with the literatures mentioned.

Table 5: Correlation between sport activities and various attributes of interpersonal skills

 Sport activities Effective listening Self-awareness Facilitating Questioning Assertiveness Oral speech Facial Expression Reflection Pearson correlation -.092 -.065 -.127* -.098 -.204** -.106 -.118* -.133* Sig.(2-tailed) .092 .232 .020 .071 .000 .051 .030 .014

 Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).** Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).*

The Pearson correlation result of sports activity and various interpersonal skills in table 5 shows a strong negative correlation between facilitating, assertiveness, facial expression, reflection and sport activity. That is, as the participation in sports activity increases, facilitating, assertiveness, facial expression and reflection decreases.

With Pearson value of -.127* facilitation and sport activity has significant negative correlation. Similarly, there is negative correlation between sport activity and assertiveness with the Pearson value of -.204**. Two ** sign, depicts the strength of relationship which in assertiveness and sport activity is much stronger. Therefore, we can be 95% confident that the relationship between assertiveness and sport activity is not by chance. Facial expression and reflection also share significant negative relationship with sport activity with Pearson value of -.118* and -.133* respectively. Although the objective to determine the relationship between co-curricular activities and social adjustment of students (measured by interpersonal skills) of the research is fulfilled, the result contradicts with the literature review that described positive relationship between co-curricular activities and various personal attributes.

It is also observed that there is not relationship between sport activity and effective listening, self-awareness and questioning with the Pearson value near to 0. That is, there is no influence of co-curricular activities on effective listening, self awareness and questioning which neither confirms with literature nor aligns with the objective of the research.
Table 6: Correlation between literary activities and various attributes of interpersonal skills

 Literary activities Effective listening Self-awareness Facilitating Questioning Assertiveness Oral speech Facial Expression Reflection Pearson correlation -.030 -.109* -.059 -.024 -.007 -.085 -.198** -.072 Sig.(2-tailed) .584 .045 .280 .656 .903 .119 .000 .188

 Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).** Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).*
It can be seen from table 6 that self-awareness and facial expression shares negative correlation with literary activities with Pearson value of -.109* and -.198** respectively. That is, as participation in literary activities increases, facial expression and self awareness decreases. The * sign on both the value depicts a significant correlation, in which facial expression has stronger significance with two ** sign as compared to self awareness. We can; therefore, conclude that the relationship between literary activity, self-awareness and facial expression is not by chance and it aligns with the objective of the research. The result; however, contradicts with the positive correlation drawn between the variables in all the literature mentioned.

The result also depicts that there is no relationship between effective listening, facilitating, questioning, assertiveness, oral speech, reflection and literary activities. The Pearson value for the mentioned attributes is near 0 which indicates that literary activities and the mentioned attribute do not share any linear relationship. This result neither confirms with the literature nor does it aligns with the objective of the research.

Table 7: Correlation between club activities and various attributes of interpersonal skills
 Clubs Effective listening Self-awareness Facilitating Questioning Assertiveness Oral speech Facial Expression Reflection Pearson correlation .047 -.001 -.064 -.055 -.052 .003 -.020 -.017 Sig. (2-tailed) .394 .986 .241 .312 .342 .950 .711 .760

 Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).** Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).*
The Pearson correlation results for clubs and various attributes of interpersonal skills tells us that they do not share any relationship with Pearson value near to 0.

Though more students participate in clubs, the results in Pearson Correlation revealed that there is no auto correlation between the two. Test of this hypothesis have yielded a conflicting result from study conducted by (Wagner,1999; Jamal, 2012; hood.1984) who found out that participation in clubs and other extra-curricular activities not only improves social adjustability of the students but also enable interpersonal competence. The hypothesis however confirms with the more recent study conducted by Martin (2000) that there is no significant correlation between clubs and development of interpersonal relationship (as cited in Foubert and Grainger, 2006). This conflicting result of the current research can also be attributed to differences in sample size employed for the research. Further, it could be also attributed to lack of proper goal oriented activities or guidelines as also pointed out in study carried out on GNH infused curriculum which found out that main challenges faced in Bhutanese education system are the lack of proper guidance (Zangmo, 2014).

Table 8: Correlation between volunteerism and various attributes of interpersonal skills
 Volunteer Effective listening Self-awareness Facilitating Questioning Assertiveness Oral speech Facial Expression Reflection Pearson correlation -.152** -.152** -.136** -.137* -.144** .103 -.200** -.224** Sig. (2-tailed) .005 .005 .012 .012 .008 .058 .000 .000

 Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).** Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).*
Table 8 shows numerous auto correlations between the various attributes of interpersonal skills. The Pearson correlation result tells us that effective listening, self-awareness, facilitating, questioning, assertiveness, facial expression and reflection have negative correlation with volunteerism. That is, as participation in volunteerism increases, effective listening, self-awareness, facilitating, questioning, assertiveness, facial expression and reflection decreases. With Pearson value of -.152**, effective listening has significant value of 0.05 which falls below 0.01. This tells us that volunteerism has significant negative correlation with effective listening.

Similarly self-awareness and facilitating also has a Pearson value of -.152** and -.136** which shows the significant value of both falls below 0.05 and depicting a significant negative correlation with volunteerism.

We can also see that assertiveness, facial expression and reflection shares negative correlation with volunteerism. Two ** sign on the Pearson value for them tells us that the strength of correlation is very strong. The significant value for them falls below 0.01 which indicates that there is a significant negative correlation between volunteerism and assertiveness, facial expression and reflection. Although the above result fulfils the objective of the research to determine the relationship between co-curricular activities and social adjustment of the students (measured by interpersonal skills), the results contradicts with the literature review which describes positive correlation between co-curricular activities and social adjustment of the students. It is also observed that the volunteerism do not have correlation with oral speech with its Pearson value near to 0. It therefore, indicates that the result neither confirms with the literature nor does it aligns with the literature.

## CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The discussion and conclusion drawn are based on the result of the research study carried out on influence of co-curricular activities on social adjustment (measured by interpersonal skills) of secondary school students of Thimphu Thromde with help of descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation. The study covered three schools, two private and one public school from Thimphu Thromde. Motithang Higher Secondary School had the highest respondents of one fifty five followed by Rinchen Higher Secondary School with ninety eight and Pelkhil Higher Secondary School with eighty five. Student’s participation in different activities revealed different result which confirmed the research question of finding significant relationship between participation in co-curricular activities and social adjustment of students. The research for the purpose of meeting the objective used Pearson correlation to determine correlation of co-curricular activities and social adjustment of the students.

The findings of the study revealed that more respondents participated in club activities with percentage representation of 75.1 percent. The result is worth noting because the Pearson correlation result for participation in club activities and various attributes of interpersonal skills did not indicate any auto correlation. The current study has yielded a conflicting result from study conducted by (Wagner, 1999; Jamal, 2012; Hood,1984) who found out that participation in clubs and other extra-curricular activities not only improves social adjustability of the students but also enable interpersonal competence. According to Dorji (2005) clubs are part of school curriculum in Bhutanese Education System and it is conducted on compulsory basis under day to day guidance of teacher (as cited in centre for educational research and development, 2009). Hence it will be interesting to know relationship between participation in activities under compulsion and development of interpersonal skills in future studies. The contradictory result; however, confirms with the more recent study conducted by Martin (2000) that there is no significant correlation between clubs and development of interpersonal relationship (as cited in Foubert and Grainger, 2006). This conflicting result of the current research can also be attributed to differences in sample size employed for the research. Further, it could be also attributed to lack of proper goal oriented activities or guidelines as also pointed out in study carried out on GNH infused curriculum which found out that main challenges faced in Bhutanese education system are the lack of proper guidance (Zangmo, 2014). Level of impact on personal development of the students from non-guided co-curricular activities, therefore, can be an interesting area to be dealt in future studies.
Percentage representation on various statements under interpersonal skill shows positive responses, that is, the students have marked more of 3, 4 and 5 on predetermined five point likert scale which as a value of 1- strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neutral, 4 -agree, 5-strongly agree respectively. The positive response represents the degree of agreement of the respondents which indicates that students find differences in their interpersonal competence after participating in various co-curricular activities. The calculation of mean and standard deviation which was also based on the degree of the respondent’s agreement or disagreement, revealed the mean value of slight more than 3 which shows that the most of the responses were positive, that the students have marked more of 3, 4 and 5 on the predetermined scale. On the predetermined five point likert scale, the highest percentage representations are in ‘neutral’. ‘agree’ and ‘strongly agree’. Students gave higher ratings in the scale hence we can draw that the responses were more positive in case of different attributes. Hence, it can be concluded that with interpersonal competence, students are more likely to be socially adjusted as found out in study conducted on University students in Kenya by Kyalo and Chumba (2011) that there is significant correlation between level of interpersonal skills and social adjustment of the students.

Carrying out Pearson Correlation revealed that there is a negative correlation between various interpersonal skills and co-curricular activities which did not confirm with most of the literature review of the current study. The result also revealed that there is no correlation between school club activities and various attributes of interpersonal skills. Though more students participate in clubs, the results in Pearson Correlation revealed that there is no auto correlation between the two.

The result also revealed that there is a negative correlation between cultural activities and self-awareness with Pearson value of -.122*. It also revealed that the negative correlation is significant with its significant value less than 0.05. Similarly, Pearson correlation result of sports and literary activities also revealed significant negative correlation with few the attributes. While sport activities have significant negative correlation with facilitating, assertiveness, facial expression and reflection, literary activities also revealed a negative correlation with self-awareness and facial expression. This means that as participation in sport and literary activity goes higher, the above mentioned attributes of the students lowers. The result fulfils the objective of the study to determine the relationship between co-curricular activities and social adjustment of the secondary school students of Thimphu Thromde but it does not agree with the mentioned literature. Volunteerism has significant negative correlation with all the attributes except for oral speech. The result indicated that as student’s volunteers, enhancement in their attribute lowers. This also does not confirm with the literature review of the current study.

The Pearson correlation results of the current study are worth noting because variable have significant negative correlation which completely contradicts with the literature. Bhutanese Education System has always been cautious while introducing wholesome education for overall personal development of the students. To this end co-curricular activities were included in school curriculum as long as the contemporary education system came into existence. The result of the study; however, shows a negative relationship which defeats the whole purpose of introducing wholesome education. It can be concluded that the findings provide a glimpse for need of proper guidance for conducting co-curricular activities in a ways that can enhance personal development of the students.

The conflicting results with other studies can be attributed to the smaller sample size of the current study. This creates a platform for future studies which larger sample which can accurately represent the total number of youth in Bhutan. Further, studies carried out so far in the similar arena are mostly based at university level which contradicts with the current study done at higher secondary school level, therefore, study on influence of co-curricular activities and social adjustment of college students can be another area for future study. On the policy level, we can also conclude that the type and structure of co-curricular activities presented to Bhutanese students are different in comparison to other countries. As already mentioned, current study lacks Bhutanese context and in same line there is no literature on type and structure of co-curricular activities provided to the students which is most likely to be the contributor of negative correlation between cultural activities and self-awareness.

## RECOMMENDATION

Some recommendations can be made based on the conclusion which could not only help parents and teachers but also provide platform for further research. Since there is a correlation between participation in co-curricular activities and various attributes of interpersonal skills which in turns determine the social adjustability of the students, teachers along with curricula developer should infuse more specific skills oriented activities in the curriculum. It is found out that there basically is a negative correlation between the variable and so education policy should come up with proper guidelines for different co-curricular activities so that it can direct students and enable them to enhance social skills.

Teacher and parents have greater role to play when it comes to overall personality development of the student. Teacher should plan more peer activities as peer activities are important component in developing interpersonal competencies. On the other hand parents and teachers should monitor students to avoid over involvement in co-curricular activities which could hamper their academic performance. The study revealed that there is no relationship between clubs and various attributes under interpersonal skills therefore, schools should either do away with clubs or incorporate those activities under clubs which are more skill oriented.

Although the findings of the study have relevant implication in counseling and development, the study also has number of limitation. This study has considered only social adjustment based on interpersonal skills. Further research on physical adjustment and mental adjustment from participation in different co-curricular activities can be suggested. It would also be interesting, for example, to research on level of student’s involvement in co curricular activities and level of social adjustment.

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## Appendix I- Timeline

 Sl.no Task Date 1 Submission of draft proposal 21st August 2 Field work or collection of data 14th September to 10th October 3 Writing of final report and preparation of presentation slides 11th October to 1st December 4 Submission of both soft and hard copy of research report 7th December 5 Research paper presentation 14th to 18th December

## Appendix II- Questionaire

The survey conducted will be strictly for academic purposes and the anonymity of the respondents will be maintained.
School: ....................................................................................................
Gender......................................... Age…………………………
Class............................................

Part I

Please place tick where ever appropriate

 Item No. Co-curricular activities I participated in Cultural activities ( dance competition- Beodra, Rigsar, Zhungdra, international dance) Variety /concert Sport activities ( running, high jump, long jump, football, basketball etc) Literary activities (debate, quiz, declamation, poetry recitation etc) Clubs ( any of the club activities that your school provide) Volunteer ( In and out of school)

Part II

Complete the questionnaire by circling the option that best describe your feeling

Interpretation of scale
5- Strongly agree 4- Agree 3- Neutral 2- Disagree 1-Strongly disagree
 Interpersonal Attributes Questions Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly agree disagree Effective listening Can listen and comprehend verbal message 5 4 3 2 1 Can retrieve and synthesize the information provided 5 4 3 2 1 Can present the information based on your objectives 5 4 3 2 1 Self- awareness Can convince the audience 5 4 3 2 1 Can take in other’s contribution without compromising your goal 5 4 3 2 1 Can Speak without digression 5 4 3 2 1 Facilitating Can maintain flow in conversation by taking neutral stand 5 4 3 2 1 Can accept and give compliment and constructive criticism 5 4 3 2 1 Can connect with people while conversing 5 4 3 2 1 Questioning Can ask questions 5 4 3 2 1 Can recognise the possibility of future development 5 4 3 2 1 Can weigh alternative approaches and make a commitment to carry out a selected option 5 4 3 2 1 Assertiveness Can openly express views in a discussion 5 4 3 2 1 Can start a discussion yourself 5 4 3 2 1 Can use imagination to get new ideas 5 4 3 2 1 Oral speech Can speak with Clarity (Words or speech) 5 4 3 2 1 Your word can impact the audience 5 4 3 2 1 Can change the choice of words and delivery mode after you become receptive of audience’s behavior 5 4 3 2 1 Facial Expression Can give eye contact 5 4 3 2 1 Can speak without shaking or nervous twitches 5 4 3 2 1 Can use gesture to emphasize on what is being said 5 4 3 2 1 Reflection Can consider issues from different range 5 4 3 2 1 Can understand what is being said and can instantly respond in positive ways 5 4 3 2 1 Can easily understand what is being said by other 5 4 3 2 1

Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly

Agree disagree